Ethnic groups in Europe

The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.[1]

There is some precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality or ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.[2]


There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population:

  1. Russians (c. 99 million residing in Europe),[lower-alpha 1]
  2. Germans (c. 93 million),[lower-alpha 2]
  3. French (c. 75 million),[lower-alpha 3][lower-alpha 4]
  4. British (c. 66 million),[lower-alpha 5][3]
  5. Italians (c. 60 million),[4][lower-alpha 6]
  6. Ukrainians (38–55 million),[lower-alpha 7]
  7. Spanish (41–50 million),[lower-alpha 8]
  8. Polish (38–45 million).[lower-alpha 9]

Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include:

  1. Romanians (20–25 million),
  2. Dutch (15–25 millon)[lower-alpha 10],
  3. Turks (10–20 million in Europe),
  4. Portuguese (10–15 million),
  5. Swedes (10–15 million),
  6. Greeks (10–15 million),
  7. Serbs (c. 12 million),
  8. Czechs (c. 10 million),
  9. Hungarians (c. 10 million),

About 20–25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.

Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality, Spanish and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations.

Linguistic classifications

Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million (as of 2010), close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being;

Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language families;

In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European languages of Europe, including;

Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:


Prehistoric populations

The Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly.[5][6] The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe (Yamna culture, Corded ware, Beaker people).[7][8][9] The Finnic peoples are assumed to also be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago.[10]

Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.

Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.

Historical populations

Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus:

Historical immigration

Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:

History of European ethnography

The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical Antiquity. Herodotus described the Scythians and Thraco-Illyrians. Dicaearchus gave a description of Greece itself besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but was received by Polybius and others.

Roman Empire period authors include Diodorus Siculus, Strabo and Tacitus. Julius Caesar gives an account of the Celtic tribes of Gaul, while Tacitus describes the Germanic tribes of Magna Germania. A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and Sallust depicts the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.

The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana records the names of numerous peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of Late Antiquity such as Agathias of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes or Theophylact Simocatta give early accounts of the Slavs, the Franks, the Alamanni and the Goths.

Book IX of Isidore's Etymologiae (7th century) treats de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (of languages, peoples, realms, armies and cities). Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an account of the Bolghar and the Rus' peoples. William Rubruck, while most notable for his account of the Mongols, in his account of his journey to Asia also gives accounts of the Tatars and the Alans. Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen give an account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes.

Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 Synopsis Universae Philologiae published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts.[13][14] In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of Europe were grouped into a number of "races", Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic, all part of a larger "Caucasian" group.

The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism, and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.[15]

The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski who emphasized the importance of fieldwork.[16] The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques and Sami from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."[17][18][19]


The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.[1]

The member states of the Council of Europe in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France.

Non-indigenous minorities

Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish empires.

European identity


Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents, the descendants of Shem peopling Asia and those of Ham peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as "Japhetites" is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic".

In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period (as it was remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows,

The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus, with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus.
From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi, and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarincgi. The whole of Europe was subdivided into these tribes.[44]

The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations.

European culture

European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".[45] Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.[46] Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe.[47] One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:[48]

Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations".[50] The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon.[51] The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to Europe.


Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe used to be dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia. Also The Armenian Apostolic Church, part of the Oriental Church, is in Europe - another branch of Christianity (world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western Europe, also has a very significant following in Central Europe (especially among the Germanic, Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland (with some in Great Britain).

Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years.[52][53][54][55][56] Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture,[57] The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.[58][59] The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.[60]

Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians.[61][62] Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU's population.[63]

Islam has some tradition in the Balkans and the Caucasus due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries. Muslims account for the majority of the populations in Albania, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Northern Cyprus (controlled by Turks), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe. Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%),[64][64][64][65][64] while the total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).[66]

Judaism has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is composed primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the Balkans since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust and emigration (including Aliyah, as well as emigration to America) in the 20th century.

In modern times, significant secularization since the 20th century, notably in laicist France, Estonia and Czech Republic. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic and Estonia. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll[67] found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.

Pan-European identity

"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union as a result of the gradual process of European integration taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s.

From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.[68]

European ethnic groups by sovereign state

Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one[lower-alpha 11] sovereign state geographically situated in Europe.[lower-alpha 12] These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Armenia and Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium, or even the marginal majority in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority.

CountryMajority%Regional majoritiesMinorities[lower-alpha 13]
AlbaniaAlbanians82.58%[69]Greeks ~3%,[70][71] and other 2% (Aromanians, Romani, Bulgarians, Macedonians and Serbo-Montenegrins).[72]
ArmeniaArmenians98.1%Yazidis 1.2%, Russians 0.4% and others 0.3%.[73][74]
AustriaAustrians - Germans85%ex-Yugoslavs 5.2%, Turks 2.2, Hungarians 1% and others or unspecified 6.6%.[75]
Azerbaijan[lower-alpha 14]Azerbaijanis91.6%Lezgins 2%Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars, Ukrainians and Poles.
BelarusBelarusians83.7%Russians 8.3%, Poles 3.1%, Ukrainians 1.7% and other 3.2%. (2009 census)
BelgiumFlemings58%Walloons 31%, Germans 1%mixed or others (i.e. Luxembourgers, Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans and Asians and Latin Americans) 10%.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosniaks50.11%Serbs 30.78%, Croats 15.43%others 2.73%. (2013)
BulgariaBulgarians84.8%Turks 8.8%Roma 4.9%, others 1.5% (including Russian, Armenian, Tatars and Vlach). (2011 census)[76]
CroatiaCroats90.4%Serbs 4.4%, others 5.2% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs, Dalmatian Italians, Austrian-Germans, Romanians and Romani). (2011 census)
Czech RepublicCzechs63.7%Moravians 4.9%Slovaks 1.4% and others/undeclared 26%. (2011 census)
DenmarkDanes88.7%[77]Faroeseother Scandinavian, Germans, Frisians, other European, Greenlandic Inuit and others.
EstoniaEstonians68.7%Russians 24.9%Ukrainians 1.8%, Belarusians 0.9%, Finns 0.6% and others 3.6%.[78]
FinlandFinns89%Swedes 5.3%Russians 1.3% and Estonians 0.8%.
FranceFrench86%[79](includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like Bretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Arpitans, Basques, Catalans and Flemings).other European 7%, North African 7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander.[80] French with recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.[81][82]
GermanyGermans80.8% [83]other Europeans 11.7, West Asians, Turks 3.4%, Arabs, other Asians 1.3%, Africans 0.6% and Americans 0.5%.
GreeceGreeks88.7-89.8-%Officially recognized minorities (Muslim minority, Armenians and Jews) 1.1%Albanians 4%, Romani 1.5-2.3%, Aromanians 1.8%, Macedonians/Bulgarians 0.9-1.8%% and Arvanites 0.9%.[84]
HungaryHungarians85.6%Romani 3.2%, Germans 1.9%, others (i.e. Romanians, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Slovenes and Ruthenians) or not started 14.1%. (2011 census)
IcelandIcelanders91%Poles 4% and others 5%.[85]
IrelandIrish82.2%other white (large numbers of Latvians, Poles and Ukrainians) 9.5%, Asians 2.1%, blacks 1.2%, Irish Travellers 0.7% and others/not started 4.3%.[86]
ItalyItalians92.8%Five Autonomous Regions with regional majorities: Aosta Valley French, Friulians, Germans of South Tirol, Sardinians, Sicilians North Africans 1%, Romanians 1%, Asians (non-Chinese) 0.8%, Albanians 0.8%, Sub-Saharan Africans 0.5%, Latin Americans 0.5%, Chinese 0.3%, Ukrainians 0.3% and others 1%.[87]Arbëreshë, Italiot Greeks, Catalans, Occitans, Ladins, Croats
KazakhstanKazakhs66.4%Russians 20.6%others 13%.[88]
Kosovo[lower-alpha 15]Albanians92.9%Serbs 1.5%others 5.6% (Bosniaks, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Turks, Gorani and Romani).
LatviaLatvians62%[89]Russians 25.4%Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.1%, Lithuanians 1.1% and others/unspecified 4.8%.
LithuaniaLithuanians86.7%Poles 5.6%, Russians 4.8%, Belarusians 1.3%, Ukrainians 0.7% and others 0.9%.[90]
MacedoniaMacedonians64%Albanians 25.2%, Turks 4%Romani 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e. Bosniaks, Aromanians, Croats, Montenegrins and Bulgarians) 2.2%. (2002 census)
MaltaMaltese95.2%[91]non-Maltese 4.8%.
MoldovaMoldovans[lower-alpha 16]75.1%Gagauzs 4.6%, Bulgarians 1.9%Romanians[lower-alpha 16] 7%, Ukrainians 6.6%, Russians 4.1%, and others 0.8%. (2014 census).
MontenegroMontenegrins 45%, Serbs 28.7%Bosniaks and Muslims by nationality 11.9%, Albanians 4.9%, Croats 0.9%, Romani 0.8%, Macedonians 0.1%) and others 4.9%. (2011 census)
NetherlandsDutch77.4%other Europeans 9.9%, Turks 2.3%, Moroccans 2.3%, Indonesians 2.1%, Surinamese 2%, Caribbeans 0.9%, Americans 0.2% and others 2.9%. [92]
NorwayNorwegians[lower-alpha 17]85–87%Sami[lower-alpha 18] 1.2–2.5%Poles 1.4%. A variety of other ethnicities with background from 219 countries that together make up approximately 12% (Swedes, Pakistanis, Somalis, Iraqis and Kurds, Vietnamese, Germans, Lithuanians, Russians and Indians). (2012)[93]
PolandPoles98%others or not started 2%. [94][95][96]
PortugalPortuguese96.3%others 3.7%.
RomaniaRomanians83.4%Hungarians 6.1%Romani 3.0%, Germans 0.2%, Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians 0.1% (2011 census)
Russia[lower-alpha 14]Russians80.9%Tatars 3.9%, Chuvash 1%, Chechens 1%, Ossetians 0.4%, Kabardians 0.4%, Ingush 0.3%, Kalmyks 0.1%Ukrainians 1.4%, Bashkirs 1.2%, Armenians 0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and others. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes unspecified people (3.9% of population))[97][98]
Serbia[lower-alpha 19]Serbs83.3%Hungarians 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniaks and Muslims by nationality 2.3%, Croats 0.8%, Slovaks 0.7%, Montenegrins 0.5%, Vlachs 0.5%, Romanians 0.4%, Yugoslavs 0.3%, Macedonians 0.3%, Bulgarians 0.3% and others/unspecified 5.1%. (2011 census)
SlovakiaSlovaks80.7%Hungarians 8.5%Romani 2.0%, Czechs 0.6%, Rusyns 0.6%, Ukrainians 0.1% and others/unspecified 7.5%. (2011 census)
SloveniaSlovenes83.1%Serbs 2%, Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, others (Dalmatian Italians, Germans, Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12%. (2002 census)
SpainSpaniards89%Various nationalities and sub-ethnicities, including Castilians and Leonese, Catalans/Valencians, Galicians, Asturians, BasquesGypsies, Jews, Latin Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, Filipinos, Levant Arabs, British expatriates and others.
SwedenSwedes88%Finns (Tornedalians), Sami peopleforeign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns (Sweden Finns), Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians, Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks, Turks, Iranians, Iraqis, Pakistanis, Thais, Koreans and Chileans.[99][100]
SwitzerlandGerman-speakers63%French-speakers 22,7%, Italian-speakers 8.4% and Romansh people 0.6 (see Romansh language).others 5.9%.
Turkey[lower-alpha 14]Turks73%Kurds 12%others 15%: Zazas, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians and Romanians.[101]
UkraineUkrainians77.8%Russians 17.3%Belarusians 0.6%, Moldovans[lower-alpha 20] 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians[lower-alpha 20] 0.3%, Poles 0.3%, Jews 0.2%, Armenians 0.1%, Urums 0.1% and others 1.8%. (2001 census)
United KingdomWhite[lower-alpha 21] British87.1%[lower-alpha 22](consisting of English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish), also Cornish, Manx and Channel Islanders). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar.Black British 3%, British Asians 6.9% and others 3%.

See also


  1. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for Europe and Asia taken together. 
  2. Germans in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for all German-speaking groups.
  3. Including french citizens in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, UK and Italy.
  4. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking groups, excluding the Occitans. Recensement officiel de l'Insee give 65 million, to which the following French-speaking people must be added: 40% of the 11 million Belgians and 22.7% of the 8 million Swiss. 2 million regional languages speakers could be deducted, chiefly Alsatian (0.9 million), Occitan (0.8 million), Breton (0.2 million), Basque, Flemish and Catalan repreenting together less than 0.2 million speakers.
  5. Also known as Britons (Includes English, Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million British people in the United Kingdom and ca. 2 million British people resident in other countries in Europe.)
  6. Also Italian people in France, Germany, UK, Spain, Switzerland and other countries.
  7. Also Ukrainians in Russia, Poland and Belarus
  8. Also known as Spaniards (includes Catalans, Basques and Galicians). Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding Catalans-Valencians-Balearics, Basques and Galicians population of 10 million, together about 41 million
  9. Polish diaspora, about 4.5 million Poles living in western Europe and about 1.5 million in eastern Europe.
  10. including the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Flanders
  11. Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the Romanians (in Romania and Moldova), and the Albanians (in Albania and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo). Also to note is that Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch. Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians, Czechs/Slovaks and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.
  12. Including the European portions of Russia, not including Turkey, Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.
  13. Percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
  14. 1 2 3 Transcontinental country, see boundaries of Europe.
  15. partially recognized state, see international recognition of Kosovo.
  16. 1 2 There is an ongoing controversy in Moldova over whether Moldovans' self-identification constitute a subgroup of Romanians or a separate ethnic group.
  17. There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one parent who is born in Norway.
  18. In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami. Therefore, exact numbers are not possible.
  19. Excluding Kosovo
  20. 1 2 Moldovans and Romanians were separately counted.
  21. Ethnicity group introduced with the ten-year United Kingdom census of 2011 by the Office for National Statistics, a non-ministerial department since 1 April 2008
  22. Since 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could identify themselves as White Irish or White British though no separate White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White British. In the census of Northern Ireland, White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.


  1. 1 2 Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen, Braumüller, ISBN 3700314221 (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) ISBN 3211353070. Archived December 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx.
  3. "Population by Country of Birth and Nationality 2013: Table 2.1". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  4. "15° Censimento generale della popolazione e delle abitazioni" (PDF) (in Italian). ISTAT. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  5. see e.g. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi:10.1073/pnas.071036898 PNAS 24 April 2001 Vol. 98 No. 9 5078–5083.
  6. Günther, Torsten; et al. (2015). "Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (38): 11917–11922. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11211917G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509851112. PMC 4586848. PMID 26351665. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  7. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Haak et al, 2015
  8. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, Allentoft et al, 2015
  9. Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, Mathieson et al, 2015
  10. Richard, Lewis (2005). Finland, Cultural Lone Wolf. Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-18-5. Niskanen, Markku (2002). "The Origin of the Baltic-Finns" (PDF). The Mankind Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-06. Laitinen, Virpi; Päivi Lahermo (August 24, 2001). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers" (PDF). Department of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  11.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Almoravides". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 717–718.
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