Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea

Ethiopian–Eritrean Federation
Flag of the Ethiopian province of Eritrea
Motto: "Ethiopia Stretches Her Hands unto God"
Anthem: Ityopp'ya Hoy[1]
Ethiopia, Be Happy
Location of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea
in the Horn of Africa.
Capital Addis Ababa
Common languages Amharic
Government Federation
Emperor of Ethiopia  
Haile Selassie I
Prime Minister of Ethiopia  
Makonnen Endelkachew
Abebe Aregai
Imru Haile Selassie
Aklilu Habte-Wold
Chief Executive of Eritrea  
Tedla Bairu
Asfaha Woldemikael
Abiye Abebe
Legislature Imperial Federal Council
Historical era Cold War
15 September 1952
 Annexation of Eritrea
15 November 1962
1,221,900 km2 (471,800 sq mi)
Currency Ethiopian dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ethiopian Empire
British Military Administration (Eritrea)
Ethiopian Empire
Today part of  Ethiopia

The Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea or Ethiopian–Eritrean Federation[3] was a federation of the Ethiopian Empire and Eritrea. It was created by the approval of the Federal Act in Ethiopia and the Eritrean Constitution on 15 September 1952.

Prior to the annexation of Eritrea, the Chief Justice of Eritrea was removed and the official Eritrean languages were eliminated in favor of Ethiopia's national language Amharic.[4] During the Federation, the encroachment of the Ethiopian Crown was felt on the Chief Executive of Eritrea. This was in direct contravention of the UN Resolution 390-A(V) which had established the Federation.[5]

The federal structure, or some semblance of it, existed between 15 September 1952 and 15 November 1962.[3] On 15 November 1962, following pressure from Haile Selassie I on the Eritrean Assembly,[6] the Federation was officially dissolved and Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia.


  1. www.nationalanthems.info
  2. 1 2 Official languages of the Federation alongside Amharic until 1956.
  3. 1 2 Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2005). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 2: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp.405–409
  4. Killion, Tom (1998). Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3437-5.
  5. Haile, Semere (1987). "The Origins and Demise of the Ethiopia-Eritrea Federation". Issue. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 15. 15: 9. doi:10.2307/1166919. JSTOR 1166919.
  6. Habteselassie, Bereket (1989). Eritrea and the United Nations and Other Essays. Red Sea Press. ISBN 0-932415-12-1.

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