Fermented milk products

Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf life of the product, while enhancing the taste and improving the digestibility of milk. There is evidence that fermented milk products have been produced since around 10,000 BC.[1] A range of different Lactobacilli strains has been grown in laboratories allowing for a wide range of cultured milk products with different tastes.

Products

Many different types of cultured milk products can be found around the world.

Soured milk

Country/region of originProduct(s)
acidophilus milk
buttermilk
cheese
Armeniamatzoon
Arab Worldleben, kishk
Central Asiachal/shubat, chalap, kumis, qatyq, qurt, suzma
Brittanylaezh-ribod
Bulgariakiselo mlyako
Czech Republickefír or acidofilní mléko
Denmarkkærnemælk, tykmælk, and ymer
Dominican RepublicBoruga
Estoniasoured milk and kefir
Finlandpiimä and viili
GermanySauermilch or Dickmilch (soured milk or thickened milk), Quark
Georgiamatsoni
GreeceXinogalo or xinogala (ξινόγαλα), Ariani (αριάνι), kefiri (κεφίρι)
Hungaryaludttej or joghurt or kefir and tejföl
Icelandskyr and súrmjólk
Indiadahi, lassi, chaas, mattha, mishti doi and shrikhand
Indonesiadadiah
Irandoogh, kashk, ghara
Kurdistan RegionMastaw
Middle Eastleben
Japancalpis
Latviarūgušpiens, kefīrs, skābputra
Lithuaniarūgpienis, kefyras
Macedoniakiselo mleko
Mexicojocoque
Mongoliaairag, byaslag, tarag, khuruud
Netherlandskarnemelk (buttermilk)
Nicaragualeche agria (soured milk)
Norwaysurmelk or kulturmelk, kefir, and tjukkmjølk[2]
Pakistandahi and lassi
Polandsoured milk (including "acidofilne" milk), kefir, buttermilk, twaróg
Romanialapte bătut, lapte acru, kefir and sana
Russia, Ukraine, Belaruskefir, prostokvasha, ryazhenka, varenets, tvorog
Rwandakivuguto
Scotlandblaand
Serbiakiselo mleko and yogurt
Slovakiakefír or acidofilné mlieko
Sloveniakislo mleko
South Africaamasi ("maas" in Afrikaans)
Swedenfilmjölk, långfil and A-fil (fil is the short form of filmjölk)
Turkic countriesayran, qatiq, kefir, yogurt, kımız
United Statesclabber
Bosnia and Herzegovinakiselo mlijeko and kefir
Zambia Mabisi
Zimbabwelacto
Burundiurubu
KenyaKule Naoto, Maziwa Lala, Mursik, Amabere amaruranu
Ethiopiaergo
Sudanrob

Soured cream

Country/region of originProduct(s)
cheese
sour cream
Central Asiakaymak
Central & Eastern Europe; and Russiasmetana
Croatiamileram/kiselo vrhnje
Finlandkermaviili
Francecrème fraîche
Icelandsýrður rjómi
Hungarytejföl
Latviaskābais krējums
Lithuaniagrietinė
Mexicocrema/cream espesa
Norwayrømme
Romaniasmântână
Serbiakisela pavlaka
Swedengräddfil

Comparison chart

Product Alternative names Typical milkfat content Typical shelf life at 4 °C Fermentation agent Description
Cheese 1-75% varies a variety of bacteria or mold Any number of solid fermented milk products.
Crème fraîche creme fraiche 30-40% 10 days[1] naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria in cream Mesophilic fermented cream, originally from France; higher-fat variant of sour cream
Cultured sour cream sour cream 14–40% 4 weeks[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*[3] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized cream with an acidity of at least 0.5%. Rennet extract may be added to make a thicker product.[3] Lower fat variant of crème fraîche
Filmjölk fil 0.1-4.5% 10–14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis* and Leuconostoc[4][5] Mesophilic fermented milk, originally from Scandinavia
Yogurt yoghurt, yogourt, yoghourt 0.5–4% 35–40 days[1] Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus[3] Thermophilic fermented milk, cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
Kefir kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, milkkefir, búlgaros 0-4% 10–14 days[1] Kefir grains, a mixture of bacteria and yeasts A fermented beverage, originally from the Caucasus region, made with kefir grains; can be made with any sugary liquid, such as milk from mammals, soy milk, or fruit juices
Kumis koumiss, kumiss, kymys, kymyz, airag, chigee 4%? 10–14 days[1] Lactobacilli and yeasts A carbonated fermented milk beverage traditionally made from horse milk
Viili filbunke 0.1-3.5% 14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis* biovar. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Geotrichum candidum[6] Mesophilic fermented milk that may or may not contain fungus on the surface; originally from Sweden; a Finnish specialty[6]
Cultured buttermilk 1–2% 10 days[1] Lactococcus lactis*[3] (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris)[1] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized milk
Acidophilus milk acidophilus cultured milk 0.5-2% 2 weeks[1] Lactobacillus acidophilus[1][3] Thermophilic fermented milk, often lowfat (2%, 1.5%) or nonfat (0.5%), cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus

* Streptococcus lactis has been renamed to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis[7]

See also

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
  2. "From local food to terroir product ? - Some views about Tjukkmjølk, the traditional thick sour milk from Røros, Norway". 2005-05-04. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 "Newer Knowledge of Dairy Foods: Other: Kinds of Other Dairy Foods". National Dairy Council. Archived from the original on September 25, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  4. "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  5. "Ekologisk filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  6. 1 2 "Viili: the Finnish specialty" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals. Valio. 2003 (2): 4–5. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-30.
  7. Schleifer KH, Kraus J, Dvorak C, Kilpper-Balz R, Collins MD, Fischer W (1985). "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related streptococci to the. genus Lactococcus gen. nov". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 183195. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(85)80052-7. ISSN 0723-2020.
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