Francis Collins

Francis Collins
16th Director of the National Institutes of Health
Assumed office
August 7, 2009
President Barack Obama
Donald Trump
Preceded by Elias Zerhouni
2nd Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute
In office
1993  August 1, 2008
President George H.W. Bush
Bill Clinton
George W. Bush
Preceded by Michael M. Gottesman (Acting)
James D. Watson
Succeeded by Alan E. Guttmacher (Acting)
Eric D. Green
Personal details
Born Francis Sellers Collins
(1950-04-14) April 14, 1950
Staunton, Virginia, U.S.
Spouse(s) Diane Baker
Education University of Virginia (BS)
Yale University (PhD)
University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill
Website Office of the Director
Known for Chromosome jumping
Scientific career
Fields Molecular genetics
Thesis Semiclassical theory of vibrationally inelastic scattering, with application to H+ + H₂ (1974)
Doctoral advisor R. James Cross, Jr.

Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project. He is director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

Before being appointed director of the NIH, Collins led the Human Genome Project and other genomics research initiatives as director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the 27 institutes and centers at NIH. Before joining NHGRI, he earned a reputation as a gene hunter at the University of Michigan.[1] He has been elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, and has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Science.

Collins also has written a number of books on science, medicine, and religion, including the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. After leaving the directorship of NHGRI and before becoming director of the NIH, he founded and served as president of The BioLogos Foundation, which promotes discourse on the relationship between science and religion and advocates the perspective that belief in Christianity can be reconciled with acceptance of evolution and science, especially through the advancement of evolutionary creation.[2] In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.[3]

Early years

Collins was born in Staunton, Virginia, the youngest of four sons of Fletcher Collins and Margaret James Collins. Raised on a small farm in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, Collins was home schooled until the sixth grade.[4] He attended Robert E. Lee High School in Staunton, Virginia. Through most of his high school and college years he aspired to be a chemist, and he had little interest in what he then considered the "messy" field of biology. What he referred to as his "formative education" was received at the University of Virginia, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry in 1970. He went on to graduate as a Doctor of Philosophy in Physical Chemistry at Yale University in 1974.[5] While at Yale, a course in biochemistry sparked his interest in the subject. After consulting with his mentor from the University of Virginia, Carl Trindle, he changed fields and enrolled in medical school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, earning a Doctor of Medicine degree there in 1977.

From 1978 to 1981, Collins served a residency and chief residency in internal medicine at North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill. He then returned to Yale, where he was a Fellow in Human Genetics at the medical school from 1981 to 1984.

Genetics research

At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman, and in 1984 the two published a paper, "Directional Cloning of DNA Fragments at a Large distance From an Initial Probe: a Circularization Method".[6] The method described was named chromosome jumping, to emphasize the contrast with an older and much more time-consuming method of copying DNA fragments called chromosome walking.[7]

Collins joined the University of Michigan faculty in 1984, rising to the rank of professor in internal medicine and human genetics. His gene-hunting approach, which he named "positional cloning",[8][9] developed into a powerful[10] component of modern molecular genetics.

Several scientific teams worked in the 1970s and 1980s to identify genes and their loci as a cause of cystic fibrosis. Progress was modest until 1985, when Lap-Chee Tsui and colleagues at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children identified the locus for the gene.[11] It was then determined that a shortcut was needed to speed the process of identification, so Tsui contacted Collins, who agreed to collaborate with the Toronto team and share his chromosome-jumping technique. The gene was identified in June 1989,[12][13] and the results were published in the journal Science on September 8, 1989.[14] This identification was followed by other genetic discoveries made by Collins and a variety of collaborators. They included isolation of the genes for Huntington's disease,[15] neurofibromatosis,[16][17] multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1,[18] inv(16) AML[19] and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome.[20]


In 1993 National Institutes of Health Director Bernadine Healy appointed Collins to succeed James D. Watson as director of the National Center for Human Genome Research, which became National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 1997. As director, he oversaw the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium,[21] which was the group that successfully carried out the Human Genome Project.

In 1994 Collins founded NHGRI's Division of Intramural Research,[22] a collection of investigator-directed laboratories that conduct genome research on the NIH campus.

In June 2000 Collins was joined by President Bill Clinton and biologist Craig Venter in making the announcement of a working draft of the human genome.[23] He stated that "It is humbling for me, and awe-inspiring to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, previously known only to God."[24][25][26] An initial analysis was published in February 2001, and scientists worked toward finishing the reference version of the human genome sequence by 2003, coinciding with the 50th anniversary of James D. Watson and Francis Crick's publication of the structure of DNA.

Another major activity at NHGRI during his tenure as director was the creation of the haplotype map of the human genome. This International HapMap Project produced a catalog of human genetic variations—called single-nucleotide polymorphisms—which is now being used to discover variants correlated with disease risk. Among the labs engaged in that effort is Collins' own lab at NHGRI, which has sought to identify and understand the genetic variations that influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In addition to his basic genetic research and scientific leadership, Collins is known for his close attention to ethical and legal issues in genetics. He has been a strong advocate for protecting the privacy of genetic information and has served as a national leader in securing the passage of the federal Genetic Information and Nondiscrimination Act, which prohibits gene-based discrimination in employment and health insurance.[27] In 2013, spurred by concerns over the publication of the genome of the widely used HeLa cell line derived from the late Henrietta Lacks, Collins and other NIH leaders worked with the Lacks family to reach an agreement to protect their privacy, while giving researchers controlled access to the genomic data.[28]

Building on his own experiences as a physician volunteer in a rural missionary hospital in Nigeria,[29] Collins is also very interested in opening avenues for genome research to benefit the health of people living in developing nations. For example, in 2010, he helped establish an initiative called Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa)[30] to advance African capacity and expertise in genomic science.

Collins announced his resignation from NHGRI on May 28, 2008, but has continued to maintain an active lab there.[31]

NIH director

Nomination and confirmation

On July 8, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Collins as Director of the National Institutes of Health,[32] and the Senate unanimously confirmed him for the post. He was sworn in by Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius on August 7, 2009.[33]

Science writer Jocelyn Kaiser opined that Collins was "known as a skilled administrator and excellent communicator," that Obama's nomination "did not come as a big surprise" and that the appointment "ignited a volley of flattering remarks from researchers and biomedical groups." Yet, she wrote, Collins "does have his critics," some of them who were concerned with the new director's "outspoken Christian faith."[34]

Washington Post staffer David Brown wrote, however, that Collins' status as a "born-again Christian . . . may help him build bridges with those who view some gene-based research as a potential threat to religious values."[35] Collins' appointment was welcomed by the chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science[35] and by Bernadine Healy, the former head of the National Institutes of Health.[36]

In October 2009, shortly after his nomination as NIH director, Collins stated in an interview in The New York Times: "I have made it clear that I have no religious agenda for the N.I.H., and I think the vast majority of scientists have been reassured by that and have moved on."[37]

On October 1, 2009, in the second of his four appearances on The Colbert Report, Collins discussed his leadership at the NIH and other topics such as personalized medicine and stem cell research. And, in November 2011, Collins was included on The New Republic's list of Washington's most powerful, least famous people. Collins appeared on the series finale of The Colbert Report, participating in a chorus with several other famous people singing "We'll Meet Again".[38][39]

On June 6, 2017, President Donald Trump announced his selection of Collins to continue to serve as the NIH Director.


Collins was instrumental in establishing the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) on December 23, 2011.[40] Other projects included increased support for Alzheimer's disease research, which was announced by Secretary Sebelius and Collins in May 2012;[41] the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, announced by President Obama and Collins on April 2, 2013, at the White House, and, in February 2014, the Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP), a public-private partnership between NIH, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10 biopharmaceutical firms, and multiple non-profit organizations.

In January 2015 President Obama announced the NIH-led Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) in his State of the Union address.[42] Through advances in research, technology, and policies that empower patients, PMI will enable a new era of precision medicine long envisioned by Collins and many others in which researchers, providers, and patients work together to develop more individualized care. In fiscal year 2016, the first funding for the initiative was awarded, with $130 million allocated to NIH to build a national, large-scale research participant group, called a cohort, and $70 million allocated to NIH's National Cancer Institute as part of PMI for Oncology. The PMI Cohort Program will seek to extend precision medicine to all diseases by building a national research cohort of 1 million or more U.S. participants.[43] In January 2016, in his State of the Union address, President Obama called for a new initiative, to be led by Vice President Joe Biden, to galvanize the nation's research efforts against cancer.[44] Fueled by an additional $680 million in the proposed fiscal year 2017 budget for NIH, the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative will aim to accelerate progress toward the next generation of interventions to reduce cancer incidence and improve patient outcomes.[45]

In other precedent-setting actions during his time as NIH Director, Collins in June 2013 outlined plans to substantially reduce the use of chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical research.[46] In November 2015, he announced NIH will no longer support any biomedical research involving chimpanzees.[47] In January 2013, Collins also created two senior scientific positions as part of the NIH's response to an advisory group's recommendations on Big Data and the diversity of the scientific workforce.[48] In December 2013, Collins announced the selection of Philip E. Bourne as NIH's first Associate Director for Data Science,[49] and, in response to internal NIH working group recommendations, Collins appointed Stanford cardiologist Hannah Valantine in 2014 as the institution's first Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity.[50] In December 2015 Collins and other NIH leaders released a detailed plan that charted a course for NIH's efforts over the ensuing five years The NIH-Wide Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2016-2020: Turning Discovery Into Health[51] was aimed at ensuring the agency remains well positioned to capitalize on new opportunities for scientific exploration an to address new challenges for human health.


Mention of Collins' love of guitar playing and motorcycle riding can often be found in articles about him.[52] While directing NHGRI, he formed a rock band with other NIH scientists. Sometimes the band, called "The Directors," dueled with a rock band from Johns Hopkins University, led by cancer researcher Bert Vogelstein. Lyrics of The Directors' songs included spoofs of rock and gospel classics re-written to address the challenges of contemporary biomedical research.[53] Collins has performed at TEDMED 2012, StandUpToCancer,[54] The 2017 Southern Methodist University Commencement[55] and Rock Stars of Science.[56]

Awards and honors

While leading the National Human Genome Research Institute, Collins was elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. He was a Kilby International Awards recipient in 1993, and he received the Biotechnology Heritage Award with J. Craig Venter in 2001.[57][58] He received the William Allan Award from the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005. In 2007 he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[59] In 2008 he was awarded the Inamori Ethics Prize[60] and National Medal of Science.[61] In the same year, Collins won the Trotter Prize where he delivered a lecture called "The Language of God".

Collins and Venter shared the "Biography of the Year" title from A&E Network in 2000.[62] In 2005, Collins and Venter were honored as two of "America's Best Leaders" by U.S. News & World Report and the Harvard University Center for Public Leadership.[63]

Collins received the Albany Medical Center Prize in 2010 and the Pro Bono Humanum Award of the Galien Foundation in 2012.[64]

Collins was a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders in 2014.



By graduate school Collins considered himself an atheist. However, a conversation with a hospital patient led him to question his lack of religious views, and he investigated various faiths. He familiarized himself with the evidence for and against God in cosmology, and on the recommendation of a Methodist minister used Mere Christianity by C. S. Lewis as a foundation to develop his religious views. He eventually came to a conclusion and became a Christian after a "leap of faith" when he saw a frozen waterfall during a hike on a fall afternoon.[65] He has described himself as a "serious Christian".[27]

In his 2006 book The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Collins wrote that scientific discoveries were an "opportunity to worship" and that he rejected both Young Earth creationism and intelligent design. His own belief, he wrote, was theistic evolution or evolutionary creation, which he preferred to call BioLogos. He wrote that one can "think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell".[66] He appeared in December 2006 on The Colbert Report television show and in a March 2007 Fresh Air radio interview to discuss this book.[67][68] In an interview with D. J. Grothe on the Point of Inquiry podcast he said that the overall aim of the book was to show that "one can be intellectually in a rigorous position and argue that science and faith can be compatible", and that he was prompted to write the book because "most people are seeking a possible harmony between these worldviews [science and faith], and it seems rather sad that we hear so little about this possibility.[69]

Collins is a critic of intelligent design, and for this reason he was not asked to participate in the 2008 documentary Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed. Walt Ruloff, a producer for the film, claimed that by rejecting intelligent design, Collins was "toeing the party line", a claim which Collins called "just ludicrous".[70] In an interview he stated that "intelligent design is headed for collapse in the not too distant future" and that "science class ought to be about science, and opening the door to religious perspectives in that setting is a big mistake."[69] In 2007, Collins founded the BioLogos Foundation to "contribute to the public voice that represents the harmony of science and faith". He served as the foundation's president until he was confirmed as director of the NIH.[71] Collins has also spoken at the Veritas Forum on the relationship between science and religion and the existence of God.[72]

Christopher Hitchens referred to Francis Collins as a 'Great American' and stated that Collins was one of the most devout believers he had ever met.[73] He further stated that Collins was sequencing the genome of the cancer that would ultimately claim Hitchens's life, and that their friendship despite their differing opinion on religion was an example of the greatest armed truce in modern times.


In an interview with National Geographic in February 2007, writer John Horgan criticized Collins' description of agnosticism as "a cop-out". In response, Collins clarified his position on agnosticism so as to exclude

earnest agnostics who have considered the evidence and still don't find an answer. I was reacting to the agnosticism I see in the scientific community, which has not been arrived at by a careful examination of the evidence. I went through a phase when I was a casual agnostic, and I am perhaps too quick to assume that others have no more depth than I did.[74]


In a 1998 interview with Scientific American, Collins stated that he is "intensely uncomfortable with abortion as a solution to anything" and does not "perceive a precise moment at which life begins other than the moment of conception". However, in the same interview it was said that Collins also "does not advocate changing the law".[75]


  • Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with T.D. Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998)
  • The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (Free Press, 2006)
  • The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine (HarperCollins, published in early 2010)
  • Belief: Readings on the Reason for Faith (HarperOne, March 2, 2010)
  • The Language of Science and Faith: Straight Answers to Genuine Questions with Karl Giberson IVP Books (February 15, 2011)

See also


  1. "Gene Therapy Cures Cystic Fibrosis In Lab". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  2. "About The BioLogos Foundation". The Biologos Foundation. Retrieved May 3, 2014. We embrace the historical Christian faith, upholding the authority and inspiration of the Bible. We affirm evolutionary creation, recognizing God as Creator of all life over billions of years. We seek truth, ever learning as we study the natural world and the Bible.
  3. "Human genome and embryology experts named to Pontifical Academy of Sciences". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  4. Google Book Search The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Chapter 1
  5. Collins, Francis Sellers (1974). Semiclassical theory of vibrationally inelastic-scattering, with application to proton + hydrogen molecule (Ph.D.). Yale University. OCLC 702791906 via ProQuest. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. Francis S. Collins; Sherman M. Weissman (Nov 1984). "Directional cloning of DNA fragments at a large distance from an initial probe: a circularization method". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  7. Leon. E. Rosenberg (2006). "Introductory Speech for Francis S. Collins". Am J Hum Genet. 79: 419–20. doi:10.1086/500276. PMC 1559551. PMID 16909377.
  8. "Positional cloning of human disease genes: a reversal of scientific priorities" (PDF). University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  9. Collins F (1992). "Positional Cloning: Let's not call it reverse anymore". Nature Genetics. 1 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1038/ng0492-3. PMID 1301996.
  10. Nelson, David L. (Jun 1995). "Positional cloning reaches maturity". Curr Opin Genet Dev. 5 (3): 298–303. doi:10.1016/0959-437X(95)80042-5. PMID 7549422. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  11. Tsui, LC; Buchwald M; Barker D (November 29, 1985). "Cystic fibrosis locus defined by a genetically linked polymorphic DNA marker". Science. 230 (4729): 1054–1057. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1054T. doi:10.1126/science.2997931.
  12. Pines, Maya (2008). "Blazing a Genetic Trail/.../Jumping Toward the Gene". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  13. Pines, Maya (2008). "Stalking a Lethal Gene:Discovering the Gene for Cystic Fibrosis". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  14. Marx, J. (1989). "The cystic fibrosis gene is found". Science. 245 (4921): 923–5. Bibcode:1989Sci...245..923M. doi:10.1126/science.2772644. PMID 2772644.
  15. MacDonald, M (1993). "A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes". Cell. 72 (6): 971–83. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90585-E. PMID 8458085.
  16. Rubin, Raphael; Strayer, David S. (2008). Rubin's Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundation of Medicine (5th ed.). Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 201–3. ISBN 978-0-7817-9516-6.
  17. Fauci; et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (Small textbook) (16th ed.). p. 2453.
  18. Chandrasekharappa, S. C.; Guru, S. C.; Manickam, P; Olufemi, S. E.; Collins, F. S.; Emmert-Buck, M. R.; Debelenko, L. V.; Zhuang, Z; Lubensky, I. A.; Liotta, L. A.; Crabtree, J. S.; Wang, Y; Roe, B. A.; Weisemann, J; Boguski, M. S.; Agarwal, S. K.; Kester, M. B.; Kim, Y. S.; Heppner, C; Dong, Q; Spiegel, A. M.; Burns, A. L.; Marx, S. J. (1997). "Positional Cloning of the Gene for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-Type 1". Science. 276 (5311): 404–7. doi:10.1126/science.276.5311.404. PMID 9103196.
  19. Science 261 (5124): 1041–4
  20. Eriksson, Maria; Brown, W. Ted; Gordon, Leslie B.; Glynn, Michael W.; Singer, Joel; Scott, Laura; Erdos, Michael R.; Robbins, Christiane M.; Moses, Tracy Y.; Berglund, Peter; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Durkin, Sandra; Csoka, Antonei B.; Boehnke, Michael; Glover, Thomas W.; Collins, Francis S. (2003). "Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin a cause Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome". Nature. 423 (6937): 293–8. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..293E. doi:10.1038/nature01629. PMID 12714972.
  21. "IHG Sequencing Centers". National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  22. National Human Genome Research Institute (ed.). "The Division of Intramural Research". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  23. Jamie Shreeve, "The Blueprint of Life Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.," U.S. News and World Report, 10/31/05, URL accessed January 30, 2007.
  24. Simon, Stephanie. "Faithful to God, Science". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 3, 2014. "It is humbling for me, and awe-inspiring," he said, standing at Clinton's side, "to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, previously known only to God." That moment moved Collins -- who is married and has two grown daughters — to talk more publicly about his faith and to write the book. "It's been a bit like taking a public bath," he said.
  25. Lennox, John C. (2009). God's Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?. Lion Books. p. 176. ISBN 9780745953717. At the public announcement of the completion of the Human Genome Project, its director, Francis Collins, said: 'It is humbling for me and awe-inspiring to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, previously known only to God.'
  26. "President Clinton, British Prime Minister Tony Blair Deliver Remarks on Human Genome Milestone". CNN. June 26, 2000. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  27. 1 2 "Transcript, Bob Abernethy's interview with Dr. Francis Collins, director of the Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health". PBS, Religion and Ethics Newsweekly. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  28. "The HeLa Genome: An Agreement on Privacy and Access". June 13, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  29. "Scientist at work: Francis S. Collins; unlocking the secrets of the Genome". The New York Times. Nov 1993.
  30. National Institutes of Health, "NIH and Wellcome Trust Announce Partnership to Support Population-Based Genome Studies in Africa," NIH News, June 22, 2010
  31. Chemical & Engineering News, Vol. 86 No. 31, August 4, 2008, p. 33, "Francis Collins leaves NIH"
  32. ""President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Francis Collins as NIH Director," Press Office, the White House, July 8, 2009". Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  33. Secretary Sebelius Announces Senate Confirmation of Dr. Francis Collins as Director of the National Institutes of Health 7-Aug-09
  34. Kaiser, J. (2009). "White House Taps Former Genome Chief Francis Collins as NIH Director". Science. 325 (5938): 250–1. doi:10.1126/science.325_250a. PMID 19608881.
  35. 1 2 "Obama picks Francis Collins as new NIH Director". Washington Post. July 8, 2009. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  36. Francis Collins Leader for the 21st Century NIH US News & World Report 9-June-09
  37. Harris, Gardiner (October 6, 2009). "For N.I.H. Chief, Issues of Identity and Culture". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  38. The Editors (November 3, 2011). "Washington's Most Powerful, Least Famous People". The New Republic. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  39. "Francis Collins". The Colbert Report. October 1, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
  40. "NIH establishes National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences". September 18, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  41. "Researchers, Advocates Gather to Accelerate Alzheimer's Research," NIH Record, June 22, 2012
  42. "FACT SHEET: President Obama's Precision Medicine Initiative". January 30, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  43. "NIH framework points the way forward for building national, large-scale research cohort, a key component of the President's Precision Medicine Initiative". National Institutes of Health (NIH). September 21, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  44. "FACT SHEET: Investing in the National Cancer Moonshot". February 1, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  45. "Blue Ribbon Panel Announced to Help Guide Vice President Biden's National Cancer Moonshot Initiative". National Institutes of Health (NIH). April 4, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  46. "NIH to reduce significantly the use of chimpanzees in research". July 28, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  47. "NIH Will No Longer Support Biomedical Research on Chimpanzees". National Institutes of Health (NIH). November 18, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  48. "Big Data, Diversity Initiatives Get Acting Directors," NIH Record, February 1, 2013
  49. "NIH Names Dr. Philip E. Bourne First Associate Director for Data Science". National Institutes of Health (NIH). August 10, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  50. "Hannah Valantine, M.D., named NIH's first Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity". News & Events. National Institutes of Health. January 20, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  51. "NIH-Wide Strategic Plan". National Institutes of Health (NIH). October 6, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
  52. Kaplan, Karen (September 18, 2010). "To scientists, he's the real rock star". Los Angeles Times.
  53. Kaplan, Karen (May 20, 2017). "NIH Director Francis Collins addresses SMU students at 102nd Commencement". Retrieved June 4, 2017.
  54. Rock S.O.S. program, 2009
  55. "Biotechnology Heritage Award". Science History Institute. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  56. Strickland, Debbie (June 13, 2001). "Genomic Leaders Receive 2001 Biotechnology Heritage Award". BIO. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  57. NIH Record – Collins Wins Presidential Medal of Freedom
  58. "Inamori Ethics Prize, Past Recipients," Case Western Reserve University Archived 2012-09-10 at WebCite
  59. "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details - NSF - National Science Foundation". Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  60. "Montgomery County, Maryland, Press Releases Archived October 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.," December 19, 2000, URL accessed January 30, 2007.
  61. "U.S. News & World Report Archived January 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.," 2005, URL accessed February 4, 2008.
  62. "Dr. Collins' Acceptance Remarks on the Pro Bono Humanum Award of the Galien Foundation," National Institutes of Health, October 16, 2012 Archived July 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  63. "The believer". August 7, 2006. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  64. Collins, Francis (September 4, 2008). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781847396150.
  65. "Francis Collins". The Colbert Report. December 6, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
  66. "Francis Collins on 'The Language of God'". Fresh Air. 2007-03-29.
  67. 1 2 D.J. Grothe (August 31, 2007). "Dr. Francis Collins - The Language of God". Point of Inquiry. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  68. Dean, Cornelia (September 27, 2007). "Scientists Feel Miscast in Film on Life's Origin". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  69. BioLogos website Archived September 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  70. "Francis Collins - The Veritas Forum". Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  71. ilisbaani (April 23, 2011). "Christopher Hitchens says "I'm dying."". Retrieved March 29, 2018 via YouTube.
  72. Francis Collins: The Scientist as Believer Feb. 2007
  73. Beardsley T (1998). "Profile: Where Science and Religion Meet". Scientific American. 278 (2): 28–29.

Further reading

Government offices
Preceded by
James D. Watson
Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute
1993 – 2008
Succeeded by
Eric D. Green
Preceded by
Raynard Kington
Director of the National Institutes of Health
2009 – present
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.