European People's Party

European People's Party
Leader Donald Tusk PEC (PL)
Jean-Claude Juncker PEC (LU)
President Joseph Daul MEP (FR)
Group leader Manfred Weber MEP (DE)
Secretary-General Antonio López-Istúriz White MEP (ES)
Founded 8 July 1976 (1976-07-08)
Headquarters Rue du Commerce/Handelsstraat 10, 1000 — Brussels, Belgium
Think tank Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies
Student wing European Democrat Students
Youth wing Youth of the European People's Party
Women's wing Women of the European People's Party
Ideology Liberal conservatism[1]
Christian democracy[1]
Political position Centre-right
International affiliation Centrist Democrat International,
International Democrat Union
European Parliament group European People's Party
Colours      Blue
European Parliament
216 / 751
European Council
8 / 28
European Lower Houses
2,199 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
569 / 2,714

The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.[3][4][5][6]

The EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is also by far the largest party in the current European Commission. The President of the European Council, President of the European Commission and the President of the European Parliament are all from the EPP. Many of the Founding fathers of the European Union were also from parties that later formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party also controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. The EPP has alternated with its centre-left rival the Party of European Socialists (PES) as the largest European political party and parliamentary group.

The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the Union of Germany (CDU/CSU), The Republicans of France, Fine Gael of Ireland, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party (PP) of Spain and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, but also Fidesz of Hungary, a party with views often described as far-right and xenophobic.[7]


According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, and [which] has pioneered the European project from its inception".[8]

The EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger; Leo Tindemans, then Prime Minister of Belgium, who became the first President of the EPP; and Wilfried Martens, who later became both President of the EPP and Prime Minister of Belgium. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925,[9] the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946[10] (or 1948),[9] and the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965.[10]

In the late 1990s the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union (EDU), of which he was President, into the EPP. In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year.

The EPP has had five Presidents:

No.ImageNameTenureMember state
1 Leo Tindemans 1976–1985 Belgium
2 Piet Bukman 1985–1987 Netherlands
3 Jacques Santer 1987–1990 Luxembourg
4 Wilfried Martens 1990–2013 Belgium
5 Joseph Daul 2013–present France

Platform and manifesto

Political manifesto and platform

During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012 the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years (since its Congress in Athens in 1992) and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies.[11]

The manifesto highlights:

  • Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility
  • Respect for traditions and associations
  • Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should also make an effort to improve their situation
  • Ensuring solid public finances
  • Preserving a healthy environment
  • Subsidiarity
  • Pluralist democracy and a Social Market Economy

The manifesto also describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including:

  • European Political Union
  • Direct election of the President of the European Commission
  • Completion of the European Single Market
  • Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health
  • Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, and integrating immigrants
  • Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU
  • Defining a true common EU energy policy
  • Strengthening European political parties

Electoral manifesto

As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009 the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year. The manifesto called for:

  • Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, and employment in order to create opportunities for everyone.[12]
  • Avoidance of protectionism, and coordination of fiscal and monetary policies.[12]
  • Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets.[12]
  • Making Europe the market leader in green technology.[12]
  • Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 per cent of the energy mix by 2020.;.[12]
  • Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave.[12]
  • A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe’s economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven.[12]


The EPP operates as an international non-profit association under Belgian law according to its by-laws, the Statutes of the European People's Party (Statuts du Parti Populaire Européen), originally adopted 29 April 1976.[13]


The Presidency is the executive body of the party. It decides on the general political guidelines of the EPP and presides over its Political Assembly. The Presidency is composed of the President, ten Vice-Presidents, the Honorary Presidents, the Secretary General and the Treasurer. The Chairperson of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the Presidents of the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, and the High Representative (if they are a member of an EPP member party) are all ex officio Vice-Presidents.

As of 2015 the Presidency[14] of the EPP comprised:

Political Assembly

The Political Assembly defines the political positions of the EPP between Congresses, and decides on membership applications, political guidelines and the budget. The Political Assembly is composed of designated delegates from EPP member parties, associated parties, member associations and other affiliated groups. The Political Assembly meets at least three times a year.


The Congress is the highest decision-making body of the EPP. It is composed of delegates from member parties, EPP associations, EPP Group MEPs, the EPP Presidency, national heads of party and government, and European Commissioners who belong to a member party, with the numbers of delegates being weighted according to the EPP's share of MEPs, and individual delegates being elected by member parties according to member parties' rules.[15]

Under the EPP's statutes the Congress must meet once every three years, but it also meets normally during the years of elections for the European Parliament (every five years), and extraordinary Congresses have also been summoned. The Congress elects the EPP Presidency every three years, decides on the main policy documents and electoral programmes, and provides a platform for the EPP's heads of government and party leaders.

Activities within the party


EPP leaders meet for the EPP Summit a few hours before each meeting of the European Council in order to formulate common positions. Invitations are sent by the EPP President and attendees include, besides the members of the EPP's Presidency, all Presidents and Prime Ministers who are members of the European Council and belong to the EPP; the Presidents of the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council, as well as the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, provided that they belong to the EPP; Deputy Prime Ministers or other ministers in those cases where the Prime Minister of a country does not belong to an EPP member party; and, where no EPP member party is part of a government, the leaders of the main EPP opposition party.

Ministerial meetings

Following the pattern of the EPP Summit the party also organises regular EPP Ministerial meetings before each meeting of the Council of the European Union, with ministers, deputy ministers, secretaries of state and MEPs in the specific policy field attending:

  • General Affairs
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Economy and Finance
  • Home Affairs
  • Justice
  • Defence
  • Employment and Social Affairs
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Energy
  • Environment[16]

Other activities

The EPP also organises working groups on different issues and on an ad hoc basis, as well as meetings with its affiliated members in the European Commission. It also invites individual Commissioners to the EPP Summit meetings and to EPP Ministerial meetings.

Following amendments to the EU Regulation that governs Europarties in 2007, the EPP, like the other "Europarties", is responsible for organising a pan-European campaign for the European elections every five years. According to the Lisbon Treaty, the parties must present candidates for President of the European Commission, but the EPP had already done this by endorsing Jose Manuel Barroso for a second term in April 2009.

The year 2014 saw the first fully fledged campaign of the EPP ahead of the European elections of that year. The party nominated former Luxembourgish Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for President of the European Commission and led a pan-European campaign in coordination with the national campaigns of all its member parties.

Activities within European institutions

The EPP holds the Presidencies of two of the three main EU institutions: the European Commission, led by President Jean-Claude Juncker (CSV), and the European Council, led by Donald Tusk (PO), who has been nominated by the EPP and took office 1 December 2014.

Overview of the European institutions

OrganisationInstitutionNumber of seats
 European UnionEuropean Parliament
215 / 751
 European UnionCommittee of the Regions
125 / 350
 European UnionEuropean Commission
14 / 28
 European UnionEuropean Council
(Heads of Government)
8 / 28
 European UnionCouncil of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
17 / 28

European Commission

In 2014 the EPP nominated Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for election as Commission President if it won the elections for the European Parliament that year. Because the EPP won Jean-Claude Juncker's nomination was endorsed by the European Council and he was elected by an absolute majority in the European Parliament.

On 1 November 2014 Jean-Claude Juncker Commission officially took office. Juncker's Commission includes 14 EPP Commissioners out of 28.

State Commissioner Portfolio Political party Photo

Jean-Claude Juncker President CSV

Jyrki Katainen Vice-President European Commissioner for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness KO

Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs PO

Valdis Dombrovskis European Commissioner for the Euro and Social Dialogue Unity

Marianne Thyssen European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility CD&V

Tibor Navracsics European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport Fidesz

Miguel Arias Cañete European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy PP

Kristalina Georgieva Vice-President European Commissioner for the Budget and Human Resources GERB

Günther Oettinger European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society CDU

Johannes Hahn European Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations ÖVP

Phil Hogan European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development FG

Carlos Moedas European Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation PPD-PSD

Christos Stylianides European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management DISY

Dimitris Avramopoulos European Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship New Democracy

European Parliament

The EPP has the largest group in the European Parliament: the EPP Group. As of 2015 it has 216 Members of the European Parliament and its chairman is the German MEP Manfred Weber.

In every election for the European Parliament candidates elected on lists of member parties of the EPP are obliged to join the EPP Group in the European Parliament.

The EPP Group holds six of the fourteen vice-presidencies of the European Parliament.

European Council

The EPP has 8 out of the 28 heads of state or government attending the EPP summits in preparation for the European Council (as of 1 July 2018):

Member state Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Photo
 Austria Sebastian Kurz Chancellor ÖVP 17 December 2017
 Bulgaria Boyko Borissov Prime Minister GERB 7 November 2014
 Croatia Andrej Plenković Prime Minister HDZ 19 October 2016
 Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades President DISY 28 February 2013
 Germany Angela Merkel Chancellor CDU 22 November 2005
 Hungary Viktor Orbán Prime Minister Fidesz 29 May 2010
Ireland Leo Varadkar Taoiseach[a 1] Fine Gael 22 June 2017
 Romania Klaus Iohannis President PNL 21 December 2014

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally take part in the European Council or EPP summits since that responsibility belongs to the other leaders of their countries: Rosen Plevneliev (Bulgaria, GERB), János Áder (Hungary, Fidesz), Bronisław Komorowski (Poland, PO), Aníbal Cavaco Silva (Portugal, PSD), Sauli Niinistö (Finland, KOK).

National legislatures

Country Institution Number of seats
 Austria National Council
Lower house
50 / 183
Federal Council
Upper house
22 / 62
 Belgium Chamber of Representatives
Lower house
27 / 150
Upper house
12 / 60
 Bulgaria National Assembly
95 / 240
 Croatia Sabor
61 / 151
 Cyprus House of Representatives
18 / 56
 Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
17 / 200
Upper house
27 / 81
 Denmark The Folketing
6 / 179
 Estonia Riigikogu
12 / 101
 Finland Parliament
38 / 200
 France National Assembly
Lower house
100 / 577
Upper house
142 / 348
 Germany Bundestag
310 / 630
 Greece Parliament
76 / 300
 Hungary Országgyűlés
131 / 199
 Ireland Dáil
Lower house
50 / 166
Upper house
19 / 60
 Italy Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
106 / 630
Upper house
65 / 315
 Latvia Saeima
23 / 100
 Lithuania Seimas
31 / 141
 Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
23 / 60
 Malta House of Representatives
28 / 69
 Netherlands House of Representatives
Lower house
19 / 150
Upper house
12 / 75
 Poland Sejm
Lower house
152 / 460
Upper house
33 / 100
 Portugal Assembly of the Republic
107 / 230
 Romania Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
108 / 329
Upper house
47 / 136
 Slovakia National Council
11 / 150
 Slovenia National Assembly
24 / 90
 Spain Congress of Deputies
Lower house
134 / 350
Upper house
149 / 266
 Sweden Parliament
99 / 349
 United KingdomHouse of Commons
Lower house
0 / 650
House of Lords
Upper house
0 / 793

Activities beyond the European Union

In third countries

Through its associate and observer parties the EPP has three heads of state or government in non-EU countries, as well as one of the three members of the Bosnian Presidency, all of whom are invited to attend EPP summits and meetings:

State Representatives Title Political party In power since Photo
 Armenia Serzh Sargsyan Former President HHK 9 April 2008
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bakir Izetbegović
Mladen Ivanić
Dragan Čović
Bosniak Member of the Presidency
Serb Member of the Presidency
Croat Member of the Presidency
10 November 2010
17 November 2014
17 November 2014

 Norway Erna Solberg Prime Minister Høyre 16 October 2013

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally attend the meetings, since the other leaders of their countries attend instead. They include Prime Minister Vjekoslav Bevanda (Bosnia-Herzegovina, HDZ BiH), President Gjorge Ivanov (Republic of Macedonia, VMRO-DPMNE) and President Bujar Nishani (Albania, PD).

In the Council of Europe

The Group of the EPP in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe defends freedom of expression and information, as well as freedom of movement of ideas and religious tolerance. It promotes the principle of subsidiarity and local autonomy, as well as the defence of national, social and other minorities. The EPP/CD Group is led by Pedro Agramunt, a member of the Spanish Popular Party.

The EPP/CD group also includes members from parties that are not related to the EPP itself, including members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Progressive Citizens' Party (Liechtenstein), the National and Democratic Union (Monaco) and the Serbian Progressive Party.[17]

In the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The "EPP and like-minded Group" in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the most active political group in that body. The Group meets on a regular basis and promotes the EPP's positions. The members of the EPP Group also participate in the election-monitoring missions of the OSCE.

The Group is chaired by Walburga Habsburg Douglas (Sweden), and its Vice-Presidents are Consiglio Di Nino (Canada), Vilija Aleknaitė Abramikiene (Lithuania), Laura Allegrini (Italy) and George Tsereteli (Georgia).

The Group also includes members of parties not related to the EPP, accounting for the "like-minded" part of its name. Among them are members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Union for the Principality (Monaco), the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

In the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The EPP is also present and active in the Parliamentary Assembly of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and forms the "EPP and Associated Members" Group there. It is led by the German CDU politician Karl Lamers, who is also the current President of the Assembly. The Group also includes members of the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

Relations with the United States

The EPP has close relations with the International Republican Institute (IRI), an organisation funded by the U.S. government specially to promote democracy and democratisation. The EPP and the IRI cooperate within the framework of the European Partnership Initiative.[18]

The EPP's President, Wilfried Martens, endorsed Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee for president, in the presidential election in 2008[19] McCain is also Chairman of the IRI. In 2011 Martens and McCain made joint press statements expressing their concern about the state of democracy in Ukraine.[20][21]

Global networks

The EPP is a member of two global centre-right organisations, the International Democrat Union (IDU) and the Christian Democrat International (CDI).

Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies

Following the revision in 2007 of the EU Regulation that governs European political parties, allowing the creation of European foundations affiliated to Europarties, the EPP established in the same year its official foundation/think tank, the Centre for European Studies (CES). The CES includes as members all the major national think tanks and foundations affiliated to EPP member parties: the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (CDU), the Hanns Seidel Foundation (CSU), the Foundation for Analysis and Social Studies (PP), the Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy (ND), the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation (MOD), the Political Academy of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and others. During the European Parliament election campaign in 2009 the CES launched a web-based campaign module,, to support Jose Manuel Barroso, the EPP's candidate for re-election as Commission President.

In 2014, the CES changed its name to Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies in honour of Wilfried Martens, the late President of the EPP who was also President of the CES.

The current President of the WMCES is former Slovak Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda.

The Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute and the Luxembourg-based Robert Schuman Foundation are also affiliated with the European People's Party.

EPP associations

The EPP is linked to several specific associations that focus on specific groups and organise seminars, forums, publications and other activities.

Small and Medium Entrepreneurs Europe (SME Europe)

SME Europe is the official business organisation of the EPP, and serves as a network for pro-business politicians and political organisations. Its main objective is to shape EU policy in a more SME-friendly way in close cooperation with the SME Circle of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the DG Enterprise and the pro-business organisations of the EPP's member parties. Its top priorities are to reform the legal framework for SMEs all over Europe, and to promote and support the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises. SME Europe was founded in May 2012 by three Members of the European Parliament, Paul Rübig, Nadezhda Neynsky and Bendt Bendtsen.

European Democrat Students

European Democrat Students (EDS) is now the official students’ organisation of the EPP, though it was founded in 1961, 15 years before the EPP itself. Led by Virgilio Falco, EDS has 40 member organisations, representing nearly 1,600,000 students and young people[22] in 31 countries, including Belarus and Georgia. Every year EDS hosts Summer and Winter "universities", and several seminars. It also regularly publishes a magazine, Bullseye, and organises topical campaigns.

European Senior Union

Founded in Madrid in 1995 and led by Ann Hermans of the CD&V, the European Senior Union (ESU) is the largest political senior citizens’ organisation in Europe. The ESCU is represented in 26 states with 45 organisations and about 500,000 members.

European Union of Christian Democratic Workers

The European Union of Christian Democratic Workers (EUCDW) is the labour organisation of the EPP, with 24 member organisations in 18 different countries. As the officially recognised EPP association of workers, the EUCDW is led by Elmar Brok, MEP. It aims at the political unification of a democratic Europe, the development of the EPP on the basis of Christian social teaching, and the defence of workers' interests in European policy-making.

Women of the European People’s Party

The Women of the European People’s Party (EPP Women) is recognised by the EPP as the official association of women from all like-minded political parties of Europe. EPP Women has more than 40 member organisations from countries of the European Union and beyond. All of them are women‘s organisations of political parties that are members of the EPP. EPP Women is led by Doris Pack.

Youth of the European People’s Party

The Youth of the European People’s Party (YEPP), led by Andrianos Giannou, is the EPP‘s official youth organisation. It has 64 member organisations, bringing together between one and two million young people in 40 countries.


Within the EPP there are three kinds of member organisations: full members, associate members and observers.

Full members are parties from EU states. They have absolute rights to vote in all the EPP's organs and on all matters.

Associate members have the same voting rights as full members except for matters concerning the EU's structure or policies. These associate membres are parties from EU candidate countries and EFTA countries.

Observer parties can participate in all the activities of the EPP, and attend the Congresses and Political Assemblies, but they do not have any voting rights.

A special status of "supporting member" is granted by the Presidency to individuals and associations. Although they do not have voting rights, they can be invited by the President to attend meetings of certain organs of the party. Three EU Commissioners, Dacian Cioloș, Kristalina Georgieva and Andris Piebalgs, are members of the EPP even though they do not belong to any national member party.

Full member parties

Country Party Name Abbr. Legislature Lower House Seats Legislature Upper House Seats
 Albania Democratic Party of Albania PD
43 / 140
 Austria Austrian People's Party ÖVP
62 / 183
22 / 61
 Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish CD&V
18 / 150
8 / 60
Humanist Democratic Centre cdH
9 / 150
4 / 60
 Bulgaria Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria GERB
95 / 240
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria DSB
0 / 240
Union of Democratic Forces SDS
0 / 240
Democratic Party DP
0 / 240
Movement "Bulgaria of the Citizens" BCM
0 / 240
 Croatia Croatian Democratic Union HDZ
56 / 151
Croatian Peasant Party HSS
5 / 151
 Cyprus Democratic Rally DISY
18 / 56
 Czech Republic TOP 09
7 / 200
2 / 81
Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party KDU–ČSL
10 / 200
16 / 81
 Denmark Conservative People's Party C
6 / 179
Christian Democrats KD
0 / 179
 Estonia Pro Patria and Res Publica Union IRL
12 / 101
 Finland National Coalition Party KOK
38 / 200
 France The Republicans LR
112 / 577
144 / 348
 Germany Christian Democratic Union CDU
200 / 709
Christian Social Union in Bavaria CSU
46 / 709
 Georgia Movement for Liberty - European Georgia EG
21 / 150
 Greece New Democracy ND
76 / 300
 Hungary Fidesz
114 / 199
Christian Democratic People's Party KDNP
16 / 199
 Ireland Fine Gael
50 / 158
19 / 60
 Italy Forza Italia FI
104 / 630
61 / 315
Popular Alternative AP
2 / 630
1 / 315
Union of the Centre UdC
0 / 630
3 / 315
Populars for Italy PpI
0 / 630
0 / 315
 Latvia Unity V
23 / 100
 Lithuania Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats TS-LKD
31 / 141
 Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party CSV/PSC
23 / 60
 Malta Nationalist Party
28 / 67
 Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal CDA
19 / 150
12 / 75
 Poland Civic Platform PO
136 / 460
33 / 100
Polish People's Party PSL
15 / 460
0 / 100
 Portugal Social Democratic Party PSD
89 / 230
Democratic and Social Centre - People's Party CDS-PP
18 / 230
 Romania National Liberal Party PNL
69 / 329
30 / 136
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania UDMR
21 / 329
9 / 136
People's Movement Party PMP
18 / 329
8 / 136
 Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement KDH
0 / 150
15 / 150
Party of the Hungarian Community SMK/MKP
0 / 150
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party SDS
21 / 90
Slovenian People's Party SLS
0 / 90
New Slovenia NSi
5 / 90
 Spain People's Party PP
134 / 350
148 / 265
 Sweden Moderate Party
83 / 369
Christian Democrats
16 / 369

Associate members





Observer members



 Bosnia and Herzegovina






 San Marino



Former members










  1. The Irish Prime Minister is commonly referred to as the Taoiseach in both Irish and English. See: Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland.


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  2. Macron, Merkel say ready to change EU treaties if needed
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  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EPP Manifesto – European Elections 2009
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  17. "PACE website". Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
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  21. "Senator McCain and President Martens urge for the release of Yulia Tymoshenko". Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
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