Eponymous archon

In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn). Archon (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord," frequently used as the title of a specific public office,[1] while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.

In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon, the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler"), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler").[2][3] The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.


The archon was the chief magistrate in many Greek cities, but in Athens there was a council of archons which exerted a form of executive government. From the late 8th century BC there were three archons: the archon eponymos, the polemarchos (originally with a military role, which was transferred to the ten strategoi in 501 BC), and the archon basileus (the ceremonial vestige of the Athenian monarchy).[4] These positions were filled from the aristocracy (the Eupatridae) by elections every ten years. During this period Archon Eponymous was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.

After 508 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the archon eponymous. The year ran from July to June.[5] The archon eponymous was the chief archon, and presided over meetings of the Boule and Ecclesia, the ancient Athenian assemblies. The archon eponymous remained the titular head of state even under the democracy, though with much reduced political importance. Under the reforms of Solon, himself archon eponymous in 594 BC, there was a brief period when the number of archons rose to ten. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically.

One of the archons oversaw the procedure for ostracism after 487 BC.[6] An archon's court was in charge of the epikleroi.[7] Other duties of the archons included supervising the Panathenaea and Dionysia festivals.[8]

List of archons of Athens

In the following list of Archons, years where the name of the archon is unknown are identified as such. Years listed as "anarchy" mean that there was literally "no archon". There are various conflicting reconstructions of lists; sources for this list are given at the end. Note that the term of an archon covered two of our years, beginning in the spring or summer and continuing into the next spring or summer. The polemarch or strategoi, basileus, and thesmothetai (the six assistants to the archons) are also listed, where known.

Archaic period

Life archons

The later Athenian tradition varies on the exact position of this line; they held archonship for life, sometimes referred to as "Perpetual Archon," and exercised the sacral powers of kingship, as did the archon basileus later. The historicity of any of this ancient list may be reasonably doubted. Aristotle indicates that Medon and Acastus may have ruled as king rather than Archon.[9]

YearArchonOther notable information
1068–1048 BCMedon (Μέδων)[10]First ruler of Attica after the Greek Dark Ages.
1048–1012 BCAcastus (Ἄκαστος)[11][12]Troy VIIb2 destroyed (c. 1120 BC).
1012–993 BCArchippus[13]
993–952 BCThersippus[14]
952–922 BCPhorbas (Φόρβας)Troy VIIb3: deserted (c. 950 BC)
922–892 BCMegacles (Μεγακλῆς)
892–864 BCDiognetus
864–845 BCPherecles[15]Homer composes the Iliad[16] and Odyssey. (c. 850 BC)[17]
845–825 BCAriphron
824–797 BCThespieus (Θεσπιεύς)
796–778 BCAgamestor[18]
778–755 BCAeschylus (Αἰσχύλος)First Olympiad[19][20] (776 BC)
755–753 BCAlcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων)

Decennial archons

In 753 BC the perpetual archonship by the Eupatridae[21] was limited to 10 years (the "decennial archons"):[22]

YearArchonOther notable information
753–743 BCCharops[23][24]In Rome, Romulus, the first ruler of the city, takes power.[25]
743–733 BCAesimides[26]In Messenia, First Messenian War begins.
733–723 BCClidicus[27]Diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. (724 BC)
723–713 BCHippomenes[28]
713–703 BCLeocrates
703–693 BCApsander[29]Hesiod writes "Theogony" (c. 700 BC).
693–683 BCEryxiasBoxing added to the Olympics. (688 BC)[30] Chalcedon colony founded (685 BC).

Annual archons

After 683 BC the archonship was limited to one year. Archons resided in the Prytaneum.

YearEponymous Archon[31]Other officials or associated events
682–681 BCCreonCreon is considered by the ancient sources, and most modern authorities, as the first annual archon.[32]
681–680 BCLysiadesMentioned in the Parian Marble.
680–679 BCTlesiasPausanias (IV.15.1) dates the beginning of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
679–671 BCUnknown
671–670 BCLeostratus
670–669 BCUnknown
669–668 BCPisistratusPausanias (II.24.7) dates the first Battle of Hysiae to his archonship.
668–667 BCAutosthenesPausanias (IV.23.4) dates the capture of Eira and the end of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
667–664 BCUnknown
664–663 BCMiltiades[33]
663–659 BCUnknown
659–658 BCMiltiades[33]
658–645 BCUnknownPausanias (VIII.39.3) dates the capture of Phigalia by the Spartans to his archonship.
645–644 BCDropidesThe Parian Marble associates Dropides with the floruit of Terpander the Lesbian, who developed the music of the lyre.
644–639 BCUnknown
639–638 BCDamasiasThales was born
638–634 BCUnknown
634–633 BCEpaenetus (?)[34]
633–632 BCUnknown
632–631 BCMegaclesCylon attempts to become tyrant
631–624 BCUnknown
624–623 BCAristaechmusAccording to the Athenian Constitution, Dracon reformed the laws of Athens during the archonship of Aristaechmus.
623–621 BCUnknown


YearEponymous ArchonOther officials or associated events
621–615 BCUnknown
615–614 BCHeniochides
614–605 BCUnknown
605–604 BCAristoclesThe Parian Marble associates the archonship of Aristocles with Alyattes becoming king of Lydia.
604–600 BCUnknown
600–599 BCCritiasThe Parian Marble dates the flight of Sappho from Lesbos to Sicily in the archonship of Critias.
599–597 BCUnknown
597–596 BCCypselus[35]
596–595 BCTelecles[35]
595–594 BCPhilombrotus[35]First Sacred War begins.
594–593 BCSolonSolon reforms Draco's code.
593–592 BCDropides
592–591 BCEucrates
591–590 BCSimon
590–589 BCanarchy
589–588 BCPhormion
588–587 BCPhilippus
587–586 BCUnknown
586–585 BCanarchy
585–582 BCUnknownPythian Games reorganised at Delphi.
582–581 BCDamasiasAccording to the Athenian Constitution, Damasias held the archonship for two years and nine months before being expelled.
581–580 BCDamasiasDemetrios of Phaleron states that it was during the archonship of Damasias that "Thales was first called wise".
580–579 BCanarchyCommittee of 10 men serves jointly as archons[36]
579–578 BCanarchy
578–577 BCUnknown
577–576 BCArchestratidas
576–570 BCUnknown
570–569 BCAristomenes
569–566 BCUnknown
566–565 BCHippocleides
565–561 BCUnknown
561–560 BCKomeasThe Athenian Constitution dates the usurpation of Pisistratus as tyrant of Athens to the archonship of Komeas.
560–559 BCHegestratusPhaenias of Eresus dates the death of Solon to the archonship of Hegestratus.
559–556 BCUnknown
556–555 BCHegesiasThe Athenian Constitution dates the first expulsion of Peisistratos to the archonship of Hegesias.
555–554 BCEuthidemus
554–548 BCUnknown
548–547 BCErxicleidesPausanias (X.5.13) dates the destruction by fire of the fourth temple of Delphi to his archonship.
547–546 BCThespius[35]Pisistratus becomes tyrant again
546–545 BCPhormion[35]
545–536 BCUnknown
536-535 BC[...]naiosThe Parian Marble dates the first performance of Thespis to the tenure of this archon, whose name is damaged.
535–533 BCUnknown
533–532 BCThericles
532–528 BCUnknown
528–527 BCPhiloneusAccording to the Athenian Constitution, Philoneus was archon when Pisistratus died and his sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded him as tyrants
527–526 BCOnetor[37]
526–525 BCHippias
525–524 BCCleisthenes[38]Cleisthenes later made reforms, in 508 BC.[39]
524–523 BCMiltiadesCadoux is uncertain whether this is Miltiades son of Kypselos, or Miltiades son of Cimon.[40]
523–522 BCCalliades
522–521 BCPisistratusPossibly the son of Hippias, archon of 526/5.[41]
521–518 BCUnknown
518–517 BCHebron (?)[42]
517–511 BCUnknown
511–510 BCHarpactidesThe Parian Marble dates the assassination of Hipparchus and the expulsion of the Peistratids from Athens to Harpactides' archonship.
510–509 BCScamandrius
509–508 BCLysagoras
508–507 BCIsagorasCleisthenes competes with Isagoras for archonship, but is expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta
507–506 BCAlcmeon
506–504 BCUnknown
504–503 BCAcestorides
503–501 BCUnknown
501–500 BCHermocreon
500–499 BCSmyrus (?)[43]
499–497 BCUnknown
497–496 BCArchias[44]
496–495 BCHipparchus
495–494 BCPhilippus
494–493 BCPythocritus
493–492 BCThemistocles
492–491 BCDiognetus
491–490 BCHybrilides
490–489 BCPhaenippusThe Parian Marble, Plutarch, and the Athenian Constitution all date the Battle of Marathon to the archonship of Phaenippus.
489–488 BCAristides the Just
488–487 BCAnchises
487–486 BCTelesinus[45]The Athenian Constitution dates the ostracism of Megacles to the archonship of Telesinus.
486–485 BCUnknown
485–484 BCPhilocrates
484–483 BCLeostratus
483–482 BCNicodemus
482–481 BCUnknown
481–480 BCHypsichidesAccording to the Athenian Constitution, Hypsichides was archon when the ostracized of Athens were recalled.[46]

Classical period

YearEponymous ArchonOther officials or notable events
480–479 BCCalliades[47]According to Diodorus Siculus, the Second Persian invasion of Greece began during Calliades' archonship.[48] Aristides and Themistocles are strategoi.
479–478 BCXanthippusBattle of Plataea; Aristides is strategos
478–477 BCTimosthenesDelian League founded.
477–476 BCAdimantus
476–475 BCPhaedon
475–474 BCDromoclides
474–473 BCAcestorides
473–472 BCMenon
472–471 BCChares
471–470 BCPraxiergus
470–469 BCDemotion
469–468 BCApsephion
468–467 BCTheagenides
467–466 BCLysistratus
466–465 BCLysanias
465–464 BCLysitheusSophanes is a strategos
464–463 BCArchedemides
463–462 BCTlepolemusCimon is a strategos
462–461 BCCononAccording to the Athenian Constitution (ch. 25), Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus, and is assassinated
461–460 BCEuthippusAlso spelled Euippos.[49]
460–459 BCPhrasicles
459–458 BCPhiloclesPhrynicus, Dicaeogenes and Hippodamas are strategoi.
458–457 BCHabronSo Diodorus Siculus (11.79); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Bion.[50]
457–456 BCMnesitheides
456–455 BCCallias
455–454 BCSosistratus
454–453 BCAriston
453–452 BCLysicrates
452–451 BCChaerephanes
451–450 BCAntidotusAnaxicrates and Cimon are strategoi
450–449 BCEuthydemus
449–448 BCPedieusSecond Sacred War begins.
448–447 BCPhiliscusPericles, Tolmides and Epiteles are strategoi; Peace of Callias ends the Greco-Persian Wars
447–446 BCTimarchidesConstruction of the Parthenon begins.
446–445 BCCallimachus
445–444 BCLysimachidesPeace between Athens and Sparta. Age of Pericles begins.
444–443 BCPraxitelesPericles is a strategos
443–442 BCLysaniasPericles is a strategos
442–441 BCDiphilusPericles is a strategos
441–440 BCTimoclesPericles and Glaucon are strategoi[51][52]
440–439 BCMorychidesPericles is a strategos
439–438 BCGlaucinusAlso spelled Glaucidus. Pericles is a strategos
438–437 BCTheodorusPericles is a strategos
437–436 BCEuthymenesPericles is a strategos. Construction of the Propylaea begins
436–435 BCLysimachusSo Diodorus Siculus (12.33); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Nausimachos.[50] Pericles is a strategos
435–434 BCAntiochidesAlso spelled Antilochidos. Pericles is a strategos
434–433 BCCratesAlso spelled Chares. Pericles is a strategos
433–432 BCApseudesPericles, Lacedaemonius, Diotimus, and Proteas are strategoi
432–431 BCPythodorusThucydides dates the beginning of the Peloponnesian War to the tenure of this archon.[53]
Pericles and Callias are strategoi.
431–430 BCEuthydemusAlso spelled Euthydemos. Pericles is a strategos.
430–429 BCApollodorusPericles dies; Xenophon, Hestiodorus, Calliades, Melesandrus, and Phanomachus are strategoi.
429–428 BCEpameinonPhormio is a strategos.
428–427 BCDiotimusDemosthenes, Asopius, Paches, Cleidippes, and Lysicles are strategoi
427–426 BCEuclesAlso spelled Eucleides. Nicias, Charoiades and Procles are strategoi
426–425 BCEuthynosAlso spelled Euthydemos. Laches and Hippocrates are strategoi
425–424 BCStratoclesNicias, Eurymedon, Pythodorus, and Sophocles are strategoi
424–423 BCIsarchusDemosthenes, Cleon, Thucydides and Hippocrates are strategoi
423–422 BCAmyniasAlso spelled Ameinias. Cleon is a strategos
422–421 BCAlcaeusCleon is a strategos
421–420 BCAristionConstruction of the Erechtheion begins.
420–419 BCAstyphilusAlcibiades is strategos
419–418 BCArchias
418–417 BCAntiphonLaches and Nicostratus are strategoi[54]
417–416 BCEuphemus
416–415 BCArimnestusNicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus are strategoi
415–414 BCChariasAlso spelled Chabrias. Alcibiades is a strategos
414–413 BCTisandrusLamachus is a strategos
413–412 BCCleocritusEurymedon, Demosthenes, and Nicias are strategoi
412–411 BCCallias Scambonides
411–410 BCMnasilochus (died); TheopompusSimichus and Aristarchus are strategoi
410–409 BCGlaucippus
409–408 BCDioclesAnytus is a strategos
408–407 BCEuctemon
407–406 BCAntigenesAlcibiades, Adeimantus, and Aristocrates are strategoi
406–405 BCCallias AngelidesArchestratus, Thrasylus, Pericles, Lysias, Diomedon, Aristocrates, Erasinides, Protomachus, and Aristogenes are strategoi
405–404 BCAlexiasAdeimantus, Eucrates, Philocles, Menandrus, Tydeus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
404–403 BCPythodorusSparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants; Pythodorus not recognized as Eponymous Archon
403–402 BCEucleides[55]Thirty Tyrants expelled, democracy reestablished. Old Attic alphabet was officially abolished in favor of the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four letters.
402–401 BCMiconAlso spelled Micion.
401–400 BCXenaenetusAlso spelled Exaenetus.
400–399 BCLaches
399–398 BCAristocrates
398–397 BCEuthyclesAlso spelled Ithycles.
397–396 BCSouniades
396–395 BCPhormion
395–394 BCDiophantus
394–393 BCEubulides
393–392 BCDemostratosAdeimantus is a strategos
392–391 BCPhilocles
391–390 BCNicoteles
390–389 BCDemostratusThrasybulus and Ergocles are strategoi
389–388 BCAntipatrusAgyrrhius and Pamphilus are strategoi
388–387 BCPyrgionThrasybulus and Dionysius are strategoi
387–386 BCTheodotus
386–385 BCMystichides
385–384 BCDexitheus
384–383 BCDieitrephesAlso spelled Diotrephes
383–382 BCPhanostratus
382–381 BCEuandrus
381–380 BCDemophilus
380–379 BCPytheas
379–378 BCNicon
378–377 BCNausinicus
377–376 BCCalleasAlso spelled Callias.
376–375 BCCharisandrusCedon is a strategos.
375–374 BCHippodamas
374–373 BCSocratides
373–372 BCAsteiusIphicrates, Callistratus, Chabrias, and Timotheus are strategoi
372–371 BCAlcisthenes
371–370 BCPhrasicleides
370–369 BCDyscinitus
369–368 BCLysistratus
368–367 BCNausigenes
367–366 BCPolyzelus
366–365 BCCiphisodorusChabrias is a strategos
365–364 BCChionIphicrates is a strategos
364–363 BCTimocrates
363–362 BCCharicleidesErgophilus and Callisthenes are strategoi
362–361 BCMolonLeosthenes and Autocles are strategoi.
361–360 BCNicophemusTimomachus is a strategos
360–359 BCCallimidesMenon, Timotheus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
359–358 BCEucharistus
358–357 BCCephisodotus
357–356 BCAgathoclesChabrias is a strategos.
356–355 BCElpinesIphicrates, Timotheus, and Menestheus are strategoi.
355–354 BCCallistratus
354–353 BCDiotemus
353–352 BCThudemus
352–351 BCAristodemus
351–350 BCTheellusTheogenes is Basileus (possibly)
350–349 BCApollodorus
349–348 BCCallimachusHegesileus is a strategos
348–347 BCTheophilus
347–346 BCThemistocles[56]Proxenus is a strategos
346–345 BCArchias
345–344 BCEubulus
344–343 BCLyciscusPhocion is a strategos.
343–342 BCPythodotus
342–341 BCSosigenes
341–340 BCNicomachus
340–339 BCTheophrastusPhocion is a strategos
339–338 BCLysimachidesPhocion is a strategos, and is defeated by Philip II of Macedon
338–337 BCChaerondasLysicles is a strategos
337–336 BCPhrynichus
336–335 BCPythodelosAlso spelled Pythodoros.
335–334 BCEuaenetus
334–333 BCCtesicles
333–332 BCNicocrates
332–331 BCNicetesAlso spelled Niceratos
331–330 BCAristophanes
330–329 BCAristophon
329–328 BCCephisophon
328–327 BCEuthicritus
327–326 BCHegemon
326–325 BCChremes
325–324 BCAnticlesPhilocles is a strategos
324–323 BCHegesiasAlso spelled Agesias
323–322 BCCephisodorusAlso spelled Cephisophon. Phocion and Leosthenes are strategoi. Battle of Amorgos signals the end of Athenian sea power.
322–321 BCPhiloclesEnd of the Lamian War. Restriction of voting rights and installation of a Macedonian garrison in the Piraeus.

Hellenistic period

YearEponymous ArchonOther officials or notable events
321–320 BCArchippus
320–319 BCNeaechmus
319–318 BCApollodorus
318–317 BCArchippus
317–316 BCDemogenesDemetrius Phalereus installed by the Macedonian regent Cassander as Governor.
316–315 BCDemocleides
315–314 BCPraxibulus
314–313 BCNikodorus
313–312 BCTheophrastusSo Diodorus Siculus (19.73); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Theodorus.[57]
312–311 BCPolemonSeleucid Empire begins.
311–310 BCSimonides
310–309 BCHieromnemon
309–308 BCDemetrius
308–307 BCCaerimusAlso spelled Charinus.
307–306 BCAnaxicratesDemetrius Phalereus is expelled when Demetrius I Poliorcetes captures the city from Cassander.
306–305 BCCoroebusAntigonid dynasty begins.
305–304 BCEuxenippus
304–303 BCPherecles
303–302 BCLeostratus
302–301 BCNicocles
301–300 BCClearchus
300–299 BCHegemachus[58]
299–298 BCEuctemon
298–297 BCMnesidemus
297–296 BCAntiphates
296–295 BCNicias
295–294 BCNicostratus
294–293 BCOlympiodorus
293–292 BCOlympiodorus
292–291 BCPhilippus
291–290 BCCharinus (?)[59]
290–289 BCAmbrosius (?)[59]
289–288 BCAriston (?)[59]
288–287 BCCimon
287–286 BCXenophon
286–285 BCDiocles
285–284 BCDiotimus
284–283 BCIsaeus
283–282 BCEuthius
282–281 BCNiciasAttalid dynasty begins.
281–280 BCOurias
280–279 BCTelecles[60]
279–278 BCAnaxicrates
278–277 BCDemocles
277–276 BCAristonymus
276–275 BCPhilocrates
275–274 BCOlbius
274–273 BCEubulus
273–272 BCGlaucippus
272–271 BCLysitheides
271–270 BCPytharatus[61]
270–269 BCSosistratus
269–268 BCPeithidemusBeginning of the Chremonidean War; Athens declares war on Macedon, ruled by Antigonus Gonatas.
268–267 BCDiogeiton
267–266 BCMenecles
266–265 BCNicias (Otryneus)
265–264 BCEubulus
264–263 BCDiognetusDiognetus is the latest archon mentioned in the Parian Chronicle, therefore that inscription was made during his tenure.
263–262 BCAntipatrusAthens surrenders to Antigonus Gonatas in the archonship of Antipatros.[62]
262–261 BCArrheneidesAntigonus Gonatas imposes a new regime on Athens.[62]
261–260 BC[...]sinus[63]
260–259 BCPhilostratus
259–258 BCPhilinus
258–257 BCAntiphon
257–256 BCThymochares
256–255 BCAntimachus
255–254 BCCleomachus
254–253 BCPhanostratus
253–252 BCPheidostratus
252–251 BCCallimedes
251–250 BCThersilochus
250–249 BCPolyeuctus
249–248 BCHieron
248–247 BCDiomedon
247–246 BCTheophemus
246–245 BCPhiloneos
245–244 BCCydenor
244–243 BCLysiades
243–242 BCEurycleides
242–241 BCPhanomachus
241–240 BCLyceus
240–239 BCPolystratus
239–238 BCAthendorus
238–237 BCLysias
237–236 BCAlkibiades
236–235 BCCimon
235–234 BCEcphantus
234–233 BCLysanias
233–232 BCUnknown
232–231 BCMneseides (?)
231–230 BCJason (?)
230–228 BCUnknown
228–227 BCHeliodorus
227–226 BCLeochares[64]
226–225 BCTheophilus
225–224 BCErgochares
224–223 BCNicetes
223–222 BCAntiphilus[65]
222–221 BCEuxenus
221–220 BCUnknown
220–219 BCThrasyphon[66]
219–218 BCMenecrates
218–217 BCChaerephon
217–216 BCCallimachus
216–215 BCUnknown
215–214 BCHagnias
214–213 BCDioclesFirst Macedonian War begins. (214 BC)
213–212 BCEuphiletus
212–211 BCHeracleitus
211–210 BCArchelaus
210–209 BCAeschron[67]
209–208 BCUnknown[68]
208–207 BCUnknown
207–206 BCCallistratus
206–205 BCPantiades
205–204 BCDiodotus
204–203 BCApollodorus
203–202 BCProxenides
202–201 BCDionysius
201–200 BCIsocrates[69]
200–199 BCNicophon
199–198 BC[...]ppus
198–197 BCUnknown
197–196 BCAncylus
196–195 BCPleistaenus[70]
195–194 BCUnknown
194-193 BCDionysius
193–192 BCPhanarchides
192–191 BCDiodotus
191–190 BCTimouchus
190–189 BCDemetrius
189–188 BCEuthycritus
188–187 BCSymmachus
187–186 BCTheoxenus
186–185 BCZopyrus
185–184 BCEupolemus
184–183 BCCharicles[70]
183–182 BCHermogenes
182–181 BCTimesianax
181–180 BCHippias
180–179 BCDionysius
179–178 BCMenedemus
178–177 BCPhilon
177–176 BC[...]ppus
176–175 BCHippacus
175–174 BCSonicus
174–173 BCAlexander
173–172 BCAlexis
172–171 BCSosigenes
171–170 BCAntigenes
170–169 BCAphrodisius
169–168 BCEunicus
168–167 BCXenocles
167–166 BCNicosthenes
166–165 BCAchaeus (?)[71]
165–164 BCPelops
164–163 BCEuergetes
163–162 BCErastus
162–161 BCPoseidonius
161–160 BCAristolas
160–159 BCTychandrus
159–158 BCAristaemus[72]
158–157 BCAristaechmus
157–156 BCAnthesterius
156–155 BCCallistratus
155–154 BCMnestheus
154–153 BCUnknown
153–152 BCPhaidrias
152–151 BCAndreas (?)[73]
151–150 BCZeleucus (?)[73]
150–149 BCSpeusippos (?)[73]Fourth Macedonian War begins (150 BC).
149–148 BCLysiades (?)[73]
148–147 BCArchon
147–146 BCEpicratesRome takes control of Greece

Roman period

YearEponymous ArchonOther officials or notable events
146–145 BCAristophantus (?)[72][73]
145–144 BCMetrophanes (?)[73]
144–143 BCTheaetetus
143–142 BCAristophon
142–141 BCMicion (?)[73]
141–140 BC[Dionysius]
140–139 BCHagnotheus
139–138 BCDiocles[74]
138–137 BCTimarchus
137–136 BCHeracleitus
136–135 BCTimarchides
135–134 BCDionysius
134–133 BCNicomachus
133–132 BCXenon
132–131 BCErgocles
131–130 BCEpicles
130–129 BCDemostratus
129–128 BCLyciscus
128–127 BCDionysius
127–126 BCTheodorides
126–125 BCDiotimus
125–124 BCJason
124–123 BCNicias (died); Isigenes
123–122 BCDemetrius
122–121 BCNicodemus
121–120 BCPhocion (?)
120–119 BCEumachus
119–118 BCHipparchus
118–117 BCLenaeus
117–116 BCMenoetes
116–115 BCSarapion
115–114 BCNausias
114–113 BC[...]raton
113–112 BCParamonus
112–111 BCDionysius
111–110 BCSosicrates
110–109 BCPolycleitus
109–108 BCJason
108–107 BCDemochares
107–106 BCAristarchus
106–105 BCAgathocles
105–104 BCAndronides (?)
104–103 BCHeracleides
103–102 BCTheocles
102–101 BCEchecrates
101–100 BCMedeius
100–99 BCTheodosius
99–98 BCProcles
98–97 BCArgeius
97–96 BCHeracleitus
96–95 BC[...]craton
95–94 BCTheodotus
94–93 BCCallias
93–92 BCCriton
92–91 BCMenedemus
91–90 BCMedeius
90–89 BCMedeius
89–88 BCMedeius
88–87 BCanarchyAthens captured by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who reorganizes its government
87–86 BCPhilanthes
86–85 BCHierophantes
85–84 BCPythocritus
84–83 BCNicetas
83–82 BCPammenes
82–81 BCDemetrius
81–80 BCAr[...]
80–79 BCApollodorus
79-78 BCUnknown
78–77 BCAeschraeus
77-76 BCSeleucus
76–75 BCHeracleodoros
75–74 BCAeschines
74–73 BCUnknown
73–72 BCNicetes (?)
72–71 BCUnknown
71–70 BCAristoxenus (?)
70–69 BCCriton (?)
69–67 BCUnknown
67–66 BCTheoxenus (?)
66–65 BCMedeius (?)
65–64 BC Unknown
64-63 BCOenophilus
63-62 BC[...]ius
62–61 BCAristeius
61–60 BCTheophemus
60–59 BCHerodes[75]
59–58 BCLeucius
58–57 BCCalliphon
57–56 BCDiocles
56–55 BCCoentus
55–54 BCAristoxenus
54–53 BCZenon
53–52 BCDiodorus
52–51 BCLysander
51–50 BCLysiades
50–49 BCDemetrius
49–48 BCDemochares
48–47 BCPhilocrates
47–46 BCDiocles
46–45 BCEucles
45–44 BCDiocles
44–43 BCLeucius of Rhamnous
43-42 BCPolycharmus
42–41 BCEuthydomus
41–40 BCNicander
40–39 BCPhilostratus
39–38 BCDiocles of Melite
38–37 BCMenander of Steiria
37–36 BCCallicratides (?)
36–35 BCAsclepiodorus
35–34 BCTheopeithes
34–33 BCApollogenes (?)
33–32 BCCleidamus
32-31 BCUnknown
31–30 BCUnknown
30–29 BCArchitemus
29–26 BCUnknown
26–25 BCDioteimus
25–22 BCUnknown
22–21 BCApolexis
20–19 BCDemeas
19–17 BCUnknown
17-16 BCAe[...][76]
16–15 BCPythagoras[76]
15–14 BCAntiochus[76]
14–13 BCPolyaenus
13–12 BCZenon
12–11 BCLeonidas
11–10 BCTheophilus
10–9 BCNicias
9–8 BCXenon
8–7 BCApolexis of Oesia[77]
7–6 BCUnknown
6–5 BCNicostratus
5–4 BCCotys[78]
4–3 BCAnaxagoras
3–2 BCDemochares
2–1 BCPolycharmus
1 BC–AD 1Lacon
2–3[...] Sounieus
3–4[...] Sphettius
26–27PamphilusJulio-Claudian dynasty begins.
36–37Basileus Rhoemetalkes Ne(oteros)Later king of Odrysia[79]
37–38Arist[...] (?)
38-39Polycritus (?)
39-40Zen[on] (?)
40-41[...]ouius Leo[...][80]
64–65C. Carrinus Secundus, son of Gaius
74-75C. Julius Antiochus
Epiphanes Philopappus
Grandson of the last king of Commagene
c. 80Loucius
85-86Titus Flavius DomitianusAlso Roman Emperor
86-87Q. Trebellius RufusAlso high priest of the imperial cult for Narbonese Gaul.[81]
88-89Ti. Claudius Hierophantes Callicratidius
90-91L. Flavius Phlammas
91-92T. Flavius Leosthenes
92–93[...] Oethen
95-96Philopappus and Laelianon
112–113Publius Aelius Traianus HadrianusLater Roman Emperor
113–114Octavius Theon
114–115Octavius Proclus
116–117Flavius Macrinus
117–118T. Coponius MaximusSo Oliver; Samuels sees two names in the primary source.[82]
118–119Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus
119–120Flavius Stratolaus
120-121Kl. Demophilus
121-122Flavius Sophocles
122-123T. Flavius AlcibiadesSon of T. Flavius Leosthenes, archon in 91/2[83]
123-124Casius Diogenes
124-125Flavius Euphanes
125-126G. Julius Casius
126–127Claudius Herodes MarathoniusBrother-in-law of Vibullius Hipparchus, archon in 118/9
127–128Memmius [...]ros
131–132Claudius Philogenes
139–140Flavius AlcibiadesSon of T. Flavius Alcibiades, archon in 122/3[83]
140–141Tiberius Claudius Attalus
141–142Publius Aelius Phileas
142–143Publius Aelius Alexander
143–144Publius Aelius Vibullius RufusNephew of Herodes Atticus, archon in 126/7
145–146Flavius Arrianus Paeanieus
146–147Tiberius [...]
150–151Aelius Ardys
155–156Popillius Theotimus
156–157Aelius Callicrates
158–159Tiberius Aurelius Philemon Philades
159–160Aelius Alexander
160–161Publius Aelius Hellen [who is also called] Pl[...]
161–162Memmius epi bomo
162–163Aelius Gelus
166–167Marcus Valerius Mamertinus Marathonius[84]
167–168anarchyRotoff suggests that the absence of an archon for this year, and two of the following four years, was likely due to the Antonine Plague.[85]
168–169Tineius Ponticus Besaieus
170–171Tiberius Memmius Flaccus Marathonius
172–173Lucius Gellius Xenagoras
173–174Biesius Peison
174–175Flavius Harpalianus
175–176Arrianus Epaphroditus
176–177Claudius Heracleides
177–178Aeschines (?)[86]
178–179Hegias (?)[87]
179–180Athenodorus Agrippas Iteaeus (?)[88]
180–181Claudius Demostratus
182–183Marcus Munatius Maximianus Vopiscus
183–184Domitius Aristaeus Paeonides
184–185Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus
185–186Philoteimus son of Arcesidemus, of Eleusis
186–187Gaius Fabius Thisbianus Marathonius
187–188Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius
Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus
Son of Herodes Atticus, archon 126/7
188–189Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus AntoninusAlso Roman Emperor
190–191Gaius Peinarius Proclus Agnousius
192–193Gaius Helvidius Secundus
193–194Claudius Dadouchos
194-195Aurelius Philisteides
196-197Flavius Straton
197-198Xenokles (?)[90]
198–199Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus (?)
199-200Dionysodorus Eucarpon (?)
200-201Flavius Eiachchagogus Agryleus (?)
201-202Agathokles (?)
203–204Aurelius Dem[...] (?)
204-205Domitius Aristaeus Paeonides (?)
205-206Gaius Quintus Imertus Marathonius
207-208Gaius Castius Apollonius Streircus
208-209Fabius Dadouchus Marathonius
209–210Flavius Diogenes Marathonius
210-211Pompeius Alexander (?)[91]
211–212Claudius Phokas Marathonius (?)[91]
212–213Aurelius Dionysius Acharneus
221–222Domitius Arabianus Marathonius
222-223Gaius Quintus Cleon Marathonius
223-224Hiereus An[...]
224-225Tiberius Claudius Patroclus
225-226Le. Dionysodorus
226-227Munatius Themison
227–228G. Pinarios Bassus
228-229[Maratho]nius Ne(oterus)[92]
229–230Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus LeurusAlso suffect consul, c. 230[93]
230-231Marcus Aurelius Calliphron, also called Frontinus
233–234Claudius Teres
238-239Casianus Hieroceryx
239-240Flavius Asclepiades
240–241Cassianus Philippus Steirieus
244-245Aurelius Laudicianus
249–250Publius Herennius DexippusAlso archon Basileus?
262–263Lucius Flavius Philostratus
264–265[94]Publius Licinius Egnatius GallienusAlso Roman Emperor
c. 275Titus Flavius Mondon
between 300
& 330
Constantine the Great[95]
between 300
& 350
end 4th
between 425
& 450

See also


  1. At first the chief of the city was only a priest. "The charge of the public sacrifices of the city belongs according to religious custom, not to special priests, but to those men who derive their dignity from the hearth, and who are here called kings, elsewhere Prytaneis, and again archons." (Aristotle, Politics, VIII.5)
  2. Michael Rostovtzeff, Greece, passim.
  3. "The Athenian archons when they entered upon their duties ascended to the Acropolis wearing crowns of myrtles, and offered a sacrifice to the titular, divinity of the town. It was also customary for them to wear crowns of foliage when they exercised their functions. And it is certain that the crown, which became and which still remains the emblem of power, was then only a religious symbol, an exterior sign, which accompanied prayer and sacrifice. Amongst the nine archons, the second archon, the one called the King, was the representative of the high priestly function of the old Kings, but each of his colleagues had some priestly duty to fulfill, some sacrifice to offer to the gods. ("Gustave Ducoudray, The history of ancient civilization: a handbook, 1889 pg 129)
  4. Gods, Heroes and Tyrants: Greek Chronology in Chaos By Emmet John Sweeney.
  5. Green, Peter (2009). "Diodorus Siculus on the Third Sacred War". In Marincola, John. A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. 2. Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. p. 364. ISBN 9780470766286.
  6. Fox The Classical World p. 122
  7. Lacey The Family in Ancient Greece p. 139-145
  8. Adkins Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece p. 35-36
  9. Aristotle Constitution of Athens, 3
  10. The son of Codrus was lame, which was why his brother Neileus would not let him rule, but the Delphian oracle bestowed the kingdom upon Medon. For more see Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 2. 1.
  11. Constitution of Athens and Related Texts – Page 70
  12. John Blair, Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1844. pg. 27
  13. John Lemprière, A Classical Dictionary pg. 183
  14. Pausanias, Description of Greece, Volume 3 – Page 64. (cf. "The successors of Codrus were Medon (son of Codrus), Acastus (son of Medon), Archippus (son of Acastus), Thersippus (son of Archippus), Phorbas (son of Thersippus), Megacles (son of Phorbas), Diognetus (son of Megacles), Pherecles (son of Diognetus), Ariphron (son of Pherecles), Thespieus (son of Ariphron), Agamestor (son of Thespieus), Aeschylus (son of Agamestor), Alcmaeon. All these, according to the common tradition, held the archonship for life. After Alcmaeon the tenure of the office was made decennial. The first decennial archon was Charops, the second was Aesimides, and the third was Clidicus. See Eusebius, Chronic. vol. 1. pp. 185–190, ed. Schone.")
  15. Michael Russell, A Connection of Sacred and Profane History, Pg 355
  16. See Historicity of the Iliad.
  17. Herodotus 2.53.
  18. George Crabb, Universal Historical Dictionary pg. 91
  19. According to Diodorus Siculus (of the 1st century BC).
  20. Blair, Chronological and Historical Tables pg. 30
  21. Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson. The History of Herodotus: A New English Version, Ed. with Copious Notes and Appendices, Illustrating the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the Most Recent Sources of Information; and Embodying the Chief Results, Historical and Ethnographical, which Have Been Obtained in the Progress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical Discovery, Volume 3. Appleton, 1882. Pg 316
  22. Evelyn Abbott. A Skeleton Outline of Greek History: Chronologically Arranged. Pg 27.
  23. The Roman Antiquities, Volume 1. By Dionysius (Halicarnassensis). pg 162.
  24. History of Ancient and Modern Greece. By John Frost. Pg 35
  25. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  26. Pausanias's Description of Greece, Volume 3 By Pausanias. Pg 64
  27. Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1834 pg 241, Pg 166
  28. Nicolas Lenglet Dufresnoy. Chronological Tables of Universal History: Sacred and Profane, Ecclesiastical and Civil; from the Creation of the World, to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-three. With a Preliminary Discourse on the Short Method of Studying History; and a Catalogue of Books Necessary for that Purpose; with Some Remarks on Them, Volume 1. A. Millar, 1762. Pg 124
  29. John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 38
  30. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables. Pg 39
  31. Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of archons down to 481/0 BC are taken from T. J. Cadoux, "The Athenian Archons from Kreon to Hypsichides", Journal of Hellenic Studies, 68 (1948), pp. 70-123
  32. Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 88
  33. 1 2 Cadoux notes "We cannot be sure that it was the same man who held the second archonship, nor, if we held that it was, do we know anything of the circumstances under which this happened. Nor, again, do we know if this man or men belonged to the Philaid family." ("Athenian Archons", p. 90)
  34. Cadoux notes this entry is based on a surviving passage of Hippys of Rhegion which is very obscure; Hippys states one Epainetos was king at Athens in the 36th Olympiad. However, this statement is full of mistakes which makes Cadooux suspicious of this passage. ("Athenian Archons", p. 91)
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 Per one surviving fragment of the Athenian Archon list. Donald W. Bradeen, "The Fifth-Century Archon List", Hesperia, 32 (1963), pp. 187-208
  36. Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 103
  37. So Cadoux and Alan Samuel; Benjamin D. Merrit notes the name could be read "Onetorides". (Merrit, "Greek inscriptions, 14-27", Hesperia, 8 (1939), p 60)
  38. This identification has been questioned by Matthew P. J. Dillon, "Was Kleisthenes of Pleisthenes Archon at Athens in 525 BC?", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 155 (2006), pp. 91-107
  39. Herodotus, Histories, books V and VI Google Books link
  40. But he adds, "It seems gratuitous to invent a third Miltiades-presumably from another family; and there are no solid chronological grounds for rejecting either of the two Philaids." (Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 110)
  41. See Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", pp. 111f
  42. Alan Samuel is doubtful this archon existed, claiming this is based on Eustathius' misunderstanding his source, which provides the date Pindar died, not when he was born. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), p. 204
  43. Cadoux suspects this is a corruption of the archon's real name. ("Athenian Archons", p. 116)
  44. Added from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 205
  45. Nine archons were appointed by lot by the tribes from 500 nominees chosen by the demes and that this was the method in the Archonship of Telesinus. See also the Areopagite constitution.
  46. Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 119
  47. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 480/79 to 348/7 BC are taken from Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), pp. 206-210.
  48. "Calliades was archon in Athens, and the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, and the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the 'stadion.' It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece" (Diodorus, 11.1.2)
  49. Alternative spellings are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 206-210
  50. 1 2 Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 207
  51. Classical Philology. Pg 53
  52. The Works of Xenophon: & II and Anabasis. 1890 By Xenophon. Pg 98
  53. Thucydides (2.2) states that it began "in the 48th year of the priestess-ship of Chrysis at Argos, in the ephorate of Aenesias at Sparta, in the last month but two of the archonship of Pythodorus at Athens." Thucydides reports a solar eclipse that summer (2.28), which can be confidently dated to 3 August 431 BC. (E.J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968), p. 87)
  54. Thucydides: Arguments. Peloponnesian War, Book III (cont'd.)-VI By Thucydides. Pg 208
  55. Sophocles: The Oedipus Coloneus. 3d ed. 1900 By Sophocles, Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb. Pg 4. (cf. Micon was [the Archon of] 402 B.C., Callias of [the Archon of] 406 B.C. Between them came Alexias (405), Pythodorus (404, the Anarchy), and Eucleides (403).)
  56. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 347/6 to 301/0 BC are taken from Benjamin D. Meritt, "Athenian Archons 347/6-48/7 B.C.", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 26 (1977), pp. 161-191
  57. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 210
  58. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 300/299 to 228/7 BC are taken from Michael J. Osborne, "The Archons of Athens 300/299-228/7", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 171 (2009), pp. 83-99
  59. 1 2 3 The order in which these three archons held their office is not yet clear. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 85 n. 14)
  60. This year is commonly attributed to "Gorgias" based on Pseudo-Plutarch (Vitae Decem Oratorum, 847D); however, Gorgias may be a corruption of the very rare name "Ourias" archon in 281/0 BC; Gorgias is thus a ghost. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 87 n. 21)
  61. Osborne notes that Pytharatus "is one of the very few archons of the 3rd century after the 290s to be securely dated on the basis of Olympiads and literary testimony." "Archons of Athens", p. 88 n. 26
  62. 1 2 Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 90 n. 29
  63. Voula Bardani and Stephen Tracy, "A New List of Athenian Ephebes and a New Archon of Athens", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 163 (2007), pp. 75-80
  64. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 227/6 to 211/0 BC are taken from Michael Osborne, "The Date of the Athenian Archon Thrasyphon", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 164 (2008), pp. 85-8
  65. Aleshire had placed Hoplon at this year because there was a gap; however, Osborne's latest revision of the Archon list has removed that gap. For further details, see Aleshire, "The Athenian Archon Hoplon", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 253-5
  66. Thrasyphon is commonly dated to 221/0 BC based on a Magnesian inscription that allows his archonship to be dated to the fourth year of Olympiad 139; Osborne has argued that the correlation is not that exact and his archonship could fall in the first year of Olympiad 140. (Osborne, "The Date", pp. 85, 88)
  67. Merrit disagrees, placing Sostratos here and providing a primary source; Osborne provides no supporting evidence for Aeschron here. Merritt, "Athenian Archons", p. 178
  68. Unless otherwise noted, the archons from 209/8 to 201/0 BC are taken from John S. Traill, "A Revision of Hesperia, XLIII, 1974, 'A New Ephebic Inscription from the Athenian Agora'", Hesperia, 45 (1976), pp. 296-303
  69. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 201/0 to 160/59 BC are taken from Osborne, "Archons of Athens"
  70. 1 2 Following the arguments of John S. Traill, "The Athenian Archon Pleistainos", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 103 (1994), pp. 109-114
  71. Christian Habicht argues that, based on the floruit of the letter-cutter of inscription did not extend beyond 185 BC, Achaeus' archonship occurred earlier and places Epaenetus in this year. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 245)
  72. 1 2 Unless otherwise noted, archons from 159/8 to 141/0 BC are taken from Christian Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons of Athens from 159/8 to 141/0 B. C.", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 237-247
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Habicht expresses less certainty about the dates of these seven archones. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 246)
  74. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 139/8 to 61/60 BC are taken from Merrit, "Athenian Archons"
  75. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 60/59 to 10/9 BC are taken from Simone Follet, "Deux inscriptions attiques inédites copiées par l'abbé Michel Fourmont (Parisinus Suppl. gr. 854)", Revue des Études Grecques, 118 (2005). pp. 1-14.
  76. 1 2 3 Samuel adds these three names, as well as the next four, citing IG III2 1713 for their presence in the archon list. (Greek and Roman), p. 226
  77. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 8/7 BC to AD 165/6 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman, pp. 223-237
  78. Identified with a member of the Thracian Royal house based on IG II2 1070, making him the first verified foreigner to be the Athenian Eponymous archon. (Robert K. Sherk, "The Eponymous Officials of Greek Cities: I", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 83 (1990), p. 275)
  79. R. Neubauer, "Das Archontat des Rhoemetalkas in Athen", Hermes, 10 (1876), pp. 145-152
  80. Or eponymous archon in 41/2.
  81. James H. Oliver, "Greek Inscriptions", Hesperia: The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora: Twenty-First Report, 11 (1942), p. 80
  82. Oliver, "Greek Inscriptions", p. 84
  83. 1 2 Gustav Hirschfeld, "Die Familie des Titus Flavius Aklibiades", Hermes, 7 (1873), pp. 52-61
  84. Unless otherwise noted, archons from 166/7 to 188/9 are taken from Susan I. Rotoff, "An Athenian Archon List of the Late Second Century after Christ", Hesperia, 44 (1975), pp. 402-8
  85. Rotoff, "An Athenian Archon List", p. 408
  86. Or Aischines could be archon for 178/9 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  87. Or Hegias could be archon for 177/8 or 179/80 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  88. Or Athendorus could be archon for 181/2 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  89. Unless otherwise noted, archons for 189/90 to 484/5 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 234-7.
  90. Following the order from 197/8 to 204/5 offered by James A. Notopoulos, "Studies in the Chronology of Athens under the Empire", Hesperia, 18 (1949), pp. 21f. The chief differences between Notopoulos and Samuels here are that Samuels marks 197/8 as unknown, puts the next three archons in the order Dionysodoros - T. Ph. Sosigenes - Xenokles, then omitting [...]mos takes the other four archons Notopoulos distributes from 200/1-202/3 and compresses them into the years 201/2-202/3. Since Notopoulos considers [...]mos to be the only archon in this period whose date is certain, and Samuels provides no reasoning for removing him, Notopoulos has been followed here.
  91. 1 2 Notopulos is uncertain of the order of these two archons during these two years ("Studies in the Chronology", pp. 35, 36), while Samuels leans towards the inverted order (Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 235)
  92. i.e. 'the more recent Marathonian'
  93. James H. Oliver, "Review", American Journal of Philology, 69 (1948), pp. 440f
  94. After 265, the record is so fragmentary that "Unknown" is not indicated past this point.
  95. So claimed by James H. Oliver, "Roman Emperors and Athens", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 30 (1981), 423

Further reading

  • Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece New York: Oxford University Press 1997 ISBN 0-19-512491-X
  • Aristotle's Athenian Constitution
  • Develin, Robert Athenian officials, 684-321 B.C.. Cambridge: University Press, 2003. ISBN 9780521328807
  • Dinsmoor, William Bell The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age. Cambridge, 1931 (1966 reprint)
  • Dinsmoor, William Bell The Athenian Archon List in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Columbia University Press, 1939 (1974 reprint, ISBN 0-8371-4735-2)
  • Fox, Robin Lane The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian New York: Basic Books 2006 ISBN 0-465-02496-3
  • Hamel, Debra Athenian Generals: Military Authority in the Classical Period. Koninklijke Brill NV, 1998.
  • Graindor, Paul Chronologie des archontes athéniens sous l'Empire, Brussels, 1922 (Mémoires de l'Académie de Belgique, 4°, 1921),
  • Lacey, W. K. The Family in Classical Greece Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 1968
  • Owens, Ron Justice and the Political Reforms of Solon, Eponymous Archon at Athens, 594–593 BC. Australian National University, 2000.
  • Rostovtzeff, Michael. Greece. 2nd.ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963.

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