In the legal system of the Soviet Union, economic law was the legal theory and system under which economic relations were a legal discipline independent of criminal law and civil law. In the Law of the United States and some other legal systems this approximately corresponds to the commercial law (business law).
In the Soviet legal system, the purpose of the economic law is to regulate the relations arising from the economic activities. The theory of the independence of the economic law was pursued after the 21st Congress of the CPSU of 1959, with the principal proponent being V.V. Laptev. After debate, this position was codified by the decrees of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers during 1970–1975 and finalized in the 1977 Soviet Constitution.