Four Perils

The Four Perils (Chinese: 四凶; pinyin: Sì Xiōng) are four malevolent beings that existed in Chinese mythology, and the antagonistic counterparts of the Four Benevolent Animals.

Book of Documents

In the Book of Documents, they are defined as the "Four Evildoers" (Chinese: 四罪; pinyin: Sì Zuì)[1]:

Zuo Zhuan and Shanhaijing

In the Zuo Zhuan and the Shanhaijing, they are defined as:

See also


  1. 《尚书·舜典》 (Canon of Shun, Book of Documents):“流共工于幽州,放欢兜于崇山,窜三苗于三危,殛鲧于羽山,四罪而天下咸服。”《史记·卷一·五帝本纪第一》中记载,“欢兜进言共工,尧曰不可而试之公师,共工果淫辟。四岳举鲧治鸿水,尧以为不可,岳强请试之,试之而无功,故百姓不便。三苗在江淮、荆州数为乱,于是舜归而言于帝,请流共工于幽陵,以变北狄;放欢兜于崇山,以变南蛮;迁三苗于三卫,以变西戎;殛鲧于羽山,四罪而天下咸服。”
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