European Parliament election, 2014 (United Kingdom)

United Kingdom European Parliament election, 2014

22 May 2014

All 73 United Kingdom seats to the European Parliament
Turnout 35.6%[1] 0.9%

  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Nigel Farage Ed Miliband David Cameron
Party UKIP Labour Conservative
Alliance EFDD S&D ECR
Leader since 5 November 2010 25 September 2010 6 December 2005
Last election 13 seats, 16.0% 13 seats, 15.2% 26 seats[lower-alpha 1], 27.4%
Seats won 24 20 19
Seat change 11 7 7
Popular vote 4,376,635 4,020,646 3,792,549
Percentage 26.6% 24.4% 23.1%
Swing 10.6% 9.2% 4.3%

Map of the results indicating the seats won in each region by party.

     UKIP   

     Labour   

     Conservative   

     SNP   

     Liberal Democrats   

     Plaid Cymru   


Leader of Largest Party before election

David Cameron
Conservative

Subsequent Leader of Largest Party

Nigel Farage
UKIP

The United Kingdom's component of the 2014 European Parliament election was held on Thursday 22 May 2014,[2][3] coinciding with the 2014 local elections in England[4] and Northern Ireland. In total, 73 Members of the European Parliament were elected from the United Kingdom using proportional representation. England, Scotland and Wales use a closed-list party list system of PR (with the D'Hondt method), while Northern Ireland used the single transferable vote (STV).

Most of the election results were announced after 10pm on Sunday 25 May - with the exception of Scotland, who did not declare their results until the following day - after voting closed throughout the 28 member states of the European Union.

The UK Independence Party (UKIP) came top of the poll, winning 24 seats and 27% of the popular vote, the first time a political party other than the Labour Party or Conservative Party had won the popular vote at a British election since the 1906 general election.[5][6] It was also the first time a party other than Labour or Conservative had won the largest number of seats in a national election since the December 1910 general election.[7][8][9] In addition, the 23.1% of the vote won by the Conservatives is the lowest ever recorded voteshare for the party in a national election.

The Labour Party became the first Official Opposition party since 1984 to fail to win a European Parliament election, although they did gain 7 seats, taking their overall tally to 20. The governing Conservative Party were pushed into third place for the first time at any European Parliament election, falling to 19 seats, while the Green Party of England and Wales saw their number of MEPs increase for the first time since 1999, winning 3 seats. In Scotland, the Scottish National Party won the largest share of the vote, taking 29% of the vote and 2 MEPs. The Liberal Democrats, who were in coalition with the Conservatives at the time, lost 10 of the 11 seats they were defending and won just 7% of the popular vote.

Figures released in December 2014 showed that the Conservatives and UKIP each spent £2.96m on the campaign, the Liberal Democrats £1.5m and the Labour Party spent approximately £1m.[10]

Given the subsequent Leave vote in the 23 June 2016 referendum, this is set to be the last time the United Kingdom participated in a European Parliament election.[11][12][13]

Voting system and regional representation

The United Kingdom elected 73 Members of the European Parliament using proportional representation. The United Kingdom was divided into twelve multi-member constituencies. The eleven of these regions which form Great Britain used a closed-list party list system method of proportional representation, calculated using the D'Hondt method. Northern Ireland used the Single Transferable Vote (STV). As a result of the Treaty of Lisbon coming into force, the UK became entitled to a 73rd MEP as from November 2011. The Electoral Commission performed a reallocation in keeping with the same procedures they used to allocate 72 MEPs and an extra Conservative MEP was allocated to the West Midlands constituency based on the 2009 vote and was enshrined in the European Union Act 2011 as an amendment of the European Parliamentary Elections Act 2002.[14]

Electoral regionRepresentation
in 2009
Representation
before and after
the 2014 election
East Midlands 5 5
East of England 7 7
London 8 8
North East England 3 3
North West England 8 8
South East England 10 10
South West England1 6 6
West Midlands 6 7
Yorkshire and the Humber 6 6
Wales 4 4
Scotland 6 6
Northern Ireland 3 3

1 Includes Gibraltar, the only British overseas territory which is part of the European Union.

Returning officers

The European Parliamentary Elections (Returning Officers) Order 2013 provides for the designated Returning Officer for each electoral region to be the council official responsible for elections in each of the following Westminster constituencies: Kettering for the East Midlands, Chelmsford for the Eastern region, Lewisham, Deptford for the London region, Sunderland Central for the North East region, Manchester Central for the North West region, Falkirk for Scotland, Southampton, Test for the South East region, Poole for the South West region, Preseli Pembrokeshire for Wales, Birmingham Ladywood for the West Midlands region, Leeds Central for the Yorkshire and Humber region, and Belfast South for the Northern Ireland Region.[15]

MEPs before the 2014 election, by European Parliament group

Between the 2009 and 2014 elections, there were various changes to the breakdown of UK members. In December 2011 a 73rd member from the UK (Anthea McIntyre, Conservative) was allocated to England because of the implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon. There were also various defections:

The Ulster Conservatives and Unionists - New Force (UCUNF) electoral pact between the Conservatives and the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) was dissolved.

Thus, before the 2014 election, the following parties had MEPs representing UK constituencies:

Parties in the European Parliament (UK) before the 2014 election
United Kingdom party Seats/73 European Parliament group Seats/766
Conservative 26 European Conservatives and Reformists 52
UUP 1
Labour 13 Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats 195
Liberal Democrats 12 Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe 75
UKIP 9 Europe of Freedom and Democracy 31
Independent 1
Green 2 The Greens–European Free Alliance 52
Scottish National 2
Plaid Cymru 1
Sinn Féin 1 European United Left–Nordic Green Left 35
Democratic Unionist 1 Non-Inscrits
British Democratic 1
British National 1
We Demand a Referendum 1
An Independence from Europe 1

Parties and candidates

39 parties stood a total of 747 candidates. The Conservative Party and UKIP had candidates in every region, as did the three Green parties. Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the BNP had a full slate of candidates in all the regions in Great Britain (i.e. excluding Northern Ireland). The English Democrats and An Independence from Europe had a full slate of candidates in all the English regions. No2EU had a full slate in seven regions, while Britain First and the Socialist Party of Great Britain had full slates in two regions each. The Harmony Party stood in four regions and the Christian Peoples Alliance in three regions. Other parties only stood in one region.

United in Europe was a single-issue party founded to contest these elections in Scotland, advocating continued membership of the UK in the EU.[21] Founded by Charles Cormack in Edinburgh in January 2014 and registered on 3 April 2014[22] as a response to UKIP and Euroscepticism,[23][24] the party did not stand[25] and was deregistered in November 2015.[26]

Retiring/resigned incumbents

British Democratic Party

(Elected in 2009 as British National Party)

Conservative

Green

Labour

Liberal Democrats

UKIP

Debates

On 20 February, the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg used his weekly phone-in show on LBC 97.3 to challenge the leader of the UK Independence Party, Nigel Farage, to a live public debate on the UK's membership of the European Union.[39] Clegg said, "he is the leader of the party of 'out'; I am the leader of the party of 'in'. I think it's time we now have a proper, public debate so that the public can listen to the two sides of the argument and judge from themselves."[40][41] Farage accepted, but said he would also like to see Ed Miliband and David Cameron participate.[42]

The first hour-long debate between the two men was held on 26 March 2014 and was broadcast live on television by Sky News and on the BBC News Channel. The debate was hosted by LBC and moderated by Nick Ferrari.[43] After the first debate, a YouGov poll asked "Who performed better?", with 57% saying Farage did better compared to 36% for Clegg.

The second debate was held on BBC Two on 2 April in a special programme called The European Union: In or Out, moderated by David Dimbleby. Farage was again seen as outperforming his rival, with a snap poll by YouGov showing 68% of people thought he did better in the debate compared to 27% for Clegg. A snap Guardian poll also showed that 69% thought Farage won the debate.[44]

Despite David Cameron and Ed Miliband declining to participate in the leaders' debates, the Conservative and Labour parties were represented in a lower-profile debate on the BBC. On 13 February Andrew Neil hosted a four-way debate on the BBC's Sunday Politics programme. The Conservatives were represented by Syed Kamall MEP, Labour by Richard Howitt MEP, the Liberal Democrats by Baroness Sarah Ludford MEP and the UK Independence Party by Patrick O'Flynn, the party's Director of communications and an MEP candidate.[45][46]

Opinion polls

These opinion polls are for Great Britain and generally exclude Northern Ireland. The methodology used for these polls broadly corresponds to that used for opinion polling for the next United Kingdom general election; see that article for the methodology used by each polling company. YouGov have experimented with different methods of polling for these elections, using their own method for their 8–9 January 2013 poll and another corresponding to that used by Survation and ComRes for their 10–11 January 2013 poll (both below) and argue that their method gives more accurate answers.[47] Data for these polls are generally gathered at the same time as the data for General Election polling.

2014

Date(s) Polling organisation/client Sample Con UKIP Lab Lib Dems Others Lead
22 May 2014EU election, 2014 (GB) Results16,017,36623.9%27.5%25.4%6.9%16.3%2.1%
20–21 MayYouGov/The Sun6,12422%27%26%9%16%1%
19–21 MayOpinium/Daily Mail1,96721%32%25%6%16%7%
19–20 MaySurvation/Mirror1,10623%32%27%9%11%5%
19–20 MayYouGov/The Sun1,87423%27%27%10%14%Tied
18–19 MayYouGov/The Sun1,74021%24%28%10%17%4%
15–19 MayTNS1,21721%31%28%7%13%3%
16–18 MayComRes2,06120%33%27%7%13%6%
15–16 MayYouGov/Sunday Times1,89223%26%27%9%14%1%
13–16 MayOpinium/Daily Mail2,03620%31%29%5%15%2%
14–15 MayICM/Sunday Telegraph2,03326%25%29%7%13%3%
14–15 MayComRes2,04520%35%24%6%15%11%
13–14 MayYouGov/The Sun1,96822%25%28%10%15%3%
9–12 MayOpinium1,93622%30%28%7%13%2%
9–11 MayICM/The Guardian1,00027%26%24%7%16%1%
9–11 MayComRes/C4M2,05622%34%24%8%12%10%
9 MaySurvation/Mail on Sunday1,00521%32%28%9%11%4%
6–8 MayOpinium/Daily Mail1,97223%28%27%8%14%1%
28 Apr – 6 MayYouGov/Sky News1,93323%31%25%9%14%6%
2–3 MaySurvation/Mirror1,00524%31%28%7%10%3%
1–2 MayYouGov/Sunday Times1,94522%29%28%7%14%1%
30 Apr – 1 MayYouGov/Sun on Sunday1,84423%29%26%10%12%3%
30 Apr – 1 MayYouGov/The Sun1,81322%27%30%9%13%3%
27–30 AprYouGov/The Sun5,33122%28%29%9%13%1%
24–28 AprTNS1,19918%36%27%10%12%9%
25–27 AprComRes2,05218%38%27%8%14%11%
24–25 AprYouGov/Sunday Times1,83519%31%28%9%13%3%
21–22 AprYouGov/The Sun2,19022%27%30%10%11%3%
15–17 AprICM/Sunday Telegraph2,00022%27%30%8%13%3%
11–13 AprICM/The Guardian1,00025%20%36%6%13%11%
3–7 AprTNS1,19321%29%30%9%11%1%
4–6 AprPopulus/Financial Times2,03427%25%31%10%7%4%
3–4 AprYouGov/Sunday Times1,99822%28%30%9%10%2%
4 AprSurvation/Mail on Sunday1,00121%27%34%9%9%7%
2–3 AprComRes/The People2,06722%30%30%8%10%Tied
2 AprBroadcast of The European Union: In or Out debate.
27–28 MarYouGov/The Sunday Times1,91624%23%32%11%10%8%
26–27 MarYouGov/The Sun2,03924%26%28%11%11%2%
26 MarLBC radio debate on the European Union between the Lib Dems' Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage of UKIP.
20–21 MarSurvation/Mail on Sunday1,00028%23%32%7%10%4%
17–18 MarYouGov/Times2,28424%23%32%10%11%8%
12–13 MarComRes/Independent on Sunday2,00121%30%28%8%13%2%
7–9 FebICM/The Guardian1,00225%20%35%9%11%10%
14–15 JanYouGov/The Sun1,89323%26%32%9%10%6%
3 JanSurvation/Mail on Sunday1,00123%26%32%9%10%6%

2013

Date(s) Polling organisation/client Sample Con UKIP Lab Lib Dems Others Lead
21–22 NovSurvation/Daily Star1,00624%25%32%8%12%7%
11 OctSurvation/Mail on Sunday1,01721%22%35%11%11%13%
22–24 MayComRes/Open Europe2,00321%27%23%18%11%4%
17–18 MaySurvation/Mail on Sunday1,00020%30%31%8%11%1%
17–18 JanYouGov/The Sun1,91230%12%38%13%10%8%
10–11 JanYouGov/The Sun1,99524%19%36%12%10%12%
9–10 JanComRes/Sunday People2,00222%23%35%8%12%12%
8–9 JanYouGov/The Sun1,98027%17%38%12%6%11%
5 JanSurvation/Mail on Sunday77224%22%31%11%12%7%
4 Jun 2009EU election, 2009 (GB) Results15,136,93227.7%16.5%15.7%13.7%25.6%11.2%

Scottish polls

Date(s) Polling organisation/client Sample SNP Lab Con Lib Dems UKIP Others Lead
22 May 2014EU election, 2014 (Scotland)1,343,48329.0%25.9%17.2%7.1%10.5%10.4%3.1%
12–15 May 2014ICM/Scotsman1,00336%27%13%7%9%8%9%
9–12 May 2014Survation/Daily Record1,00337%26%13%6%11%7%11%
11–22 Apr 2014YouGov/Edinburgh University1,01433%31%12%7%10%7%2%
14–16 Apr 2014ICM/Scotland on Sunday1,00437%28%11%7%10%6%9%
4–7 Apr 2014Survation/Daily Record1,00239% 30%14%6%7%5%9%
17–21 Mar 2014ICM/Scotsman1,01041%29%13%5%6%6%12%
21–24 Jan 2014ICM/Scotsman1,01043%24%14%6%7%6%19%
4 Jun 2009EU election, 2009 (Scotland)1,104,51229.1%20.8%16.8%11.5%5.2%16.6%8.2%

Welsh polls

Date(s) Polling organisation/client Sample Con Lab Plaid UKIP Lib Dems Others Lead
22 May 2014EU election, 2014 (Wales) Results733,06017.4%28.2%15.3%27.6%4.0%7.7%0.6%
12–14 May 2014YouGov/ITV1,09216%33%15%23%7%7%10%
11–22 Apr 2014YouGov/Cardiff University1,02718%39%11%20%7%6%19%
10–12 Feb 2014YouGov/ITV1,25017%39%12%18%7%7%21%
2–4 Dec 2013YouGov/ITV1,00120%41%13%13%8%5%21%
4 Jun 2009EU election, 2009 (Wales) Results684,52021.2%20.3%18.5%12.8%10.7%16.6%0.9%

London polls

Date(s) Polling organisation/client Sample Con Lab Lib Dems Green UKIP Others Lead
22 May 2014EU election, 2014 (London) Results2,200,47522.5%36.7%6.7%8.9%16.9%8.3%14.2%
6–8 May 2014YouGov/Evening Standard1,42223%37%9%7%21%3%14%
28–29 Apr 2014Survation1,00121%39%13%7%20%1%18%
7–9 Apr 2014YouGov/Evening Standard1,20925%33%11%5%24%3%8%
8-10 Oct 2013YouGov/Evening Standard1,23123%34%10%9%22%1%11%
4 Jun 2009EU election, 2009 (London) Results1,751,02627.4%21.3%13.7%10.9%10.8%15.9%6.1%

Results

United Kingdom results

Results of the 2014 European Parliament election for the United Kingdom[49][50]
PartyVotesSeats
Number%+/-Seats+/-%
UK Independence Party4,376,63526.610.6241132.9
Labour Party4,020,64624.49.220727.4
Conservative Party3,792,54923.13.819726.0
Green Party1,136,6706.90.9314.1
Liberal Democrats1,087,6336.66.71101.4
Scottish National Party389,5032.40.322.7
An Independence from Europe235,1241.4New0
British National Party179,6941.15.002
Sinn Féin159,8131.00.211.4
DUP131,1630.80.211.4
English Democrats126,0240.81.00
Plaid Cymru111,8640.70.111.4
Scottish Green Party108,3050.70.10
Ulster Unionist Party83,4380.5New111.4
SDLP81,5940.50
TUV75,8060.50
Christian Peoples Alliance50,2220.31.30
Alliance44,4320.30.10
No2EU31,7570.10.80
4 Freedoms Party (UK EPP)28,0140.2New0
We Demand a Referendum Now23,4260.1New0
NHA23,2530.1New0
Animal Welfare Party21,0920.10
Britain First20,2720.1New0
Yorkshire First19,0170.1New0
Europeans Party10,7120.1New0
Green (NI)10,5980.10
NI2110,5530.1New0
Peace Party10,1300.10
Others55,0110.33.40
Valid Votes16,454,95099.5731
Rejected Votes90,8120.6
Overall turnout16,545,76235.60.9

Election results by constituency

[49]

Constituency Current members
East Midlands          
East of England      
London    
North East England              
North West England    
South East England
South West England        
West Midlands      
Yorkshire and the Humber        
Scotland        
Wales            
Northern Ireland                    

MEPs defeated

Conservative

Liberal Democrats

British National Party

An Independence from Europe

We Demand a Referendum

Analysis of results

The UK Independence Party (UKIP) came top of the poll, the first time a political party other than the Labour Party or Conservative Party had won the popular vote at a British election since the 1906 general election.[51][52] It was also the first time a party other than Labour or Conservative had won the largest number of seats in a national election since the December 1910 general election.[53][54][55]

The Labour Party became the first Official Opposition party since 1984 to failed to win a European Parliament election, although they did gain 7 seats, taking their overall tally to 20. They concurrently won the largest share of the vote in 100 council areas, with their largest vote share recorded in Newham at 58.4%.[56]

The governing Conservative Party were pushed into third place for the first time at any European Parliament election; winning just 23.3% of the national vote share and losing 7 seats to fall to 19 overall, one behind Labour and won the largest share of the vote in just 89 council areas and their highest vote was recorded in Elmbridge at 43.1%.

The Green Party of England and Wales saw their number of MEPs increase for the first time since 1999, winning a total of 3 seats. The party rose from fifth place to fourth, although their vote share declined slightly compared to 2009. This was the first time since 1989 that the Greens had outpolled the Liberal Democrats in a European election.

In Scotland, the Scottish National Party won the largest share of the vote taking 29% of the vote and won the largest share of the vote in 15 of the 32 Scottish council areas and retained their two seats.

The Liberal Democrats, who were in coalition with the Conservatives at the time, lost ten of the eleven seats they were defending and won just 6.6% of the vote share nationally. and won just 4 council areas. Their highest vote share was recorded in Gibraltar where they won a 67.2% share of the vote.

See also

Notes

  1. In 2009, the Conservatives were in alliance with the Ulster Unionist Party in Northern Ireland as Ulster Conservatives and Unionists, electing 1 Northern Irish MEP under this label. By 2014 the UCUNF alliance had been dissolved.

References

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