European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo
The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX Kosovo) is a deployment of European Union (EU) police and civilian resources to Kosovo. This Common Security and Defence Policy diplomatic mission is the international civil presence in Kosovo operating under the umbrella of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244.
Serbia and a number of countries had initially strictly objected to the mission and supported UNMIK, demanding approval by the United Nations Security Council, which was rendered in late 2008. After signing a five-point plan between Serbia and the UN, the UN Security Council approved the addition of the EULEX as an assistance mission subjected to the UNMIK, rather than outright replacing it.
The mission included around 3,200 police and judicial personnel (1,950 international, 1,250 local), and began a four-month deployment process on 16 February 2008. In September 2012, the Kosovo Assembly voted to extend EULEX to 2014. In April 2014, the Kosovo Assembly once again voted to extend EULEX's mandate, this time until June 2016. The European Council decided to extend the mandate of the EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo until 14 June 2018. Current Head of Mission of EULEX is Ms. Alexandra Papadopoulou
In 2013 "an international panel of judges from the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo" convicted 5 people for illegal organ trade. The charges don’t relate directly to the war years, they are centered on Medicus, a transplant clinic in Pristina, Kosovo’s capital. The prosecution argued that, in 2008, a urologist named Lutfi Dervishi began performing kidney transplants there for money. (The sale of organs is outlawed everywhere in the world except Iran.)
Heads of Mission of EULEX
|Head of Mission||Country||Term of office|
|Xavier Bout de Marnhac||France||2010–2012|
|Yves de Kermabon||France||2008–2010|
Composition and deployment
A 1,800 to 1,900 strong mission was approved by the European Council on 14 December 2007. This was later increased to 2,000 personnel due to an increase in expected instability due to a lack of an agreement with Serbia. It consists of police officers (including four anti-riot units), prosecutors and judges - hence focusing on issues on the rule of law, including democratic standards. The size of the mission means Kosovo is home to the largest number of EU civil servants outside of Brussels. Head of the mission is accountable to the European Union member states.
The final decision on the mission was planned to be taken on 28 January 2008. This was postponed due to concerns over possible negative effects on the second round of the presidential election in Serbia on 3 February 2008 and the possible signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with Serbia on that date. The officially voiced reason for the postponement is the lack of a legal basis (through a UNSC resolution or something similar) for the mission. A Joint Action was approved on 4 February 2008 and the final decision was made on 16 February 2008. A joint action is a method of implementing the Common Foreign and Security Policy, and are binding on member states.
Spain does not take part in EULEX mission, since legal questions over how it replaces the UN administration have not been answered. In June 2008, Spanish Foreign Minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos told a meeting of European Union Foreign Ministers in Slovenia that Spain will not send its contingent to the EULEX mission until there has been a formal transfer of powers from the United Nations.
The EU has been divided on whether to recognize an independent Kosovo (for individual member states' stances on recognising Kosovo, see map to the right) without international and Serbian approval. The agreement was seen as ensuring the unity of the EU on the question, however the Presidency announced it would not amount to recognition of an independent Kosovo.
The EU has stated its mission will be legally based on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, which introduced the international rule of Kosovo in 1999. However, the EU force, which was previously planned to be covered by Security council's approval of Ahtisaari proposal, has not received a new U.N. Security Council mandate due to the opposition from Russia. Russia specifically blocked transfer of U.N. facility to the EU mission. Serbia also views the mission as an EU recognition of an independent Kosovo.
In November 2008, the EU accepted the demand of Serbia not to implement the plan of Ahtisaari through EULEX and to be neutral regarding the status of Kosovo. On the other hand, EULEX will be accepted by Serbia and the UN Security Council.
On 25 August 2009, the EULEX mission was subject to violent protests, resulting in the damaging of 28 EU vehicles. Three Kosovo police officers were injured in the clashes which resulted in 21 arrests by the Kosovo police. The attack was organised by a group called Vetëvendosja ("Self-Determination") in reaction to EULEX's police cooperation with Serbia and its actions in Kosovo. There is resentment towards the EU mission for exercising its powers over Kosovo while mediating between the state and Serbia. Policies concentrating on crisis management, rather than resolution, as well as the pursuit of ethnic autonomy and its overly broad mandate over Kosovo's governance is at the stem of the discontent with the EU mission.
Special Investigative Task Force
In spring 2011, EULEX, with the full support of all the then 27 EU Member States, decided to set up a Special Investigative Task Force with the view to further the investigation into the allegations contained in the Council of Europe report of Dick Marty, in particular, about alleged organ theft by KLA. On the request of the task force, the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution was proposed, to be based in The Hague.
The European Court of Auditors in a 2012 report found that EULEX assistance has not been sufficiently effective. Although the EU helped to build capacity, notably in the area of customs, assistance to the police and the judiciary has had only modest success. Levels of organised crime and corruption in Kosovo remained high. The judiciary continued to suffer from political interference, inefficiency and a lack of transparency and enforcement. There had been almost no progress in establishing the rule of law in the north of Kosovo, the 2012 report stated.
According to a February 2016 report by FOL, an accountability NGO in Kosovo, during the first 7 years of operation up until August 2015, EULEX judges delivered 47 verdicts on corruption cases and 23 verdicts on organised crime. This makes a total of 70 verdicts in these respective crimes since 2008. Numbers of convictions resulting from these verdicts was not provided to the researchers. In this period, EULEX prosecutors gained 24 indictments which amount to approximately a 6% indictment rate.
According to Andrea Cappusela, a former ICO high official, from 2008-13, EULEX policy was to not encroach upon the political elite’s interests, or to only do so to protect its credibility; and in these cases to achieve the minimum necessary result. For war crimes, EULEX was much more successful, as these generally had less impact on current elite’s criminal activities and were less likely to expose widespread criminal practices, Cappusela concludes.
In October 2014, British EULEX prosecutor Maria Bamieh, demanded a corruption inquiry against some of her colleagues, after she became aware that a senior civil servant at the Kosovan health ministry, held in prison after corruption charges, discussed his case with her superiors. Ms Bamieh, who claims to act as a whistleblower, cites several cases of corruption, dating back to 2012. She was suspended on 24 October.
EU High Representative Federica Mogherini said she would appoint an independent legal expert to probe Eulex.
On 24 July 2015, Parliament of Kosovo voted a resolution proposed by VV! that obligates Kosovo President Atifete Jahjaga to ask the High Representative Mogherini to initiate investigations.
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