European Union Special Representative
The European Union Special Representatives (EUSR) are emissaries of the European Union with specific tasks abroad. While the EU's ambassadors are responsible for affairs with a single country, Special Representatives tackle specific issues, conflict areas or regions of countries. They answer directly to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently Federica Mogherini.
Current SRs by region
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Peter Sørensen took over the position of EUSR in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a mandate from 1 September 2011 until 30 June 2015. His post was de-coupled from the one of High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (which remained in the hands of Valentin Inzko), aiming at fostering the EU pre-accession strategy for Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, in November 2014, Sørensen became Head of the EU Delegation in Geneva, leaving the EUSR BiH post vacant. Lars-Gunnar Wigemark was appointed as the EUSR in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1 March 2015 until 31 October 2015. His mandate was extended until 30 June 2018 and again until 31 August 2019.
Nataliya Apostolova was appointed as Special Representative in Kosovo for the period from 1 September 2016 to 28 February 2017. Her mandate was extended until 30 June 2018 and again until 29 February 2020.
South Caucasus and Georgia
Peter Burian is the Special Representative for the Central Asia starting from 15 April 2015 until 28 February 2017. His mandate is to promote good relations between the EU and central Asian countries and to strengthen stability, cooperation, democracy and respect for human rights in the region. In particular, the EU Special Representative will co-ordinate EU action in central Asia and oversee the implementation of the EU Strategy for central Asia. His mandate was extended until 30 June 2018 and again until 29 February 2020.
Fernando Gentilini is the Special Representative for the Middle East peace process starting from 15 April 2015 until 28 February 2017. His mandate was extended until 30 June 2018. The mandate of the Special Representative is based on the EU's policy objectives regarding the Middle East peace process, which include a two-State solution with Israel and a democratic, contiguous, viable, peaceful and sovereign Palestinian State living side-by-side within secure and recognised borders enjoying normal relations with their neighbours in accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions 242, 338, 1397 and 1402 and the principles of the Madrid Conference.
Horn of Africa (incl. the region of Sudan)
Alexander Rondos was appointed European Union Special Representative for the Horn of Africa on 1 January 2012. His mandate was extended until 28 February 2017. His mandate was again extended until 30 June 2018 and again until 29 February 2020.
Ángel Losada Fernández was appointed as the EUSR for the Sahel from 1 November 2015 to 28 February 2017. His mandate was extended until 30 June 2018 and again until 29 February 2020.
A long-standing request for a representative that would be in charge of enhancing the effectiveness and visibility of EU's human rights policy, based on the Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy (officially adopted on 25 June 2012), led to the creation of the post of the Special Representative of the European Union for Human Rights. The post, which is providing a strong, independent, flexible and sufficiently broad mandate, is aiming to cover fields such as the strengthening of democracy, International justice, humanitarian law and the abolition of the death penalty .
On 25 July 2012, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Baroness Ashton appointed Stavros Lambrinidis, a former foreign affairs minister of Greece and Vice-President of the European Parliament, as the first Special Representative of the European Union for Human Rights, with a mandate from 1 September 2012 to 30 June 2014. His mandate was extended to 28 February 2019.
|Afghanistan||Klaus Peter Klaiber||10 December 2001 – 30 June 2002|
|Francesc Vendrell||1 July 2002 – 31 August 2008|
|Ettore Francesco Sequi (also for Pakistan from 15 June 2009)||1 September 2008 – 31 March 2010|
|Vygaudas Ušackas||1 April 2010 – 31 August 2013|
|Franz-Michael Skjold Mellbin||1 September 2013 – 31 August 2017|
|African Great Lakes Region||Aldo Ajello (initially as Special Envoy)||25 March 1996 – 28 February 2007|
|Roeland van de Geer||1 March 2007 – 31 August 2011|
|African Union||Koen Vervaeke||6 December 2007 – 31 October 2011|
|Gary Quince (remains head of the EU Delegation to the AU)||1 November 2011 – 30 June 2014|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Lord Ashdown (also High Representative)||3 June 2002 – 31 January 2006|
|Christian Schwarz-Schilling (also High Representative)||1 February 2006 – 30 June 2007|
|Miroslav Lajčák (also High Representative)||1 July 2007 – 28 February 2009|
|Valentin Inzko (also High Representative until now)||1 March 2009 – 31 August 2011|
|Peter Sørensen||1 September 2011 - 31 October 2014|
|Central Asia||Ján Kubiš||28 July 2005 – 5 July 2006|
|Pierre Morel||5 October 2006 – 30 June 2012|
|de:Patricia Flor||1 July 2012 - 30 June 2014|
|Georgia crisis||Pierre Morel||25 September 2008 – 31 August 2011|
|Kosovo||Wolfgang Petritsch (Special Envoy)||5 October 1998 – 29 July 1999|
|Pieter Feith||4 February 2008 – 30 April 2011|
|Fernando Gentilini||1 May 2011 – 31 January 2012|
|Samuel Žbogar||1 February 2012 – 31 August 2016|
|Republic of Macedonia||François Léotard||29 June 2001 – 29 October 2001|
|Alain Le Roy||29 October 2001 – 28 February 2002|
|Alexis Brouhns||30 September 2002 – 31 December 2003|
|Søren Jessen-Petersen||26 January 2004 – 30 June 2004|
|Michael Sahlin||12 July 2004 – 31 August 2005|
|Erwan Fouéré||17 October 2005 – 31 August 2011|
|Middle East peace process||Miguel Ángel Moratinos||25 November 1996 – 31 May 2002|
|Marc Otte||14 July 2003 – 28 February 2011|
|Andreas Reinicke||1 February 2012 - 31 December 2013|
|Moldova||Adriaan Jacobovits de Szeged||23 March 2005 – 28 February 2007|
|Kálmán Mizsei||1 March 2007 – 28 February 2011|
|Sahel||fr:Michel Reveyrand-de Menthon||18 March 2013 – 31 October 2015|
|South Caucasus||Heikki Talvitie||1 July 2003 – 28 February 2006|
|Peter Semneby||1 March 2006 – 28 February 2011|
|Philippe Lefort (also for Georgia crisis)||1 September 2011 - 30 June 2014|
|Herbert Salber (also for Georgia crisis)||1 July 2014 - 15 August 2017|
|Royaumont Process||Panagiotis Roumeliotis
(was already also the coordinator of the process of stability and good-neighbourly relations in South-east Europe (the Royaumont Process))
|31 May 1999 – 31 May 2000|
|Southern Mediterranean||Bernardino León||18 July 2011 – 30 June 2014|
|(Special) Coordinator of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe||Bodo Hombach||2 July 1999 – 31 December 2001|
|Erhard Busek||1 January 2002 – 30 June 2008|
|Sudan||Pekka Haavisto||18 July 2005 – 30 April 2007|
|Torben Brylle||1 May 2007 – 31 August 2010|
|Rosalind Marsden (also for South Sudan since 1 August 2011)||1 September 2010 – 31 October 2013|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Felipe González||8 June 1998 – 11 October 1999|
- BH News Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "High Representative Catherine Ashton appoints six new Heads of EU Delegation to Japan, UN Geneva, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mozambique, and the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu." EEAS press release. Retrieved 2014-12-04
- http://www.theparliament.com/latest-news/article/newsarticle/former-mep-chosen-as-eus-new-human-rights-envoy/#.UBJekNnOQrA Archived 30 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "EU appoints Human Rights chief". 26 July 2012.
- "About the European External Action Service (EEAS) - EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission". EEAS - European External Action Service.
- "EUR-Lex — Access to European Union law — choose your language". eur-lex.europa.eu.
- Official list of EU Special Representatives
- Official list of current EU Special Representatives
- Official list of former EU Special Representatives
- Exploring EU Foreign Policy, the EUSR, Leuven Catholic University
- Giovanni Grevi, The EU Special Representatives, Chaillot Paper nb. 106, Institute for Security Studies of the European Union, Paris, 2007
- Cornelius Adebahr, Working inside out: what role for Special Envoys in the European External Action Service?, EPC Policy Brief, January 2011
- Dominik Tolksdorf, The Role of EU Special Representatives in the post-Lisbon foreign policy system: A renaissance?, IES Policy Brief, Brussels, June 2012