Felodipine

Felodipine
Clinical data
Trade names Plendil
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a692016
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
    Routes of
    administration
    Oral
    ATC code
    Legal status
    Legal status
    • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
    Pharmacokinetic data
    Bioavailability 15%
    Metabolism Hepatic
    Onset of action 2.5–5 hours
    Elimination half-life 25 hours[1]
    Excretion Renal
    Identifiers
    CAS Number
    PubChem CID
    IUPHAR/BPS
    DrugBank
    ChemSpider
    UNII
    KEGG
    ChEBI
    ChEMBL
    ECHA InfoCard 100.149.305
    Chemical and physical data
    Formula C18H19Cl2NO4
    Molar mass 384.259 g/mol
    3D model (JSmol)
      (verify)

    Felodipine is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure.

    Medical uses

    Felodipine is used to treat high blood pressure and stable angina.[1][2]

    It should not be used for people who are pregnant, have acute heart failure, are having a heart attack, have an obstructed heart valve, or have obstructions that block bloodflow out of the heart.[1]

    For people with liver failure the dose needs to be lowered, because felodipine is cleared by the liver.[1]

    Adverse effects

    The only very common side effect, occurring in more than 1/10 people, is pain and swelling in the arms and legs.[1]

    Common side effects, occurring in between 1% and 10% of people, include flushing, headache, heart palpitations, dizziness and fatigue.[1]

    Felodipine can exacerbate gingivitis.[1]

    Interactions

    Felodipine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4, so substances that inhibit or activate CYP3A4 can strongly effect how much felodipine is present.[1]

    CYP3A4 inhibitors, which increase the amount of felodipine available per dose, include cimetidine, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, HIV protease inhibitors, and grapefruit juice.[1][3]

    CYP3A4 activators, which decrease the amount of felodipine available per dose, include phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampicin, barbiturates, efavirenz, nevirapine, and Saint John's wort.[1]

    Mechanism of action

    Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker.[1] Felodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, or as an antimineralocorticoid.[4]

    Different calcium channels are present in vascular tissue and cardiac tissue; an in vitro study on human vascular and cardiac tissues comparing how selective various calcium channel blockers are for vascular compared to cardiac tissue found the following vascular/cardiac tissue ratios: mibefradil 41, felodipine 12; nifedipine 7, amlodipine 5, and verapamil 0.2.[5]:172

    Chemistry

    Felodipine is a member of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class of calcium channel blockers.[5]:20–21 It is a racemic mixture, and is insoluble in water but is soluble in dichloromethane and ethanol.[5]:25

    History

    The Swedish company Hässle, a division of Astra AB, discovered felodipine;[6] it filed a patent application in 1979 claiming felodipine as an antihypertensive drug.[7][8] Astra partnered this drug and others with Merck & Co. in the US under a 1982 agreement between the companies.[6] The drug was approved by the FDA in 1991 after a three and a half year review; the drug entered a very crowded market the included the other calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil, nicardipine, and isradipine.[6] The FDA gave the drug a 1C rating, meaning that it found little difference between felodipine and the drugs already approved for the same use.[6]

    In 1994 Astra AB and Merck changed their partnership to a joint venture called Astra Merck,[9] and in 1998 Astra (by that time, AstraZeneca) bought out Merck's rights in the joint venture.[10]

    The first generics became available in Sweden in 2003[11] and in the US in 2004.[12]:155

    In April 2016, AstraZeneca announced that they were selling the right to market felodipine in China to China Medical System Holdings for $310 million; AZ would continue to manufacture the drug.[13]

    Society and culture

    As of 2016, felodipine was marketed under many brand names worldwide: Auronal, Cardioplen, Catrazil, Dewei, Dilahex, Enfelo, Erding, Fedil, Fedisyn, Feldil, Felicipin, Felo, Felocard, Felocor, Feloday, Felodil, Felodin, Felodip, Felodipin, Felodipina, Felodipine, Felodipino, Felodistad, Felogard, Felohexal, Felop, Felopine, Felostad, Feloten, Felotens, Felpin, Flodicar, Flodil, Keliping, Keydipin, Lodistad, Modip, Munobal, Nirmadil, Parmid, Penedil, Perfudal, Phelop, Phenodical, Plendil, Plentopine, Polo, Presid, Preslow, Prevex, Renedil, Sistar, Splendil, Stapin, Topidil, Vascalpha, Versant, and XiaoDing.[14]

    The combination of felodipine and candesartan was marketed as Atacand.[14]

    The combination of felodipine and ramipril was marketed as Delmuno, Tazko, Triacor, Triapin, Triasyn, Tri-Plen, Unimax, and Unitens.[14]

    The combination of felodipine and enalapril was marketed as Lexxel.[14]

    The combination of felodipine and metoprolol was marketed as Logimat, Logimax, and Mobloc.[14]

    References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Felopidine UK label". UK Electronic Medicines Compendium. 15 September 2015.
    2. "Felodipine US label" (PDF). FDA. October 2012.
    3. Jawad Kiani, Sardar Z Imam (October 30, 2007). "Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs". Nutr J. 6 (33): 33. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-33. PMC 2147024. PMID 17971226..
    4. Luther, James M. (2014). "Is there a new dawn for selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism?". Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 23 (5): 456–461. doi:10.1097/MNH.0000000000000051. ISSN 1062-4821. PMC 4248353.
    5. 1 2 3 Joshi, Gajanan S.; Burnett, James C.; Abraham, Donald J. (2003). "Cardiac Drugs: Antianginal, Vasodilators, Antiarrhythmic". In Abraham, Donald J. Burger's medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Volume 3: Cardiovascular Agents and Endocrines (6th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. ISBN 9780471270904.
    6. 1 2 3 4 "Merck's Plendil (Felodipine) Approved with "1C" Rating". Pink Sheet. 5 August 1991.
    7. Astrazeneca AB v. Mutual Pharmaceutical Co. (United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit 2004). Text
    8. US patent 4,264,611, Berntsson, Peder; Carlsson, Stig & Gaarder, Jan et al., "2,6-Dimethyl-4-2,3-Disubstituted Phenyl-1,4-Dihydro-Pyridine-3,5 Dicarboxylic Acid-3,5-Asymmetric Diesters having Hypotensive Properties, as well as Method for Treating Hypertensive Conditions and Pharmaceutical Preparations Containing Same", issued April 28, 1981, assigned to Aktiebolaget Hassle
    9. George, John (1997-07-28). "Secret of Astra Merck". Philadelphia Business Journal. Philadelphia. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
    10. "Astra, Merck restructure". CNNMoney. 1998-06-19. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
    11. Jönsson, Bengt (2008). "Sweden". In Rapoport, John; Jacobs, Philip; Jonsson, Egon. Cost Containment and Efficiency in National Health Systems a Global Comparison. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 218. ISBN 9783527622955.
    12. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (PDF) (36th ed.). FDA. 2014.
    13. "AstraZeneca enters licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings for hypertension medicine" (Press release). AstraZeneca. February 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
    14. 1 2 3 4 5 "International brand names: Felodipine". Drugs.com. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
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