European Australians

European Australians
Total population
~70% of Australia's population[1][2][3]
Regions with significant populations
All states and territories of Australia[4]
Predominantly English
Italian  German  Greek  Dutch  Other European[4][5]
Predominantly Christianity (Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism)
Related ethnic groups
European New Zealanders, British, European diaspora

European Australians are citizens or residents of Australia whose ancestry originates from the peoples of Europe.

Since the early 19th century, people of European descent have formed the vast majority of the population in Australia. The majority of European Australians are of British IslesEnglish, Irish, Scottish, Welsh or Cornish (Anglo-Celtic) – ancestral origin. In 2010, it was estimated that around 74% of the Australian population were Anglo-Celtic Australians and close to 20% being of other European origins.[6]

Other significant ancestries include Italian, German, Greek, Dutch, New Zealanders (European New Zealanders), Polish, Maltese and Croatian.[7] Today, Australians of British and other European ancestries are the dominant majority in Australia, estimated at around 92% of the total population.[2][3]

Historically, European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a European country.[8][9]


Early sightings by Europeans

The first records of European mariners sailing into 'Australian' waters occurs around 1606, and includes their observations of the land known as Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land). The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutchman, Willem Janszoon.

Between 1606 and 1770, an estimated 54 European ships from a range of nations made contact. Many of these were merchant ships from the Dutch East Indies Company and included the ships of Abel Tasman. Tasman charted parts of the north, west and south coasts of Australia which was then known as New Holland.

In 1770, Englishman Lieutenant James Cook charted the Australian east coast in his ship HM Barque Endeavour. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming eastern Australia 'New South Wales'. The coast of Australia, featuring Tasmania as a separate island, was mapped in detail by the English mariners and navigators Bass and Flinders, and the French mariner, Baudin. A nearly completed map of the coastline was published by Flinders in 1814.

This period of European exploration is reflected in the names of landmarks such as the Torres Strait, Arnhem Land, Dampier Sound, Tasmania, the Furneaux Islands, Cape Frecinyet and La Perouse. French expeditions between 1790 and the 1830s, led by D'Entrecasteaux, Baudin, and Furneaux, were recorded by the naturalists Labillardière and Péron.

First settlement by Europeans

The British Crown Colony of New South Wales started with the establishment of a settlement at Sydney Cove by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date later became Australia's national day, Australia Day. These land masses included the current islands of New Zealand, which was administered as part of New South Wales.[10] Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803.

The first European Australians came from United Kingdom and Ireland.[11][12] The southeast of Australia was the first region to be settled by European Australians in 1788.[13]

Other British settlements followed, at various points around the continent, most of them unsuccessful. In 1824, a penal colony was established near the mouth of the Brisbane River (the basis of the later colony of Queensland). In 1826, a British military camp was established in Western Australia at King George Sound, to discourage French colonisation. (The camp formed the basis of the later town of Albany.) In 1829, the Swan River Colony and its capital of Perth were founded on the west coast proper and also assumed control of King George Sound. Initially a free colony, Western Australia later accepted British convicts, because of an acute labour shortage.

Europe-born population in Australia 1861 - 2011
Year Europe-born pop.
% of all foreign-born
UK and Ireland
% of all foreign-born
From 1954 onwards people from "Ulster" were recorded separately from the people of "Ireland".[24]

The British Colonial Office in 1835 issued the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, implementing the legal doctrine of terra nullius upon which British settlement was based, reinforcing the notion that the land belonged to no one prior to the British Crown taking possession of it and quashing earlier treaties with Aboriginal peoples, such as that signed by John Batman. Its publication meant that from then, all people found occupying land without the authority of the government would be considered illegal trespassers.[25]

Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1840, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1863 as part of South Australia. The transportation of convicts to Australia was phased out between 1840 and 1868.

Massive areas of land were cleared for agriculture and various other purposes, in addition to the obvious impacts this early clearing of land had on the ecology of particular regions, it severely affected indigenous Australians, by reducing the resources they relied on for food, shelter and other essentials. This progressively forced them into smaller areas and reduced their numbers as the majority died of newly introduced diseases and lack of resources. Indigenous resistance against the settlers was widespread, and prolonged fighting between 1788 and the 1930s led to the deaths of at least 20,000 Indigenous people and between 2,000 and 2,500 Europeans.[26]

The European population grew from 0.3 percent of the population of the continent at 1800 to 58.6 percent at 1850.[27]

In 1868, the population of European Australians was 1,539,552.[28]

Irish formed about 25 per cent of the European Australian population in the nineteenth century.[12] Germans formed the largest non-British community for most of the 19th century.[29]

In 1976 the top six birthplace groups were from European countries and accounted for 81% of all people born overseas. By 1996, the top six groups only accounted for 53% of the total overseas-born population. People from the United Kingdom and Ireland still form the largest group. However, their number as a proportion of the total overseas-born population has declined, falling from 41% in 1976 to 29% in 1996.

After World War II

Following World War II, the Australian government instigated a massive program of European immigration.[30] After narrowly preventing a Japanese invasion and suffering attacks on Australian soil for the first time, it was seen that the country must "populate or perish". Prior to WWII, Australia had viewed itself as largely of British and Irish ancestry but after WWII the success of the United States and the reason for its success, that is largely the creation of a European diaspora, could not be ignored by Australia. Immigration brought traditional migrants from the United Kingdom along with, for the first time, large numbers of southern and central Europeans. A booming Australian economy stood in sharp contrast to war-ravaged Europe, and newly arrived migrants found employment in government-assisted programs such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Two million immigrants arrived between 1948 and 1975, many from Robert Menzies' newly founded Liberal Party of Australia dominated much of the immediate post war era, defeating the Australian Labor Party government of Ben Chifley in 1949. Menzies oversaw the post-war expansion and became the country's longest-serving leader. Manufacturing industry, previously playing a minor part in an economy dominated by primary production, greatly expanded. Since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy from Asia and other parts of the world, Australia's demography, culture and image of itself has been radically transformed.

In 1987, the vast majority of European Australians were descendants either of Anglo-Irish-Scots who arrived after 1850, or of Greeks, Italians, Hungarians, Balts, Poles and Germans who emigrated after 1945.[31]

Number of European Australians

Year Population % of Australia Ref(s) Year Population % of Australia Ref(s)
a Social Security, Settlement and Multicultural Affairs. b Census of the Commonwealth of Australia 1947

The table shows the European-Australian population with a gradual increase from the late nineteenth century to gradually declining in the late 20th century to the most recent census in 2011. Australia enumerated its population by race between 1911 and 1966, by racial-origin in 1971 and 1976, and by self-declared ancestry since 1981.[44] In the 2011 Census, Australians reported around 300 different ancestries. The most commonly reported ancestries were British (45 per cent) and Australian (33 per cent). A further 6 of the leading 10 ancestries reflected the European heritage in Australia – Irish (9.7 per cent), Italian (4.3 per cent), German (4.2 per cent), Greek (1.8 per cent) and Dutch (1.6 per cent).[45]

Since 1976, Australia's census does not ask for racial background, it is unclear how many Australians are descendants of Europeans.[44] Estimates vary from 85% to 92%.[3][46] In 2000, it was estimated that about 25% of European Australians were descendants of Irish.[47]

Political involvement

Colonial period

As the earliest colonists of Australia, settlers from England and their descendants often held positions of power and made or helped make laws often because many had been involved in government back in England. In the original six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.

The Founding Fathers

The lineage of most of the Founding Fathers was British (especially English) such as:

  • Sir Henry Parkes (from Coventry, England) is often regarded as the "Father of Federation" in Australia. During the late 19th century, he was the strongest proponent for a federation of Australian territories. Unfortunately, he died before Australia federated, and was never able to see his plan come to fruition.[48]

Various other founders of Australia have also been unofficially recognised:


European-Australian culture is the culture of Australia. The culture of Australia is essentially a Western culture influenced by the unique geography of the Australian continent, the diverse input of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Oceanian people, the British colonisation of Australia that began in 1788, and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration that followed.[52] As the English were always the largest element among the settlers, their cultural influence was naturally greater than that of the Irish, Welsh or Scots. Evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage includes the predominance of the English language, the common law, the Westminster system of government, Christianity (Anglicanism) as the once dominant religion, and the popularity of sports such as cricket and rugby; all of which are part of the heritage that has shaped modern Australia.[53] Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement.

Several states and territories had their origins as penal colonies, with the first British convicts arriving at Sydney Cove in 1788. Stories of outlaws like the bushranger Ned Kelly have endured in Australian music, cinema and literature. The Australian gold rushes from the 1850s brought wealth as well as new social tensions to Australia, including the miners' Eureka Stockade rebellion. The colonies established elected parliaments and rights for workers and women before most other Western nations.[54]


Australian English is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English is the country's de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population.

Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English.[55] Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, accent, pronunciation, register, grammar and spelling.

The earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation. The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.[56]

The native-born children of the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, and with it expressed mateship. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech.

A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain. Many, if not most, of the Irish convicts spoke either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands and Wales.

The most commonly spoken European languages other than English in Australia are Italian, Greek and German.


Another area of cultural influence are Australian Patriotic songs:


Kylie Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames including "Princess of Pop" and "Goddess of Pop". She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968. Her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales.[59]


The Sydney Opera House was formally opened on 20 October 1973, by Queen Elizabeth II.[60] After a gestation beginning with Utzon's 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition. The government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958 with Utzon directing construction. The government's decision to build Utzon's design is often overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect's ultimate resignation.[61]

Australia has three architectural listings on UNESCO's World Heritage list: Australian Convict Sites (comprising a collection of separate sites around Australia, including Hyde Park Barracks in Sydney, Port Arthur in Tasmania, and Fremantle Prison in Western Australia); the Sydney Opera House; and the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne. Contemporary Australian architecture includes a number of other iconic structures, including the Harbour Bridge in Sydney and Parliament House, Canberra. Significant architects who have worked in Australia include Governor Lachlan Macquarie's colonial architect, Francis Greenway; the ecclesiastical architect William Wardell; the designer of Canberra's layout, Walter Burley Griffin; the modernist Harry Seidler; and Jørn Utzon, designer of the Sydney Opera House. The National Trust of Australia is a non-governmental organisation charged with protecting Australia's built heritage.

European ancestry table

Ancestry1986% of Pop.2001% of Pop.2006% of Pop.2011% of Pop.Change 2006-2011
Albanian 11,313 13,142 0.1%
Armenian 15,789 16,723 0.1%
Australian 3,402,407 21.8% 6,739,594 35.9% 7,371,823 37.1% 7,098,486 33.0% -3.7%
Austrian 41,490 42,341 0.2%
Azerbaijani 294 0.0% 450 0.0%
Basque 541 0.0% 612 0.0%
Belarusian 1,560 0.0% 1,664 0.0%
Belgian 8,896 0.0% 10,022 0.0%
Bosnian 18,463 0.1% 20,247 0.1%
British 5,681 0.0% 6,262 0.0%
Bulgarian 4,898 0.0% 5,436 0.0%
Catalan 112 0.0% 171 0.0%
Channel Islander 1,160 0.0% 1,127 0.0%
Croatian 118,049 0.6% 126,270 0.6%
Cypriot 10,722 0.0% 22,680 0.1%
Czech 21,194 0.1% 22,772 0.1%
Danish 50,414 0.3% 54,026 0.3%
Dutch 310,082 335,493 1.6%
English[33] 6,607,228 42.4% 6,358,880 33.9% 6,283,647 31.6% 7,238,533 33.7%[39]-36.1%[62] +15.2%
Estonian 8,234 0.0% 8,551 0.0%
Finnish 20,987 0.1% 22,420 0.1%
French 98,333 110,399 0.5%
French Canadian 1,686 0.0% 1,836 0.0%
Georgian 383 0.0% 489 0.0%
German 811,543 898,674 4.2%
Gibraltarian 184 0.0% 177 0.0%
Greek 365,150 1.8% 378,270 1.8%
Hungarian 67,623 0.3% 69,160 0.3%
Icelandic 759 0.0% 929 0.0%
Irish 902,679 5.8% 1,919,727 10.2% 1,803,736 9.1% 2,087,758 9.7%[39]-10.4%[63] +15.7%
Italian 852,421 916,121 4.3%
Latvian 20,061 0.1% 20,124 0.1%
Lithuanian 13,275 0.1% 13,594 0.1%
Luxembourg 167 0.0% 212 0.0%
Macedonia 83,983 93,570 0.4%
Maltese 153,802 163,990 0.8%
Moldovan 231 0.0% 374 0.0%
Montenegrin 1,168 0.0% 1,554 0.0%
Norwegian 20,442 0.1% 23,037 0.1%
Polish 163,802 0.8% 170,354 0.8%
Portuguese 41,226 0.2% 46,519 0.2%
Romanian 18,325 0.1% 20,998 0.1%
Russian 67,056 74,317 0.3%
Scottish 740,522 4.7% 540,046 2.9% 1,501,200 7.6%[39][64] 1,792,622 8.3% +19.4%
Serbian 95,362 69,544 0.3%
Slovak 8,504 0.0% 10,053 0.0%
Slovene 16,085 0.1% 17,150 0.1%
Spanish 84,327 92,952 0.4%
Swedish 30,378 34,029 0.2%
Swiss 26,512 0.1% 28,947 0.1%
Turkish 59,397 66,919 0.3%
Ukrainian 37,584 0.2% 38,791 0.2%
Welsh no data no data 84,246 no data 113,244 0.6% 125,597 0.6% +10.9%
European 9,037 12,504 0.1%

Prime Ministers

As of 2018, there have been 29 Prime Ministers of Australia. The ancestors of all these prime ministers have all been European and Anglo-Celtic (English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Welsh, or Irish). Some ancestors of three Prime Minister's did not emigrate from Britain or Ireland: some of the ancestors of Chris Watson were German (his father was German Chilean), some of the ancestors of Malcolm Fraser were European Jews, and some of Tony Abbott's ancestors were Dutch migrants (one of his grandparents).

See also


  2. 1 2 Brewer, Marilynn B.; Karen Gonsalkorale; Andrea van Dommelen (2013). "Social identity complexity: Comparing majority and minority ethnic group members in a multicultural society" (PDF). Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. SAGE Publications. 16 (5): 529–544. doi:10.1177/1368430212468622. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 McEvoy, B. P.; et al. (2009). "Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations" (PDF). Genome Research. 19 (5): 805. doi:10.1101/gr.083394.108. ISSN 1088-9051. Retrieved 14 February 2017. Approximately 85% of current Australians are descendents of European settlers who began arriving in 1788.
  4. 1 2 "4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2014". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  5. "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  6. Babacan, Hurriyet (2010). "1. Immigration, Nation State and Belonging". In Alperhan Babacan. Migration, Belonging and the Nation State. Supriya Singh. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4438-2102-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  7. Glenn - The Census Expert (15 November 2012). "What's your ancestry?". Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  8. Grant, Don; Graham Seal (1994). Australia in the World: Perceptions and Possibilities : Papers from the "Outside Images of Australia" Conference, Perth, 1992. Black Swan Press, Curtin University of Technology. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-646-16487-8.
  9. Brown, Kerry (13 June 2013). "Oz's Reorientation". 24. Beijing Review. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  10. For example the UK New South Wales Judicature Act of 1823 made specific provision for administration of land in New Zealand, by the New South Wales Courts, stating: "And be it further enacted that the said supreme courts in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land respectively shall and may inquire of hear and determine all treasons, piracies, felonies, robberies, murders, sexual conspiracies and other offences of what nature or kind soever committed or that shall be committed upon the sea or in any haven river creek or place where the admiral or admirals have power authority or jurisdiction or committed or that shall be committed in the islands of New Zealand".
  11. Wesley, Michael (2000). "7. Nationalism and Globalization in Australia". In Leo Suryadinata. Nationalism and Globalization: East and West. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 176. ISBN 978-981-230-073-7. Retrieved 15 February 2017. The early European Australians were not only Protestant English and Welsh convicts, but also Scots and Catholic Irish...
  12. 1 2 Fritz, Clemens (2004). "From Plato to Aristotle—Investigating Early Australian English". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 24 (1): 57–97. doi:10.1080/0726860032000203218. ISSN 0726-8602.
  13. Asche, Wendy; Trigger, David (2011). "Native Title Research in Australian Anthropology". Anthropological Forum. 21 (3): 219–232. doi:10.1080/00664677.2011.617674. ISSN 0066-4677.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hugo, Graeme (8 March 2004). "A new paradigm of international migration: implications for migration policy and planning in Australia - Table 4: Europe-born persons in Australia, 1861–2001" (PDF). Research Paper, Information and Research Services, Parliamentary Library (10, 2003–04): 13. ISSN 1328-7478. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 "Population of Australia at the Censuses of 1891, 1901, 1911, and 1921, classified according to birthplace" (PDF). 26 May 1924. p. 51. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Composition: Changing links with Europe". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 19 June 1997. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Phillips, Janet; Klapdor, Michael (2010). "Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas‐born population since 1901". Migration to Australia since federation: a guide to the statistics (PDF) (Report). Parliamentary Library (Australia). Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  18. Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia. No. 57, 1971. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1971. p. 134. GGKEY:Q1NT5JJ981K. Retrieved 20 February 2017: Population: country of birth, by sex, Australia, censuses 1961 and 1966
  19. 1 2 Official Year Book of Australia (No. 60, 1974 ed.). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1975. p. 150. GGKEY:SSGHJXZCAX1. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  20. 1996 Census of Population and Housing Australia - Birthplace by region - Total 2,217,009
  21. OVERSEAS-BORN POPULATION: TOP 12 BIRTHPLACE GROUPS Australian Bureau of Statistics
  22. "The Top Sending Regions of Immigrants in Australia, Canada, and the United States". 2 August 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  23. "2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013 - Top 10 countries of birth for the overseas-born population". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  24. James, Alan (2012). New Britannia: The rise and decline of Anglo-Australia. Renewal Publications, University of Melbourne. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-300-54292-6. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  25. "Governor Bourke's 1835 Proclamation of Terra Nullius". Migration Heritage Centre of New South Wales. 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  26. Grey, Jeffrey (2008). "2. The Military and the Frontier, 1788–1901". A Military History of Australia (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–40. ISBN 978-1-139-46828-2. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  27. Harris, P. M. G. (2003). The History of Human Populations: Migration, urbanization, and structural change. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-275-97191-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  28. Mallett, Ashley Alexander (2002). The Black Lords of Summer: The Story of the 1868 Aboriginal Tour of England and Beyond. University of Queensland Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7022-3262-6.
  29. Leitner, Gerhard (2004). Australia's Many Voices: Australian English--the National Language. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-3-11-018194-4. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  31. Dixson, Miriam (1999). The Imaginary Australian: Anglo-Celts and Identity, 1788 to the Present. UNSW Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-86840-665-7.
  32. 1 2 "Australia today: Table 1.1 Ethnic Composition of the Australian People (per cent)". Department of Social Security, Settlement and Multicultural Affairs. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  33. 1 2 Khoo, Siew-Ean (2003). "7. A greater diversity of origins". In Siew-An Khoo; Peter McDonald. The Transformation of Australia's Population: 1970-2030. UNSW Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-86840-502-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  34. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics Census of the Commonwealth of Australia
  35. 1 2 3 4 Dutton, David (2002). One of Us?: A Century of Australian Citizenship. UNSW Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-86840-556-8. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  36. Kabir, Nahid (2013). Muslims In Australia. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-136-21506-3. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  37. 1 2 3 "4. AUSTRALIA.-MALES, FEMALES and PERSONS classified according to RACE: Censuses, 1921 to 1947" (PDF). Census of the Commonwealth of Australia 1947, Part XV - Race. 30 June 1947. p. 829. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  38. "Australia: Ethnic Groups". Britannica Online for Kids. 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  39. 1 2 3 4 The People of Australia: Statistics from the 2011 Census (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 2014. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-920996-23-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  40. 1 2 3 "No. I.-Population, by Race (a): Australia, Censuses, 1933 to 1966" (PDF). Census of Population and Housing 1966, Commonwealth of Australia. 30 June 1966. p. 11. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  41. 1 2 "Population, total | Data". Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  42. Census of Population and Housing 1971
  43. CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 30 JUNE 1976 COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA TAB8LE 7. POPULATION BY RACIAL ORIGIN (Page: 2) Total population of 13,548,448 - ethnic European population of 12,037,152
  44. 1 2 "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and the Census After the 1967 Referendum". 5 July 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  45. "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  46. Moran, Robert T.; Philip R. Harris; Sarah Moran (2007). Managing Cultural Differences. Routledge. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-136-38527-8. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  47. Kilbride, Philip L.; Noel J. Farley (2004). "Irish Diaspora". In Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  48. "Sir Henry Parkes (1815–1896)". Reserve Bank of Australia. 2001. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  49. Ward, Russel (1975). Australia: A Short History. Ure Smith. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-7254-0164-1.
  50. Molony, John Neylon (1987). "The Land Boys We Live In". The Penguin Bicentennial History of Australia: The Story of 200 Years. Viking. p. 47.
  51. Graeme Davison; Stuart Macintyre; John Bradley Hirst, eds. (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Oxford University Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-19-553597-6.
  52. "About Australia: Indigenous peoples: an overview". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
  53. How Anglicanism Shaped the Nation (PDF). Quadrant. 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  54. Geoffrey Blainey (2007) [2004]. A Very Short History of the World. Penguin Group Australia. ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  55. "History & accent change". Macquarie University, Department of Linguistics. 19 February 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  56. Moore, Bruce (2008). Speaking our Language: the Story of Australian English. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-19-556577-0.
  57. "Who'll Come A Waltzing Matilda With Me?". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  58. Senani Ponnamperuma. "Waltzing Matilda Australia's Favourite Song". Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  59. Smith, Sean (2014). Kylie. Simon and Schuster. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4711-3583-5.
  60. "Sydney Opera House history". Sydney Opera House Official Site. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  61. Tobias Faber "Jørn Utzon", Kunstindekx Danmark & Weilbachskunstnerleksikon. (in Danish) Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  62. "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries reported in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  63. "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  64. The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2006 Census(Page 50)
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.