Foreign relations of the Netherlands

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Netherlands

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. While historically the Netherlands was a neutral state, since 1945 it has become a member of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union and many other international organisations. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade. During and after the 17th century—its Golden Age--the Dutch built up a commercial and colonial empire. It was a leading shipping and naval power and was often at war with England, its main rival. Its main colonial holding was Indonesia, which fought for and achieved independence after 1945. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. Foreign trade policy is handled by the European Union. The Dutch have been active in international peacekeeping roles.


In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

During the 18th century the power and wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810), and later simply a French imperial province.

In 1815–1940 it was neutral and played a minor role in world diplomacy, apart from a failed effort to control Belgium before giving up in 1839.[1] It was invaded and cruelly treated by Germany in 1940–45, with starvation and killing the Jews the main Nazi policies.


The Dutch Government conducted a review of foreign policy main themes, organization, and funding in 1995. The document "The Foreign Policy of the Netherlands: A Review" outlined the new direction of Dutch foreign policy. The Netherlands prioritizes enhancing European integration, maintaining relations with neighboring states, ensuring European security and stability (mainly through the mechanism of NATO and emphasizing the important role the United States plays in the security of Europe), and participating in conflict management and peacekeeping missions. The foreign policy review also resulted in the reorganization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Through the creation of regional departments, the Ministry coordinates tasks previously divided among the international cooperation, foreign affairs, and economic affairs sections.

Atlantic cooperation

Dutch security policy is based primarily on membership in NATO, which the Netherlands co-founded in 1949. Because of Dutch participation in NATO nuclear weapons are stationed in the Netherlands, see Volkel Air Base.

The Dutch also pursue defense cooperation within Europe, both multilaterally – in the context of the Western European Union and the European Security and Defence Policy of the EU – and bilaterally, as in the German-Netherlands Corps. In recent years, the Dutch have become significant contributors to UN peacekeeping efforts around the world as well as to the Stabililzation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) in Bosnia.

European integration

The Dutch have been strong advocates of European integration, and most aspects of their foreign, economic, and trade policies are coordinated through the European Union (EU). The Dutch postwar customs union with Belgium and Luxembourg (the Benelux group) paved the way for the formation of the European Community (precursor to the EU), of which the Netherlands was a founding member. Likewise, the Benelux abolition of internal border controls was a model for the wider Schengen Accord, which today has 29 European signatories (including the Netherlands) pledged to common visa policies and free movement of people across common borders.

The Dutch stood at the cradle of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and have been the architects of the Treaty of Amsterdam concluded in 1998. The Dutch have thus played an important role in European political and monetary integration; indeed, until the year 2003, Dutchman Wim Duisenberg headed the European Central Bank. In addition, Dutch financial minister Gerrit Zalm was the main critic of the violation of the Stability and Growth Pact by France and Germany in 2004 and 2005.

Third-World development

The Netherlands is among the world's leading aid donors, giving almost $8 billion, about 0.8% of its gross national income (GNI) in official development assistance (ODA). It is one of five countries worldwide that meets the longstanding UN ODA target of 0.7% ODA/GNI. The country consistently contributes large amounts of aid through multilateral channels, especially the United Nations Development Programme, the international financial institutions, and EU programs. A large portion of Dutch aid funds also are channeled through private ("co-financing") organizations that have almost total autonomy in choice of projects.

The Netherlands is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which recently initiated economic reforms in central Europe. The Dutch strongly support the Middle East peace process and in 1998 earmarked $29 million in contributions to international donor-coordinated activities for the occupied territories and also for projects in which they worked directly with Palestinian authorities. These projects included improving environmental conditions and support for multilateral programs in cooperation with local non-governmental organizations. In 1998, the Dutch provided significant amounts of aid to the former Yugoslavia and Africa. The Dutch consistently provide significant amounts of relief aid to victims of natural disasters, such as Hurricane Mitch in Central America, the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia, and more recent catastrophes in Pakistan and Burma.

Export assistance grants

"Developing countries aspiring to purchase foreign goods and services to invest in, inter alia, port facilities, roads, public transport, health care, or drinking water facilities may be eligible for a special Dutch grant facility. The grant facility, known as ORET (a Dutch acronym for Ontwikkelingsrelevante Exporttransacties, or Development-Related Export) serves to award grants to governments of developing countries for making payments to foreign suppliers."[2]

International law

A centuries-old tradition of legal scholarship has made the Netherlands the home of the International Court of Justice; the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; and the International Criminal Court (ICC). In addition it hosts the European police organization, Europol; and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

International organizations

As a relatively small country, the Netherlands generally pursues its foreign policy interests within the framework of multilateral organizations. The Netherlands is an active and responsible participant in the United Nations system as well as other multilateral organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), and International Monetary Fund.

The Netherlands is one of the founding members of what today is the European Union. It was one of the first countries to start European integration, through the Benelux in 1944 and the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. Being a small country with a history of neutrality it was the host country for the important Maastricht Treaty and Amsterdam Treaty and is the seat of the International Court of Justice.

International issues

The country is one of the major producers of illicit amphetamines and other synthetic drugs. It also functions as an important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe. A large portion of the world's XTC consumption is supplied by illegal laboratories from the Netherlands.

The Dutch also work with the U.S. and other countries on international programs against drug trafficking and organized crime. The Dutch-U.S. cooperation focuses on joint anti-drug operations in the Caribbean, including an agreement establishing Forward Operating Locations on the Dutch Kingdom islands of Curaçao and Aruba. The Netherlands is a signatory to international counter-narcotics agreements, a member of the United Nations International Drug Control Program, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, and is a contributor to international counter-narcotics.

From June 26 until December 22, 2006, two children, Ammar (12–13) and Sara (10–11), lived in the Dutch embassy in Damascus because of a child custody dispute between the Dutch mother, supported by Dutch law and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, and the Syrian father, supported by Syrian law (Syria is no participant of this convention). The children had been living in Syria since 2004, after an alleged international child abduction by the father from the Netherlands to Syria, during a family contact in which he supposedly would visit Paris with them. The children fled to the embassy because they would like to live with their mother in the Netherlands. Minister of Foreign Affairs Ben Bot travelled to Damascus, negotiated and on December 22 the children finally could return to the Netherlands.

The father claims that the Dutch government has promised not to prosecute him for the abduction. However, a Dutch prosecutor claims that he is free to prosecute the father and may well do that, and that the Dutch have only retracted the international request to arrest him outside the Netherlands.[3]

Former colonies

The Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba are dependencies of the Netherlands. The latter three are part of the Netherlands proper and are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Suriname and Indonesia became independent of the Netherlands in the period of decolonization: Suriname in 1975 and Indonesia in 1945 (it was not until August 16, 2005 that the Dutch government recognized 1945 and not 1949 as the latter's year of independence).

Bilateral relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  • Angola has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luanda.
  • Egypt has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Ethiopia is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 KenyaSee Kenya–Netherlands relations
  • Kenya has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Nairobi.
 MoroccoSee Morocco–Netherlands relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in The Hague.
 South AfricaSee Netherlands–South Africa relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 CanadaSee Canada–Netherlands relations

Canada has an embassy in The Hague and the Netherlands has one in Ottawa, and three Consulates-General in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada and the Netherlands have worked closely together on many foreign issues and enjoy an especially close relationship. To fostering business and commercial relations between the Netherlands and Canada the Dutch business community set up the Netherlands-Canadian Chamber of Commerce.[10] They are both members of the United Nations (and its Specialized Agencies) the World Trade Organization, Interpol, they are both founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. Canada and the Netherlands also work together on such issues as the prohibition and elimination of anti-personnel mines, the control of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, eradicating the worst forms of child labour, the provision of rapid reaction peacekeeping forces to the United Nations (SHIRBRIG) and regional security issues such as Bosnia (SFOR) and Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE).

  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.

Relations between Colombia and the Netherlands were stablished in 1829.

 El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 15, 1970.[15]

 Mexico1827See Mexico–Netherlands relations

On September 27, 1993 the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced The Netherlands – Mexico Tax Treaty and Protocol. The regulations detail the formalities residents of the Netherlands must observe "in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties."[16] In 2008 Mexico and the Netherlands modified their existing tax treaty, initially signed in 1993 to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion.[17][18]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in The Hague.
 SurinameNovember 25, 1975See Netherlands–Suriname relations
 United StatesSee Netherlands–United States relations

The bilateral relations between the two nations are based on historical and cultural ties as well as a common dedication to individual freedom and human rights. The Netherlands shares with the United States a liberal economic outlook and is committed to free trade. The Netherlands is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the United States,[23] and Dutch holding companies employ more than 650,000 Americans.[24] The United States is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the Netherlands.

The United States and the Netherlands often have similar positions on issues and work together both bilaterally and multilaterally in such institutions as the United Nations and NATO. The Dutch have worked with the United States at the World Trade Organization, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as within the European Union to advance the shared U.S. goal of a more open and market-led global economy.

The United States and the Netherlands joined NATO as charter members in 1949. The Dutch were allies with the United States in the Korean War and the first Gulf War and have been active in global peacekeeping efforts in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Netherlands also support and participate in NATO and EU training efforts in Iraq. They are active participants in the International Security Assistance Force and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Washington, DC.[25]
  • United States has an embassy in The Hague.[26]
  • See also: Dutch American
 UruguaySee Netherlands–Uruguay relations
  • Netherlands is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[27]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in The Hague.[28]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 AzerbaijanSee Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Baku.
 ChinaSee China–Netherlands relations
  • China has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Willemstad, Curaçao.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Chongqing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
 IndonesiaSee Indonesia–Netherlands relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in The Hague.[32]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Jakarta.[33]
 Israel1949See Israel–Netherlands relations

In 1947, the Netherlands voted in favor of the United Nations Resolution 181. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949.[34] Israel has an embassy in The Hague.[35] The Netherlands has an embassy in Ramat Gan, and honorary consulates in Eilat and Haifa.[36]

 Japan1609See Japan–Netherlands relations

Relations between Japan and the Netherlands date back to 1609, when the first formal trade relations were established.[37][38] The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and occupation of the Netherlands East Indies during World War II, brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia).

 Kazakhstan1992See Kazakhstan–Netherlands relations

The Netherlands is Kazakhstan's largest foreign investor and the second largest European Union partner in terms of foreign trade turnover with Kazakhstan.[39]

 MalaysiaSee Malaysia–Netherlands relations

Netherlands has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and there is an Embassy of Malaysia in the Netherlands. The Dutch involvement in the Malay Peninsula used to be much more extensive than it is now. The Dutch established relations with the Sultanate of Johor in the early 17th century, and in 1641 they captured the Portuguese colony of Malacca (on the south-eastern coast of today's Peninsular Malaysia). With a long interruption during the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch Malacca era lasted until 1824. In the 20th century, the Netherlands established diplomatic relations with Malaysia soon after the Asian state became independent. The erudite Dutch Sinologist and author Robert van Gulik (who was raised in the former Dutch East Indies himself) served as the ambassador of the Netherlands in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s. During his diplomatic service there he became closely acquainted with Malaysia's gibbons (he kept a few in his ambassadorial residence) and became sufficiently interested in this ape species to start the study of its role in ancient Chinese culture, the results of which he later published in his last book (Gibbon in China).[40]

 North Korea2001-1-15[41]
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the North Korea and the Netherlands was on January 15, 2001.[41]
 Saudi Arabia
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in The Hague.
 South Korea1961-04-01[42]
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Netherlands began on April 1, 1961.
  • Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea are excellent. The Netherlands are known in the country, thanks to increasing trade and the investments made by Dutch businesses.
  • Political relations
    • South Koreans still appreciate the contribution made by Dutch troops, serving under the UN flag, during the Korean War of 1950–1953. The Netherlands was an ally to South Korea throughout the war, against communist North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union). The Netherlands still monitors developments between South Korea and North Korea with interest, and remain an ally. In 2011 the Netherlands and South Korea marked 50 years of diplomatic relations.
    • The Netherlands frequently serves as an example to South Korea, for example in the areas of development cooperation and water management. In 2011, for instance, a South Korean delegation visited parts of the Room for the River project – designed to make the Dutch river delta safer by 2015 – to gain inspiration for a South Korean water management plan.[43]
  • The Netherlands has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea. Citizens of both countries can live and work in the other for up to two years.
  • The number of the South Koreans living in the Netherlands in 2012 was about 2,602.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Seoul.[44]
  • South Korea has an embassy in the Hague.[45]
 Turkey1612See Netherlands–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in The Hague.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania1970[48]See Albania–Netherlands relations
 Belarus1994See Belarus–Netherlands relations
 BelgiumSee Belgium–Netherlands relations

Relations were established after the independence of Belgium. Both nations are allies and have cultural similarities.

  • Belgium has an embassy in The Hague.[51]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brussels.[52]
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark1645[55]See Denmark – Netherlands relations
 FranceSee France–Netherlands relations
 Germany1871See Germany–Netherlands relations
 GreeceSee Greece–Netherlands relations
  • Greece has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Athens.
  • Ireland has an embassy in The Hague.[62]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dublin.[63]
  • Italy has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Rome.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Moldova has an embassy in The Hague and an honorary consulate in Amsterdam.
  • The Netherlands is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chisinau.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
 Romania1880-02-13See Netherlands–Romania relations
 RussiaSee Netherlands–Russia relations

Russia has an embassy in The Hague, and the Netherlands has an embassy in Moscow, a consulate in Saint Petersburg, and an honorary consulate in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Peter the Great studied in Holland. During the Cold War, all the Dutch consecutive governments perceived the Warsaw pact including the Soviet Union and Russia as a threat to its safety.

 Slovakia1993-01-01See Netherlands–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia1991-06-25See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
 Ukraine1992See Foreign relations of Ukraine
 United KingdomSee Netherlands – United Kingdom relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 AustraliaSee Australia–Netherlands relations
  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 New Zealand
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in The Hague.

See also


  1. A. Vandenbosch, Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815 (1959).
  2. ORET flyer, via Google Docs. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
  3. See also nl:Ammar en Sara (in Dutch)
  4. "Netherlands Embassy in Pretoria, South Africa". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  5. "South African Embassy in the Netherlands". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  6. "Embajada de la República Argentina en Reino de los Países Bajos". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  7. "Embajada del Reino de los Países Bajos en Buenos Aires, Argentina". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  8. Embassy of Brazil in The Hague (in English and Portuguese)
  9. "Embaixada do Reino dos Países Baixos em Brasília, Brasil". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  10. "NCCC – Home". Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  11. "Government of Canada – Gouvernement du Canada". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  12. "The Embassy and Consulates – Kingdom of the Netherlands, Canada". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  13. "Embajada de Colombia en Países Bajos". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  14. "Embajada del Reino de los Países Bajos en Bogotá, Colombia". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  15. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  16. "Mexico: Netherlands And Mexican Regulations To The Netherlands – Mexico Treaty Announced". Deloitte & Touche. September 23, 1997. Retrieved 2009-06-06. In a press release dated 14 March 1997, the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced the Netherlands and Mexican regulations under the Netherlands – Mexico tax treaty and protocol, both of 27 September 1993. The Mexican regulations deal with the formalities to be observed by residents of the Netherlands in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties.
  17. "Mexico, Netherlands amend treaty to curb tax evasion". Xinhua. 2008. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved 2009-06-06. Mexico and the Netherlands modified a tax treaty signed in 1993 in a bid to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion, Mexican Treasury and Public Credit Ministry said on Friday.
  18. "Mexico: New protocol to the Mexico/Netherlands tax treaty". PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2008. Retrieved 2009-06-06. The Mexican ministry of finance and the Dutch ambassador to Mexico signed a new protocol to the Mexico-Netherlands tax treaty, which includes the following relevant modifications ...
  19. "Bienvenidos a la portada". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  20. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Mexico-Stad, Mexico". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  21. "Nederlandse ambassade in Paramaribo, Suriname". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  22. "Welcome to the Frontpage". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  23. Foreign investment in U.S. companies soaring Archived July 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. "Key Factors for Locating European Headquarters in the Netherlands – Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  25. "The Netherlands Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States". Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  26. "Embassy of the United States The Hague, Netherlands". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  27. "Consulado Honorario del Reino de los Países Bajos en Montevideo (Uruguay)". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  28. "Servicios al Ciudadano – Embajadas". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  29. Helix Consulting LLC. "Embassy of Armenia in the Kingdom of the Netherlands". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  30. "Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Tbilisi, Georgia". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  31. Harper affirms Canadian position on Armenian Genocide Archived February 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  32. "Embassy of Indonesia – The Hague". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  33. "Netherlands Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  34. Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Israel (in Dutch only)
  35. "Error-2010-f3". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  36. "עולם הבלוגים". Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  37. Mitsubishi Corporation – Regional Report on the Kingdom of the Netherlands Archived November 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  38. 400 jaar handel – Four centuries of Japanese–Dutch trade relations: 1609–2009
  39. "Kazakhstan's 25th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations".
  40. Robert van Gulik, The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore. E.J.Brill, Leiden, Netherlands. (1967)
  41. 1 2 "북한과 네덜란드의 관계" (in Korean). Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  42. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Europe" (in Korean). Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  43. "Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea | International relations". July 1, 2011. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  44. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Seoul, Zuid-Korea". September 19, 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  45. "Embassy of the Republic of Korea to the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Korean). Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  46. Dutch embassy in Ankara
  47. Turkish embassy in The Hague Archived January 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  48. Gregory, Gene (April 27, 1971). "Maoist Albania Desires Better Western Relations". Merced Sun-Star. p. 24. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
  49. Austrian embassy in The Hague (in Dutch and German only) Archived July 21, 2012, at
  50. "Nederlandse Ambassade in Wenen, Oostenrijk". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  51. "Nederlandse ambassade in Brussel, België". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  52. "Diplomatie". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  53. Bulgarian embassy The Hague Archived June 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  54. Dutch embassy Sofia Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  55. Farrar McDermott, Hugh (1855). Letters on the Sound-dues-queston: I-VII. p. 37. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  56. Danish embassy in The Hague (in Danish and Dutch only) Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  57. Dutch embassy in Copenhagen
  58. "Embassy of France in The Hague, Netherlands". Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  59. "Embassy of the Netherlands in Paris, France". Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  60. Dutch embassy in Budapest Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  61. Hungarian embassy in The Hague
  62. "Department of Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on February 20, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  63. "Netherlands Embassy in Dublin, Ireland". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  64. Dutch embassy in Bucharest
  65. "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Regatul Ţărilor de Jos AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Olanda AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Olanda AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Olanda AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Olanda". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  66. Dutch embassy in Belgrade Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  67. "Index of /~yuambanl". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  68. "Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Bratislava, Slovakia". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  69. Dutch embassy in Ljubljana
  70. "Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia Hague". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  71. Dutch embassy in Kiev Archived February 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  72. "Oekraine". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  73. The Netherlands Embassy :: Visit/Contact the Embassy
  74. About us
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Further reading

  • Collet, Steven. "Modernizing the Dutch Diplomatic Service: A Work in Progress." The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 10.4 (2015): 440–451.
  • Israel, Jonathan. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806 (1995) a major synthesis; complete online edition; also excerpt and text search
  • Koopmans, Joop W., and Arend H. Huussen Jr. Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands (2nd ed. 2007)excerpt and text search
  • Kossmann, E. H. The Low Countries 1780–1940 (1978) 790pp.
  • Krabbendam, Hans, et al. eds. Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations 1609–2009 (Amsterdam: Boom, 2009, 1190 pp., isbn 978-9085066538; excerpt
  • Leurdijk, J.H. ed. The Foreign Policy of the Netherlands (Alphen aan den Rijn, 1978).
  • Nordholt, Jan Willem Schulte, and Robert P. Swierenga. Bilateral Bicentennial: A History of Dutch-American Relations, 1782–1982 (1982) 279pp
  • Bhawan Ruangsilp (2007). Dutch East India Company Merchants at the Court of Ayutthaya: Dutch Perceptions of the Thai Kingdom, Ca. 1604–1765. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-15600-3. 
  • Scott, Cynthia. "Renewing the ‘Special Relationship’and Rethinking the Return of Cultural Property: The Netherlands and Indonesia, 1949–79." Journal of Contemporary History 52.3 (2017): 646-668.
  • Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P. van. Netherlands & World War I: Espionage, Diplomacy & Survival (2001) 381p.
  • van Willigen, Niels. "A Dutch return to UN peacekeeping?." International Peacekeeping 23.5 (2016): 702–720.
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. Dutch Foreign Policy since 1815 (1959). online; full text at Questia
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. The neutrality of the Netherlands during the world war (1927).
  • Vandenbosch, Amry. Dutch in the Far East (1943) online
  • Veer, Lionel. "On the road for human rights: Experiences and reflections of the Dutch human rights ambassador 2010–2014." Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 35.1 (2017): 4–10.

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