Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

Definition

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

Disputes

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[11]

Resolved disputes

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[15] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[16]

By country

Australia

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[17][18] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[19][20] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[21] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[20]

EEZArea (km2)[20]
Heard and McDonald Islands410,722
 Christmas Island463,371
 Cocos Islands325,021
 Norfolk Island428,618
Macquarie Island471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory2,000,000[status 1]
Total10,148,250

Brazil

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZArea (km2)[22]
 Brazil2 400 917
Fernando de Noronha363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl.468 599
Total3 646 514

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[23]

Canada

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[24] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[25] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

There is a dispute with Peru over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute

China

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[26] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[27][28]

Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[29] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

France

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States is the second largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[20] Land area Total
 Metropolitan France 334,604 551,695 886,299
 French Guiana 133,949 83,846 217,795
 Guadeloupe 95,978 1,628 97,606
 Martinique 47,640 1,128 48,768
 Réunion 315,058 2,512 317,570
 French Polynesia 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12,334 242 12,576
 Mayotte 63,078 376 63,454
 Wallis and Futuna 258,269 264 258,533
 Saint-Martin 1,000 53 1,053
 Saint-Barthélemy 4,000 21 4,021
 New Caledonia 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118
 Clipperton Island 431,263 6 431,269
Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910
Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161
Tromelin Island 270,455 1 270,456
Total 10,160,835 675,417 12,366,417

Greece

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[30]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[31] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[32]

India

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[33]

Israel

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

Japan

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[34][35] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[36] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[37][38] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[39] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Norway

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[40]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[41]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Philippines

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2[42]

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[43]

Portugal

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[45] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[46] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[47]

Russia

  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854
  • Pacific – 3,419,202
  • Siberia – 3,277,292
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[48]

Somalia

  • 825,052 km2

South Africa

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[49]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[51] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[49]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[52]

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[49] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1 France11,691,000389,42212,366,417
2 United States11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3 Australia8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4 Russia7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5 United Kingdom6,805,586722,8917,048,486
6 Indonesia6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7 Canada5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8 Japan4,479,388454,9764,857,318
9 New Zealand4,083,744277,6104,352,424
10 Chile3,681,989252,9474,431,381
11 Brazil3,660,955774,56312,175,832
12 Kiribati3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13 Mexico3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15 Denmark2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16 Papua New Guinea2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17 Norway2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18 India2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4111,990,711
20 Portugal1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21 Philippines1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23 South Africa1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24 Seychelles1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25 Mauritius1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26 Fiji1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27 Madagascar1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28 Argentina1,159,063856,3463,939,463[53]
29 Ecuador1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30 Spain1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31 Maldives923,32234,538923,622
32 Peru906,45482,0002,191,670
33 China877,019231,34010,473,980
34 Somalia825,05255,8951,462,709
35 Colombia808,15853,6911,949,906
36 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
37 Iceland751,345108,015854,345
38 Tuvalu749,7903,575749,816
39 Vanuatu663,25111,483675,440
40 Tonga659,5588,517660,305
41 Bahamas654,715106,323668,658
42 Palau603,9782,837604,437
43 Mozambique578,98694,2121,380,576
44 Morocco575,230115,1571,287,780
45 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
46 Namibia564,74886,6981,388,864
47 Yemen552,66959,2291,080,637
48 Italy541,915116,834843,251
49 Oman533,18059,071842,680
50 Myanmar532,775220,3321,209,353
51 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
52 Angola518,43348,0921,765,133
53 Greece505,57281,451637,529
54 South Korea475,469292,522575,469
55 Venezuela471,50798,5001,387,950
56 Vietnam417,663365,198748,875
57 Ireland410,310139,935480,583
58 Libya351,58964,7632,111,129
59 Cuba350,75161,525460,637
60 Panama335,64653,404411,163
61 Malaysia334,671323,412665,474
62 Nauru308,48041308,501
63 Equatorial Guinea303,5097,820331,560
64 Thailand299,397230,063812,517
65 Pakistan290,00051,3831,117,911
66 Egypt263,45161,5911,265,451
67 Turkey261,65456,0931,045,216
68 Jamaica258,1379,802269,128
69 Dominican Republic255,89810,738304,569
70 Liberia249,73417,715361,103
71 Honduras249,54268,718362,034
72 Tanzania241,88825,6111,186,975
73 Ghana235,34922,502473,888
74 Saudi Arabia228,633107,2492,378,323
75 Nigeria217,31342,2851,141,081
76 Sierra Leone215,61128,625287,351
77 Gabon202,79035,020470,458
78 Barbados186,898426187,328
79 Côte d'Ivoire176,25410,175498,717
80 Iran168,718118,6931,797,468
81 Mauritania165,33831,6621,190,858
82 Comoros163,7521,526165,987
83 Sweden160,885154,604602,255
84 Senegal158,86123,092355,583
85 Netherlands154,01177,246192,345
85 Ukraine147,31879,142750,818
86 Uruguay142,16675,327318,381
87 Guyana137,76550,578352,734
88 North Korea132,82654,566253,364
89 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
90 Samoa127,9502,087130,781
91 Suriname127,77253,631291,592
92 Haiti126,7606,683154,510
93 Algeria126,3539,9852,508,094
94 Nicaragua123,88170,874254,254
95 Guinea-Bissau123,72539,339159,850
96 Kenya116,94211,073697,309
97 Guatemala114,17014,422223,059
98 Antigua and Barbuda110,0894,128110,531
99 Tunisia101,85767,126265,467
100 Cyprus98,7074,042107,958
101 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
102 Finland87,17185,109425,590
103 Bangladesh86,39266,438230,390
104 Taiwan83,23143,016119,419
105 Eritrea77,72861,817195,328
106 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
107 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
108 Sudan68,14819,8271,954,216
109 Cambodia62,51562,515243,550
110 Guinea59,42644,755305,283
111 Croatia59,03250,277115,626
112 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
113 Germany57,48557,485414,599
114 Malta54,8235,30155,139
115 Estonia36,99236,99282,219
116 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines36,3021,56136,691
117 Belize35,35113,17858,317
118 Bulgaria34,30710,426145,186
119 Benin33,2212,721145,843
120 Qatar31,59031,59043,176
121 Congo, Republic of the31,0177,982373,017
122 Poland29,79729,797342,482
123 Dominica28,98565929,736
124 Latvia28,45227,77293,011
125 Grenada27,4262,23727,770
126 Israel26,3523,74548,424
127 Romania23,62719,303262,018
128 Gambia23,1125,58134,407
129 Georgia21,9463,24391,646
130 Lebanon19,5161,06729,968
131 Cameroon16,54711,420491,989
132 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
133 Albania13,6916,97942,439
134 Togo12,0451,26568,830
135 Kuwait11,02611,02628,844
136 Syria10,5031,085195,683
137 Bahrain10,22510,22510,975
138 Brunei10,0908,50915,855
139 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
140 Montenegro7,7453,89621,557
141 Djibouti7,4593,18730,659
142 Lithuania7,0317,03172,331
143 Belgium3,4473,44733,975
144 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
145 Singapore1,0671,0671,772
146 Iraq771771439,088
147 Monaco2882290
148 Palestine2562566,276
149 Slovenia22022020,493
150 Jordan1665989,508
151 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
152 Kazakhstan2,724,900
153 Mongolia1,564,100
154 Chad1,284,000
155 Niger1,267,000
156 Mali1,240,192
157 Ethiopia1,104,300
158 Bolivia1,098,581
159 Zambia752,612
160 Afghanistan652,090
161 Central African Republic622,984
162 South Sudan619,745
163 Botswana582,000
164 Turkmenistan488,100
165 Uzbekistan447,400
166 Paraguay406,752
167 Zimbabwe390,757
168 Burkina Faso274,222
169 Uganda241,038
170 Laos236,800
171 Belarus207,600
172 Kyrgyzstan199,951
173   Nepal147,181
174 Tajikistan143,100
175 Malawi118,484
176 Hungary93,028
177 Azerbaijan86,600
178 Austria83,871
179 Czech Republic78,867
180 Serbia77,474
181 Slovakia49,035
182  Switzerland41,284
183 Bhutan38,394
184 Moldova33,846
185 Lesotho30,355
186 Armenia29,743
187 Burundi27,834
188 Rwanda26,338
189 Macedonia25,713
190 Swaziland17,364
191 Kosovo[a]10,887
192 Luxembourg2,586
193 Andorra468
194 Liechtenstein160
195 San Marino61
196  Vatican City0.44
Total United Nations137,159,22225,103,204274,004,586

See also

Notes and references

Notes:

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.
  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

References:

  1. "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  2. "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.
  3. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  7. Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010
  8. Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  9. "Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  10. Makris, A. "Cyprus Calls on Turkey to Steer Away From Threats – GreekReporter.com". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  11. The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region Archived 2006-02-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. "AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION)". Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  13. Kwiatkowska, Barbara (January 2001). "The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation". Ocean Development and International Law. 32 (1). doi:10.1080/00908320150502177.
  14. United Nations International Court of Justice Archived 2015-04-16 at the Wayback Machine. Decision year: 2009
  15. FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  16. FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  17. The Australian Fishing Zone
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  25. See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²
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  34. Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  35. Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  36. Geographic location
  37. New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  38. Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
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  53. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km²
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