Emblem of Yugoslavia

Emblem of Yugoslavia
Versions
Emblem of FPR Yugoslavia (1946–1963). This version featured five torches that represented the brotherhood and unity of the five Yugoslav nations. The sixth torch in the later version was added for the Bosnian Muslims.
Emblem of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946).
Details
Adopted 1963
Use As official emblem of Yugoslavia

Greater coat of arms of Yugoslavia 1918–1941
Lesser Coat of Arms of Yugoslavia 1918–1941

The emblem of Yugoslavia featured six torches, surrounded by wheat with a red star at its top, and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the six federal republics forming Yugoslavia: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, and Macedonia. The date imprinted was 29 November 1943, the day the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) met in Jajce on its second meeting and formed the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federal republic. This day was celebrated as Republic Day after the establishment of the republic. The emblem of Yugoslavia, along with those of its constituent republics, are an example of socialist heraldry.

History

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (previously called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) was an evolution of the Coat of arms of Serbia. Graphically the coat of arms were similar, featuring only two major differences, the first difference being the royal crowns. The royal Serbian coat of arms depicts the Obrenović dynastic crown, while the royal Yugoslav coat of arms depicted the ruling Karađorđević dynastic crown.

The second difference was the shield surmounted on the white double-headed eagle. The previous Serbian coat of arms depicted only the Serbian tetragrammatic cross, representing only the Serbian nation. When Yugoslavia was formed, the surmounted shield was altered to include the newly integrated Croat and Slovene nations, as the three official nations of Yugoslavia. The coat of arms includes three golden six-armed stars in the form of an upside down triangle, adopted from the coat-of-arms of the Counts of Celje family.[1] An image of the royal Yugoslav coat of arms can be seen on the 10-Yugoslav dinar banknote of 1926.[2]

SFR Yugoslavia

During World War II (1943–1945), the Yugoslav state was named Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DFY), in 1945 it was renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia), and again in 1963 into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia). The emblem of socialist Yugoslavia was designed in 1943 and remained in use up to 1963, when the country underwent reforms and was renamed for the final time. It featured five torches surrounded by wheat and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the five nations of SFR Yugoslavia: Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians, and Slovenes. The Bosniaks were not represented as a constituent nation, in spite of the fact that there existence of Bosniaks self-identifying as a nation had taken place since the late 19th century through the influence of figures such as Mehmed-beg Kapetanović.

As part of the 1963 reforms, the name of the country was changed into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its emblem was redesigned to represent six Yugoslav federal republics (instead of the five nations). The new emblem was the final version with six torches, and was in official use up to the country's dissolution in 1992. The date in the insignia remained in the new emblem.

Republic emblems

The emblems of the Yugoslav socialist republics were defined by each of its six constituent republics. Emblems appeared as a symbol of statehood on the documents of republican level, for example on the signs of the republican institutions, on watermarks of school diplomas, etc. The emblems included old historical symbols where they could demonstrate historical compatibility with the new socialist political system – see Croatian and Serbian traditional emblem in the middle of their coats of arms; also Slovenian Mount Triglav was recognized as a symbol of Slovenian Liberation Front during the National Liberation War during World War II. Where the old symbols were deemed inappropriate (the traditional cross on the Serbian coat of arms, ethnic or religious coat of arms for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former traditionally monarchist symbol for Montenegro or the historical lion for Macedonia), prominent features or unofficial national symbols were added, e.g. Mount Lovćen for Montenegro, or a pair of chimneys for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The same with the federal Yugoslav emblem: all separate republican emblems featured a red star, and wheat or other important plants from that region. The individual emblems of the six Yugoslav socialist republics were as follows:

Republic Emblem Author Republic-specific features Present-day coat of arms
Serbia Đorđe Andrejević Kun Plant sheaf of wheat (left), sheaf of oak leaves with acorns (right)
Coat of arms of Serbia
Landscapes,
geographic features
sunrise, sky
Industry cog-wheel
Ornaments red track (with inscriptions), Serbian traditional symbol
Croatia Antun Augustinčić
and Vanja Radauš[3]
Plants Wheat
Coat of arms of Croatia
Landscapes,
geographic features
Adriatic Sea, rising sun
Industry Iron anvil
Ornaments Chequy
Bosnia and Herzegovina Unknown Plants Conifer twig (left), Deciduous twig (right), two sheaves of wheat (lower middle portion)
Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Landscapes,
geographic features
Silhouette of Jajce
Industry two factory chimneys
Ornaments red ribbon
Slovenia Branko Simčič Plants wheat, leaves of linden
Coat of arms of Slovenia
Landscapes,
geographic features
Triglav, sea[4]
Industry
Ornaments red ribbon
Montenegro Milan Božović[5]
and Milo Milunović[5]
Plants laurel wreath
Coat of arms of Montenegro
Landscapes,
geographic features
Mount Lovćen,[6] Adriatic Sea
Industry
Ornaments Montenegrin[6] tricolour of Pan-Slavic colors
Macedonia Vasilije Popović–Cico[7] Plants Garland of wheat, tobacco leaves and poppy buds
Emblem of Macedonia
Landscapes,
geographic features
River Vardar, Mount Korab, sunrise, sky
Industry
Ornaments ribbon with traditional Macedonian embroidery

See also

References

  1. Fugger Germandik, Rolanda (2013). Grofje Celjski med zgodovino in mitom [Counts of Celje Between History and a Myth] (in Slovenian). ISBN 978-961-6845-04-5.
  2. 10 dinar note of 1926 Archived February 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. Stuparić, Darko. Diplomati izvan protokola : ambasadori Titove Jugoslavije, Centar za kulturnu djelatnost Saveza socijalističke omladine Zagreba, Zagreb, 1978., p. 75.
  4. 8. člen Ustave Socialistične republike Slovenije (1974)
  5. 1 2 Markuš, Jovan B. Grbovi, zastave i himne u istoriji Crne Gore (Библиотека Свети Петар Цетињски), "Svetigora" (Izdavačko-informativna ustanova Mitropolije Crnogorsko-primorske), Cetinje, 2007., p. 47-48., ISBN 978-86-7660-054-0
  6. 1 2 Excerpt from the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (1963) in: Guć, Nedeljko. (ed.) Društveno-političko uređenje, pravosuđe, uprava, (Zbirke propisa I-IV), knj. 1, Prosveta, Beograd, 1967, p. 303.
    Члан 7.
    Грб Социјалистичке Републике Црне Горе представља поље окружено ловоровим вијенцем који је доље повезан црногорском заставом. Између врхова ловоровог вијенца је петокрака црвена звијезда, а у средини поља представљен је Ловћен. Позади Ловћена с неколико вијуга представљено је Јадранско море.
    Guć, 1967, 303
  7. Jonovski, Jovan. Coats of arms of Macedonia, Macedonian Herald, Electronic Version, heraldika.org.mk, No. 3, March 2009, p. 9.
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