European Parliament election, 2014 (Netherlands)

Netherlands European Parliament election, 2014

22 May 2014

26 seats to the European Parliament
Turnout 37.32%

  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Sophie in 't Veld Esther de Lange Marcel de Graaff
Party D66 CDA PVV
Alliance ALDE EPP ENF
Seats won
4 / 26
5 / 26
4 / 26
Seat change 1 0 1
Popular vote 735,825 721,766 633,114
Percentage 15.48% 15.18% 13.32%
Swing 4.16% 4.87% 3.65%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Hans van Baalen Dennis de Jong Paul Tang
Party VVD SP PvdA
Alliance ALDE EUL/NGL PES
Seats won
3 / 26
2 / 26
3 / 26
Seat change 0 0 0
Popular vote 571,176 458,079 446,763
Percentage 12.02% 9.64% 9.40%
Swing 0.63% 2.54% 2.65%

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
 
Leader Peter van Dalen Bas Eickhout Anja Hazekamp
Party CU-SGP GL PvdD
Alliance ECR Greens-EFA EUL/NGL
Seats won
2 / 26
2 / 26
1 / 26
Seat change 0 1 1
Popular vote 364,843 331,594 200,254
Percentage 7.67% 6.98% 4.21%
Swing 0.85% 1.89% 0.75%

Elections, candidates and members
of the European Parliament
for the Netherlands
(1952-58) ECSC delegation
(1958-79) EP delegation
(1979-84) (1st election - candidates - members)
(1984-89) (2nd election - candidates - members)
(1989-94) (3rd election - candidates - members)
(1994-99) (4th election - candidates - members)
(1999-04) (5th election - candidates - members)
(2004-09) (6th election - candidates - members)
(2009-14) (7th election - candidates - members)
(2014-19) (8th election - candidates - members)
(2019-24) (9th election - candidates - members)

The 2014 European Parliament election for the election of the delegation from the Netherlands was held on 22 May 2014. This is the 8th time the elections have been held for the European elections in the Netherlands.

Background

Voting and election organisation

Active voting right

To cast a vote (for the right to vote) in elections for the European Parliament. The voter should:

  • have either the Dutch nationality or the nationality of a European Union member state;
  • be 18 years or older;
  • not be disqualified from voting.

Non-Dutch citizens who are nationals of other Member States of the European Union may vote at the election of the European Parliament, provided that they:

  • are living on the day of the candidates' nomination in the Netherlands;
  • have attained the age of 18 on the day of the vote;
  • are not disqualified from voting either in the Netherlands or in the Member State in which they are a citizen;
  • have registered in a municipality with a statement that they want to vote in the Netherlands. (The so-called Y-32 form.)

Dutch nationals abroad have to register to vote for the elections to the European Parliament. Upon registration request, they must indicate whether they are voting by letter, by proxy, or in person at a polling station in the Netherlands. Dutch nationals living in another EU Member State must make a statement that they have not voted in the Member State in which they reside.

Dutch residents of Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have the same required as other Dutch living abroad. Dutch residents on Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba have no need to register, because these islands are part of the Netherlands. They may, as in other Dutch municipalities, vote at their polling stations.

The number of granted requests for registration in 2014 was 23,799 individuals. This was down from 39,601 registered international voters in 2009. Of these registered voters, 21,017 indicated they wanted to vote by mail, 1,804 requested to vote in the Netherlands itself at a polling station, and 978 wanted to grant power of attorney to someone in the Netherlands.

Passive voting right

To stand for election (for the right to be elected), a candidate should:

  • have either Dutch nationality or the nationality of a Member State of the European Union;
  • be eighteen years on the day of possible admission to the European Parliament;
  • not be excluded from the right to vote.

Non-Dutch candidates from other Member States of the European Union must, in addition, be an actual resident in the Netherlands and not be excluded from the right to be elected in the Member State of which they are a national.

Organisation of elections

In elections for the European Parliament, the national electoral districts play no role in the nomination. The Netherlands consists of a single electoral district. Political parties, therefore, take part in the elections with only a single candidate list.

Although the national electoral districts do play an important role in processing the election results. The principal polling station of each constituency determines the vote total of the constituency. The results of the vote are recorded in an official document and transferred to the Electoral Council. The Electoral Council, in its role as the central electoral committee, then determines the result of the Netherlands' distribution of seats.

The transfer of the official recorded votes to the Electoral Council took place in 18 constituencies on Monday, 26 May 2014. On Tuesday, 27 May, this transfer occurred for the two remaining constituencies where the municipalities Raalte, Kampen (constituency Zwolle), and Ouder-Amstel, (constituency Haarlem) experimented with a centralised counting of votes.

Casting a vote

A voter could cast their vote at a polling station of their choice within their own district. At the casting their vote, they could identify themselves with an identity document which is considered valid even if it has expired within the last 5 years.

Voters who voted in the election for the European Parliament in 2014 from outside the Netherlands experimented with a new model ballot. In this new ballot, parties were allowed to show the party logo above their candidates if it had been registered in advance with the Electoral Council.

Participation of political groups

On Monday, 14 April 2014, the Electoral Council had a public hearing on the validity of the lists of candidates for the election of the Dutch seats for the European Parliament. The candidate list of the Women's Party was declared invalid because the required deposit to participate (€11,250) was not paid. Furthermore, the following candidates of the Party for the Animals were deleted because their documentation was incomplete and, as such, could not participate in the election:

  • T. Regan (United States);
  • W. T. Kymlicka (Canada);
  • J.M. Coetzee (Australia).

Numbering of the candidates list

In the same public hearing on 14 April 2014, the Electoral Council also numbered the lists of candidates. The parties who had obtained one or more seats in 2009 at the last election to the European Parliament were given a number based on the number of votes that the parties had achieved in the previous election. These totalled 8 candidate lists. The party with the most votes got number 1 and the rest were listed accordingly. The list numbers for the remaining 11 candidates were decided by a lottery.

The official order and names of candidate lists:

 Candidate lists for the European Parliament election in the Netherlands
2014
Lists
List English translation List name (Dutch)
1 list CDA - European People's Party CDA — Europese Volkspartij
2 list PVV (Party for Freedom) PVV (Partij voor de Vrijheid)
3 list P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats P.v.d.A./Europese Sociaaldemocraten
4 list VVD
5 list Democrats 66 (D66) - ALDE Democraten 66 (D66) - ALDE
6 list GreenLeft GroenLinks
7 list SP (Socialist Party) SP (Socialistische Partij)
8 list Christian Union-SGP ChristenUnie–SGP
9 list Article 50 Artikel 50
10 list IQ, the Rights-Obligations-Party IQ, de Rechten-Plichten-Partij
11 list Pirate Party Piratenpartij
12 list 50PLUS
13 list The Greens De Groenen
14 list Anti EU(ro) Party Anti EU(ro) Partij
15 list Liberal Democratic Party Liberaal Democratische Partij
16 list Jesus Lives Jezus Leeft
17 list ichooseforhonest.eu ikkiesvooreerlijk.eu
18 list Party for the Animals Partij voor de Dieren
19 list Focus and Simplicity Aandacht en Eenvoud

Common lists

A common list consists of 2 distinct parties which are sharing the same candidate list. The ChristianUnion and SGP formed a common list ChristenUnie-SGP for the European Parliament election.

Electoral alliances

Several parties formed an electoral alliance.

  1. CDA/European People's Party and ChristenUnie-SGP
  2. PvdA/European Social-Democrats and GreenLeft

Election day

Traditionally, all elections are held on Wednesday in the Netherlands. Sunday is not an option because it's a resting day for Orthodox Christians, while Friday and Saturday are impossible, because of the Sabbath. Monday is also impossible, because then all preparation for an election would need to happen on the weekend. That leaves Tuesday,Wednesday and Thursday as possible election days. Many polling stations are located in schools, therefore, Wednesday is chosen because it is usually the quietest day of the week for classes. However, the European Parliament Elections run from Thursday to Sunday across the entire European Union. Therefore, Thursday is the election day for the European Parliament Elections.[1]

Treaty of Lisbon

According to the Treaty of Lisbon, the Netherlands was awarded 26 seats in the European parliament. This is one more than the election of 2009. The last elections were held when the treaty was not yet in effect, because not all member states had ratified the treaty. The treaty came into effect during the last session of the European Parliament. The additional seat was then awarded to the Party of Freedom on 9 October 2011 based on the results of the 2009 election. This increased the numbers of seats for the PVV from 4 to 5 for the 2009–2014 session.

Campaign

Polls

Poll results are listed in the tables below in reverse chronological order. The highest figure in each survey is displayed in bold type, and the background is shaded in the colour the party. In the instance that there is a tie, then no figure is shaded.

Seats

Date Polling Firm VVD PvdA PVV SP CDA D66 CUSGP GL PvdD 50PLUS Others
26 May (Preliminary results)ANP[2]33425422100
22 May (Exit polls)Ipsos[3]33334422110
18 MayPeil (prognosis)[4]3–42–34–53–44–54–52–31–20–10–10
15 MayTNS Nipo[5]3–42–33–43–42–34–62–320–110
16 AprTNS Nipo[6]4–52–34–52–32–33–52–31–20–10–10–1
13 AprPeil42434421110
6 MarIpsos43443421010
11 JanTNS Nipo53543311010
2014
4 June 2009Election results33425323000

Percentages

Date Polling Firm VVD PvdA PVV SP CDA D66 CUSGP GL PvdD 50PLUS Others
26 May (Preliminary results) ANP[2] 11.9% 9.4% 13.2% 9.6% 15% 15.4% 7.6% 7.0% 4.2% 3.7% 3%
22 May (Exit polls) Ipsos[3] 12.3% 9.4% 12.2% 10.0% 15.2% 15.6% 7.8% 7.3% 4.2% 4.2% 1.1%
15 May TNS Nipo[5] 12.3% 9.9% 11.9% 11.9% 11.3% 19.3% 9.5% 6.0% 1.6% 3.8% 2.5%
16 Apr TNS Nipo[6] 16.2% 10.5% 18.1% 9.9% 11.1% 15.7% 8.3% 4.7% 1.0% 2.8% 1.8%
13 Apr Peil[7] 15% 8% 15% 11% 15% 15% 7% 4% 4% 4% 1%
6 Mar Ipsos 16% 10% 16% 14% 13% 15% 6.7% 3.7% 2.7% 3.5% N/A
11 Jan TNS Nipo 16.4% 12.2% 17.2% 13.2% 10.6% 12.3% 6.2% 3.7% 2.2% 3.8% 1.7%
2014
4 June 2009Election results11.4%12.1%17.0%7.1%20.1%11.3%6.8%8.9%3.5%2.0%

Results

Turnout

Turnout was with 37.32%, which is a little higher than in 2009. (36.75%) A total of 12,815,496 people were entitled to vote. Of these 4,782,251 did participated in the election.

Municipality with the highest voter turnout:

  1. Schiermonnikoog: 70.95%

Municipality with the lowest voter turnout:

  1. Sint Eustatius: 7.44%

Seat assignment

Electoral quota

The electoral quota is the number of votes needed for one seat. It is the total valid number of votes divided by the number of seats.
For this election it was 4,753,746 valid votes, divided by 26 seats.
The electoral quota was established as: 182.836

Electoral alliances

The results of the electoral alliances. Both parties of both alliances reached the electoral quota and are eligible for remainder seats.

Electoral alliance List Number of votes
A
List 1: CDA – European People's Party 721,766
List 8: Christian Union-SGP 364,843
Total 1,086,609
Electoral alliance List Number of votes
B 
List 3: P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats 446,763
List 6: GreenLeft 331,594
Total 778,357

Assigning full seats

Full seats are assigned by number of votes divided by the electoral quota. Electoral alliances are marked as a letter, instead of a number. Any seats left over are not yet assigned to a specific party.

List Party's Number of votes Electoral quota Seats
A (list 1+8) Christian Democratic Appeal + Christian Union-SGP 1,086,609 182,836 5
B (list 3+6) Labour Party + GreenLeft 778,357 182,836 4
2 Party for Freedom 633,114 182,836 3
4 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 571,176 182,836 3
5 Democrats 66 735,825 182,836 4
7 Socialist Party 458,079 182,836 2
9 Article 50 24,069 182,836 0
10 IQ, the Rights-Obligations-Party 1,705 182,836 0
11 Pirate Party 40,216 182,836 0
12 50PLUS 175,343 182,836 0
13 The Greens 10,883 182,836 0
14 Anti EU(ro) Party 12,290 182,836 0
15 Liberal Democratic Party 6,349 182,836 0
16 JESUS LIVES 9,507 182,836 0
17 ichooseforhonest.eu 6,796 182,836 0
18 Party for the Animals 200,254 182,836 1
19 Focus and Simplicity 3,174 182,836 0
Total 4,753,746 22
Total seats 26
Remaining seats 4

Remainder seats

The remaining, or left over, seats are awarded sequentially to the lists with the highest average number of votes per seat. Only lists that reached the electoral quota are eligible.

List Remainder seat 1 Remainder seat 2 Remainder seat 3 Remainder seat 4 Total
A (list 1+8) 181,101 155,229 155,229 155,229 2
B (list 3+6) 155,671 155,671 155,671 129,726 1
2 158,278 158,278 126,622 126,622 1
4 142,794 142,794 142,794 142,794
5 147,165 147,165 147,165 147,165
7 152,693 152,693 152,693 152,693
18 100,127 100,127 100,127 100,127
Assigned to A 2 B A

The election committee also calculated what would have happened without electoral alliances. In that case the CDA – European People's Party would have 4 seats instead of 5 and the Socialist Party 3 seats instead of 2.

Awarding seats within electoral alliances

To decide the seats per party for electoral alliances, the combination quota is first determined. Combination quota for electoral alliances are determined by the total number valid votes divided by the awarded seats. The party with the most votes left after the full seats are assigned gets the seat remaining.

List A
For list A, there were 1,086,609 votes divided by 7 seats. The combination quota was established as: 155,229 votes

Electoral alliance List Number of votes Combination quota Full seats Remainder votes Remainder seat Total
A
List 1: CDA – European People's Party 721,766 155,229 4 100,846 1 5
List 8: Christian Union-SGP 364,843 155,229 2 54,383 2
Total 1,086,609 7

List B
For list B, there were 778,357 votes divided by 5 seats. The combination quota was established as: 155,671 votes

Electoral alliance List Number of votes Combination quota Full seats Remainder votes Remainder seat Total
B 
List 3: P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats 446,763 155,671 2 135,420 1 3
List 6: GreenLeft 331,594 155,671 2 20,251 2
Total 778,357 5

Summary:

Final results

The Christian Democratic Appeal got the most seats and was seen as the winner of the 2014 elections, although it lost the biggest percentage of votes and Democrats 66 received more votes. The Christian Democratic Appeal got an extra seat, thanks to their electoral alliance with Christian Union-SGP. The euro-sceptic PVV (Party for Freedom) was the biggest loser of the 2014 elections, though it only lost 1 seat. Contrary to other European countries, the euro-sceptic movement did worse than previous elections.

 Summary of the 22 May 2014 European Parliament election results in the Netherlands
2014
Lists Votes % Change Seats Change
List English translation List name (Dutch) EU Party EP Group
list Democrats 66 (D66) - ALDE Democraten 66 (D66) - ALDE ALDE ALDE 735,825 15.48 4.16
4 / 26
1
list CDA - European People's Party CDA - Europese Volkspartij EPP EPP 721,766 15.18 4.87
5 / 26
0
list PVV (Party for Freedom) PVV (Partij voor de Vrijheid) none ENF 633,114 13.32 3.65
4 / 26
1
list VVD VVD ALDE ALDE 571,176 12.02 0.63
3 / 26
0
list SP (Socialist Party) SP (Socialistische Partij) none EUL/NGL 458,079 9.64 2.54
2 / 26
0
list P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats P.v.d.A./Europese Sociaaldemocraten PES S&D 446,763 9.40 2.65
3 / 26
0
list Christian Union-SGP ChristenUnie–SGP ECPM ECR 364,843 7.67 0.85
2 / 26
0
list GREENLEFT GROENLINKS EGP Greens-EFA 331,594 6.98 1.89
2 / 26
1
list Party for the Animals Partij voor de Dieren none EUL/NGL 200,254 4.21 0.75
1 / 26
1
list 50PLUS 50PLUS none ALDE 175,343 3.69 new
0 / 26
0
list Pirate Party Piratenpartij PPEU Greens-EFA 40,216 0.85 new
0 / 26
0
list Article 50 Artikel 50 none 24,069 0.51 new
0 / 26
0
list Anti EU(ro) Party Anti EU(ro) Partij none 12,290 0.26 new
0 / 26
0
list The Greens De Groenen EGP Greens-EFA 10,883 0.23 0.04
0 / 26
0
list JESUS LIVES JEZUS LEEFT none 9,507 0.20 new
0 / 26
0
list ichooseforhonest.eu ikkiesvooreerlijk.eu none 6,796 0.14 new
0 / 26
0
list Liberal Democratic Party Liberaal Democratische Partij none 6,349 0.13 0.11
0 / 26
0
list Focus and Simplicity Aandacht en Eenvoud none 3,174 0.07 new
0 / 26
0
list IQ, the Rights-Obligations-Party IQ, de Rechten-Plichten-Partij none 1,705 0.04 new
0 / 26
0
Valid votes 4,753,746 99.40 0.16
Blank votes 16,786 0.35 0.13
Invalid votes 11,719 0.25 0.03
Totals 4,782,251 100.00 26 0
Electorate (eligible voters) and voter turnout 12,815,496 37.32 0.57
Source: [8][9]

European groups

Summary:

EPP S&D ECR ALDE GUE/NGL G-EFA EFDD ENF
Total
5 (CDA) 3 (PvdA) 2 (CU-SGP) 4 (D66)
3 (VVD)
2 (SP)
1 (PvdD)
2 (GL) 4 (PVV) 26
 Summary of the 22 May 2014 European Parliament elections in the Netherlands
2014
European group Seats 2009 Seats 2014 Change
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ALDE 6 7 1
European People's Party EPP 5 5 0
Europe of Nations and Freedom ENF none 4 4
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats S&D 3 3 0
European United Left–Nordic Green Left EUL-NGL 2 3 1
The Greens–European Free Alliance Greens-EFA 3 2 1
European Conservatives and Reformists ECR 1 2 1
Europe of Freedom and Democracy EFD 1 0 1
Non-Inscrits NI 4+1 0 5
25(+1) 26 0

Elected members

23 members were directly elected by preference votes, though 28 members got enough preference votes.
To be elected by preference votes, 10% of the electoral quota is needed.
The electoral quota was 182,836. 10% of 182,836 = 18,284 votes.
Not all candidates could be appointed because either, the party did not get enough seats, or they got no seats.

Below are all the elected members of European parliament for the Netherlands. Members elected by preference votes are in bold. The following 26 MEPs were officially announced by the Central Electoral Commission.

Democrats 66 (D66) – ALDE

  1. Sophie in 't Veld, by 568,185 votes (top candidate)
  2. Marietje Schaake, by 41,236 votes
  3. Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, by 31,326 votes
  4. Matthijs van Miltenburg, by 16,698 votes

CDA – European People's Party

  1. Esther de Lange, by 415,011 votes (top candidate)
  2. Annie Schreijer-Pierik, by 113,123 votes
  3. Wim van de Camp, by 37,715 votes
  4. Jeroen Lenaers, by 36,428 votes
  5. Lambert van Nistelrooij, by 32,970 votes

PVV (Party for Freedom)

  1. Geert Wilders, by 290,239 votes (did not accept his seat)
  2. Marcel de Graaff, by 276,680 votes (top candidate)
  3. Vicky Maeijer, by 26,491 votes
  4. Olaf Stuger, by 4.021 votes

VVD

  1. Hans van Baalen, by 358,029 votes (top candidate)
  2. Cora van Nieuwenhuizen, by 86,237 votes
  3. Jan Huitema, by 26,031 votes

SP (Socialist Party)

  1. Dennis de Jong, by 300,782 votes (top candidate)
  2. Anne-Marie Mineur, by 52,187 votes

P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats

  1. Paul Tang, by 183,296 votes (top candidate)
  2. Agnes Jongerius, by 170,119 votes
  3. Kati Piri, by 10,351 votes

Christian Union-SGP

  1. Peter van Dalen, by 253,620 votes (top candidate)
  2. Bas Belder, by 53,995 votes

GreenLeft

  1. Bas Eickhout, by 184,154 votes (top candidate)
  2. Judith Sargentini, by 91,745 votes

Party for the Animals

  1. Anja Hazekamp, by 131,093 votes (top candidate)

Members not elected, but enough preference votes:

  • VVD – Caroline Nagtegaal-van Doorn, by 19,370 votes (party did not win enough seats.)
  • Christian Union-SGP – Stieneke van der Graaf, by 23,429 votes (party did not win enough seats.)
  • Pirate Party – Matthijs Pontier, by 30,507 votes (party did not win any seat.)
  • 50PLUS – Toine Manders and Henk Krol, by 112,521 and 23,125 votes (party did not win any seat.)

MEPs in 2014–2019

Below is a list of members of the European Parliament for the period 2014–2019 as a result of this election.

Mutations

2014

2015

2016

none

2017

 MEPs for the Netherlands elected to the 8th European Parliament session
2014-2019
Name Sex National party EP Group Period Preference vote
Hans van Baalen Male      People's Party for Freedom and Democracy      ALDE 14 July 2009 – Present 358,029
Bas Belder Male      Reformed Political Party      ECR 20 July 1999 – Present 53,995
Wim van de Camp Male      Christian Democratic Appeal      EPP 14 July 2009 – Present 37,715
Peter van Dalen Male      Christian Union      ECR 14 July 2009 – Present 253,620
Bas Eickhout Male      GreenLeft      G–EFA 14 July 2009 – Present 184,154
André Elissen Male      Party for Freedom      ENF 13 June 2017 – Present 1,976
Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy Male      Democrats 66      ALDE 14 July 2009 – Present 31,326
Marcel de Graaff Male      Party for Freedom      NI /      ENF 1 July 2014 – Present 276,680
Anja Hazekamp Female      Party for the Animals      EUL–NGL 1 July 2014 – Present 131,093
Jan Huitema Male      People's Party for Freedom and Democracy      ALDE 1 July 2014 – Present 26,031
Hans Jansen Male      Party for Freedom      NI /      ENF 1 July 2014 – 5 May 2015 16,568
Dennis de Jong Male      Socialist Party      EUL–NGL 14 July 2009 – Present 300,782
Agnes Jongerius Female      Labour Party      S&D 1 July 2014 – Present 170,119
Esther de Lange Female      Christian Democratic Appeal      EPP 12 April 2007 – Present 415,011
Jeroen Lenaers Male      Christian Democratic Appeal      EPP 1 July 2014 – Present 36,428
Vicky Maeijer Female      Party for Freedom      NI /      ENF 1 July 2014 – 15 March 2017 26,491
Matthijs van Miltenburg Male      Democrats 66      ALDE 1 July 2014 – Present 16,698
Anne-Marie Mineur Female      Socialist Party      EUL–NGL 1 July 2014 – Present 52,187
Caroline Nagtegaal-van Doorn Female      People's Party for Freedom and Democracy      ALDE 14 November 2017 – Present 19,370
Cora van Nieuwenhuizen Female      People's Party for Freedom and Democracy      ALDE 1 July 2014 – 25 October 2017 86,237
Lambert van Nistelrooij Male      Christian Democratic Appeal      EPP 20 July 2004 – Present 32,970
Kati Piri Female      Labour Party      S&D 1 July 2014 – Present 10,351
Judith Sargentini Female      GreenLeft      G–EFA 14 July 2009 – Present 91,745
Marietje Schaake Female      Democrats 66      ALDE 14 July 2009 – Present 41,236
Annie Schreijer-Pierik Female      Christian Democratic Appeal      EPP 1 July 2014 – Present 113,123
Olaf Stuger Male      Party for Freedom      NI /      ENF 1 July 2014 – Present 4,021
Paul Tang Male      Labour Party      S&D 1 July 2014 – Present 183,296
Sophie in 't Veld Female      Democrats 66      ALDE 20 July 2004 – Present 568,185
Auke Zijlstra Male      Party for Freedom      NI /      ENF 13 September 2011 – 1 July 2014
7 September 2015 – Present
4,509

References

  1. https://www.kiesraad.nl/adviezen-en-publicaties/vragen-en-antwoorden/tweede-kamer-stemmen/waarom-stemmen-we-in-nederland-op-woensdag Election Committee Why we vote on Wednesday.
  2. 1 2 "CDA 5 zetels, D66 en PVV 4". NOS. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  3. 1 2 Cerulus, Laurens (23 May 2014). "Europhiles take the lead in Dutch EU elections, exit polls show". Euractiv. Euractiv. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  4. http://www.peil.nl/?3935
  5. 1 2 http://www.tns-nipo.com/getattachment/Nieuws/Persberichten/D66-leidt-in-aanloop-naar-Europese-verkiezingen-da/PB-peiling-14-mei.pdf/
  6. 1 2 http://www.tns-nipo.com/nieuws/persberichten/d66-leidt-landelijk,-pvv-in-europa/
  7. https://www.noties.nl/peil.nl/get.php?id=3919&a=peil.nl&s=weekpoll&f=2014-04-13.pdf&PHPSESSID=j45qvvk4h7rd9ipmrplbukq2k4
  8. Verkiezingsuitslagen van de kiesraad
  9. [http://www.europa-nu.nl/9353000/d/vaststelling_kiesraad_uitslag_ep2014.pdf Kiesraad
  10. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2014/06/26/benoeming-j-j-g-jansen-tot-lid-van-het-europees-parlement
  11. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2015/06/12/benoeming-g-wilders-tot-lid-van-het-europees-parlement
  12. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2015/07/23/benoeming-a-j-zijlstra-tot-lid-van-het-europees-parlement
  13. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2017/05/23/benoeming-g.-wilders-tot-lid-van-het-europees-parlement
  14. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2017/06/02/benoeming-a.-elissen-tot-lid-van-het-europees-parlement
  15. https://www.kiesraad.nl/actueel/nieuws/2017/11/08/benoeming-c.m.a.w.-nagtegaal-van-doorn-tot-lid-europees-parlement
  16. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/incoming-outgoing.html?type=in
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