Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1235–1806
Coat of arms
Brunswick-Lüneburg as part of the Holy Roman Empire, c. 1648
Status Duchy
Capital Brunswick,
Lüneburg
Common languages West Low German
Government Duchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 Henry the Lion defeated; Saxony divided; Henry reinvested with Welf allod
1180

1181
 Allod elevated to Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg
1235
 Partition into Lüneburg and Brunswick
1269
 Grubenhagen formed
1291
 Göttingen formed
1345
 Brunswick splits into Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg
1432
 The end of the Holy Roman Empire
1806
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Saxony
Electorate of Hanover
Duchy of Brunswick
Today part of Germany

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.

The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion. The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title.[1][2] By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.

History

When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was then allowed to stay on the (allodial) estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life.

At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.

In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy. The various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today, even among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence.

History of the subordinate principalities

The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. The subordinate states that were repeatedly created, and which had the legal status of principalities, were generally named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old, Middle and New Houses (or Lines) of Brunswick, and the Old, Middle and New Houses of Lüneburg. The number of simultaneously reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five.

Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, which was expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat. The name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick.

Principality of Calenberg (later Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg)

In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel. In 1495 it was expanded around Göttingen and in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz. New territory was added in 1665 in the vicinity of Grubenhagen and in 1705 around the Principality of Lüneburg. In 1692 Duke Ernest Augustus from the Calenberg Line acquired the right to be a prince-elector as the Prince-Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Colloquially the Electorate was also known as the Electorate of Hanover or as Kurhannover. In 1814 it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Hanover.

Principality of Lüneburg

The Principality of Lüneburg emerged alongside the Principality of Brunswick in 1269 when the inheritance of the Duchy was divided. After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg with his wife, the Duke's daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden". It was united with the Principality of Calenberg, which had been elevated in 1692 into the Electorate.

Principality of Göttingen

The southernmost principality in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg stretched from Münden in the south down the River Weser to Holzminden. In the east it ran through Göttingen along the River Leine via Northeim to Einbeck. It emerged in 1345 as the result of a division of the Principality of Brunswick and was united in 1495 with Calenberg.

Principality of Grubenhagen

From 1291 to 1596 Grubenhagen was an independent principality, its first ruler being Henry the Admirable, son of Albert of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The state lay ran from the northern part of the Solling hills and the River Leine near Einbeck and north of the Eichsfeld on and in the southwestern Harz. After being split in the course of the years into smaller and smaller principalities it Grubenhagen finally returned in 1596 to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

Other branches

Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck.

While a total of about a dozen subdivisions that existed, some were only dynastic and not recognised as states of the Empire, which at one time had over 1500 such legally recognized entities. In the List of Reichstag participants (1792), the following four subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg had recognized representation:

By 1705 only two Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg survived, one ruling Calenberg, Lüneburg and other possessions, and the other ruling Wolfenbüttel.

From Lüneburg to Hanover

One of the dynastic lines was that of the princes of Lüneburg, who in 1635 acquired Calenberg for George, a junior member of the family who set up residence in the city of Hanover. His son Christian Louis and his brothers inherited Celle in 1648 and thereafter shared it and Calenberg between themselves; a closely related branch of the family ruled separately in Wolfenbüttel.

As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. As with most matters in Europe during these times, this was part of the centuries-long religious unrest accompanied by outright warfare (see Thirty Years' War) triggered by the zealous advocates on either side of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

The territories of Calenberg and Lüneburg-Celle were made an Electorate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1692 in expectation of the imminent inheritance of Celle by the Duke of Calenberg, though the actual dynastic union of the territories did not occur until 1705 under his son George I Louis, and the Electorate was not officially approved by the Imperial Diet until 1708.

The resulting state was known under many different names (Brunswick-Lüneburg, Calenberg, Calenberg-Celle; its ruler was often known as the "Elector of Hanover". Coincidentally, in 1701 the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg found himself in the line of succession for the British crown, later confirmed in 1707 by the Act of Union, which he subsequently inherited, thereby creating a personal union of the two crowns on 20 October 1714.

After a little over a decade, the matter of the disputed electorate was settled upon the heir, and the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (acceded as duke on 23 January 1698), George I Louis was able to style himself the Elector of Brunswick and Lüneburg from 1708. It was not just happenstance but similar religious driven politics that brought about the circumstance that he was also put into the line of succession for the British crown by the Act of Settlement— which was written to ensure a Protestant succession to the thrones of Scotland and England at a time when anti-Catholic sentiment ran high in much of Northern Europe and much of Great Britain. In the event, George I succeeded his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain — the last reigning member of the House of Stuart, and subsequently formed a personal union from 1 August 1714 between the British crown and the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (electorate of Hanover) which would last until well after the end of the Napoleonic wars more than a century later—including even through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the rise of a new successor kingdom. In that manner, the "Electorate of Hanover" (the core duchy) was enlarged with the addition of other lands and became the kingdom of Hanover in 1814 at the peace conferences (Congress of Vienna) settling the future shape of Europe in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars.

History of the relationship to the British Crown

The first Hanoverian King of Great Britain, George I of Great Britain, was the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and was finally made an official and recognized prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1708. His possessions were enlarged in 1706 when the hereditary lands of the Calenberg branch of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg merged with the lands of the Lüneburg-Celle branch to form the state of Hanover. Subsequently, George I was referred to as Elector of Hanover.

In 1700 and 1701, when the English Parliament had addressed the question of an orderly succession, with a particular religious bias toward a Protestant ruler, from the childless ruling Queen Anne (House of Stuart), it passed the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 to Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I. Sophia predeceased Queen Anne by a few weeks, but her son and heir, George I, succeeded as King of Great Britain when Anne, his second cousin, died in August 1714. Great Britain and Hanover remained united in personal union until the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837.

George I was followed by his son George II and great-grandson George III. The last mentioned retained the position of elector even after the Holy Roman Empire was abolished by its last emperor in 1806. George III contested the validity of the dissolution of the Empire and maintained separate consular offices and staff for the Electorate of Hanover until the peace conferences at the war's end. After the fall of Napoleon, George III regained his lands plus lands from Prussia as King of Hanover, whilst giving up some other smaller scattered territories.

After the Congress of Vienna

After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Calenberg-Celle and its possessions were added to by the Congress of Vienna ending the Napoleonic war, being born anew under the name of Kingdom of Hanover (including Brunswick-Lüneburg). During the first half of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Hanover was ruled as personal union by the British crown from its creation under George III of the United Kingdom, the last elector of Hanover until the death of William IV in 1837. At that point, the crown of Hanover went to William's younger brother, Ernest, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale under the Salic laws requiring the next male heir to inherit, whereas the British throne was inherited by an elder brother's only daughter, Queen Victoria.

Subsequently, the kingdom was lost in 1866 by his son George V of Hanover during the Austro-Prussian War when it was annexed by Prussia, and became the Prussian province of Hanover.

Duchy of Brunswick

The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 turned it into an independent state under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire.

When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from taking control, instead installing a regent. Decades later, the families were reconciled by the marriage of the Crown Prince's son to the Emperor's only daughter, and the Emperor allowed his son-in-law to assume rule (his father having renounced his own right).

Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and successors

House of Welf

Partitions of Brunswick-Lüneburg under Welf rule

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(1235–1269)
Brunswick
(1269–1291)
Lüneburg
(1st creation)
(1269–1369)
Grubenhagen
(1291–1596)
       Wolfenbüttel
(1st creation)
(1291–1292)
      
Göttingen
(1291–1463)
Wolfenbüttel
(2nd creation)
(1344–1400)
      
       Lüneburg under
Ascanian rule

(1373–1388)
      
Lüneburg
(2nd creation)
(1388–1705)
             
       Wolfenbüttel
(3rd creation)
(1409–1485)
Calenberg
(1st creation)
(1432–1584)
      
      
             
Wolfenbüttel
(4th creation)
(1494–1807)
      
       (annexed Grubenhagen 1617)
       Calenberg
(2nd creation)
(1634–1692)
Recalled Hanover 1692
      
Electorate of Hanover
(1692–1866)
Annexed by
Kingdom of France
Brunswick
(1813–1918)
Annexed by Kingdom of Prussia

Table of rulers

(Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

RulerBornReignDeathRuling partConsortNotes
Otto I the Child12041235–12529 June 1252Brunswick-LüneburgMatilda of Brandenburg
1228
ten children
Grandson of Henry the Lion, founded the Duchy and was recognised as such in 1235, by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Albert I the Tall1236 1252–126915 August 1279Brunswick-LüneburgElisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
Shared rule with his brother John. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Brunswick.
John I124213 December 1277Brunswick-LüneburgLiutgard of Holstein-Itzehoe
1265
five children
Shared rule with his brother Albert. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg.
All Welf lines continued to bear the title "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" between the division of 1269 and the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. This was an additional title to the representation of their actual territorial lordship. However, as this is list of rulers, the list goes beyond the use of the title, going through all generations until the end of the noble family representation in the land, in 1918.
Albert I the Tall12361269–127915 August 1279BrunswickElisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
In 1269 became Prince of Wolfenbuttel.
John I12421269-127713 December 1277LüneburgLiutgard of Holstein-Itzehoe
1265
five children
Shared rule with his brother Albert. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg.
Albert I the Tall
(regent)
12361277–127915 August 1279LüneburgElisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
Regents on behalf of their nephew
Conrad of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince-Bishop of Verden
(regent)
Before 12791277–1282After 1282Lüneburg
Otto II the Strict12661282-133010 April 1330LüneburgMatilda of Bavaria
1288
five children
His rule was marked by several feuds, financed by pledges (Verpfändungen), involving border and property disputes with his neighbours. Otto restricted the rights of the knights and safeguarded public order.
Henry I the Admirable August 1267 1279–1291 7 September 1322 Brunswick Agnes of Meissen
1282
sixteen children
Sons of Albert I, ruled jointly. In 1291 divided the land: Henry received Grubenhagen, William Wolfenbüttel and Albert Göttingen. William died without descendants, and Albert reunited his land with his brother's.
1291–1322Grubenhagen
William I 1270 1279-1291 30 September 1292 Brunswick Elisabeth of Hesse
190
no children
1291–1292Wolfenbüttel
Albert II the Fat 1268 1279-1291 22 September 1318 Brunswick Rixa of Mecklenburg-Werle
1284
ten children
1291–1292Göttingen
1292–1318Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel
Otto III the Mild24 June 1292 1318–134430 August 1344Göttingen and WolfenbüttelJudith of Hesse
1311
no children

Agnes of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1319
no children
Sons of Albert II, ruled jointly. After Otto's death Magnus and Ernest divided the land: Magnus received Wolfenbüttel and Ernest Göttingen.
Magnus I the Pious 13041318–1344 1369Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel Sophia of Brandenburg-Stendal
1327
eight children
1344-1369Wolfenbüttel
Ernest I 13051318–1344 24 April 1367Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel Elizabeth of Hesse
1337
three children
1344–1367Göttingen
Henry IIBefore 12961322–1351After 1351GrubenhagenJutta of Brandenburg-Stendal
1318
four children

Helvis of Ibelin
1324
six children
Sons of Henry I, ruled jointly.
Ernest II12971322–13619 March 1361GrubenhagenAdelheid of Everstein-Polle
June 1335
nine children
William II12981322–13601360GrubenhagenUnmarried
John IIBefore 12961322–1325After 1367GrubenhagenUnmarried
Otto IV12961330–135219 August 1352LüneburgMatilda of Mecklenburg
1311
three children
Sons of Otto II, ruled jointly. After Otto's death in 1352, William ruled alone. His death without descendants precipitated the Lüneburg War of Succession in 1370.
William III the Elderc.13001330–136923 November 1369LüneburgHedwig of Ravensberg
7 April 1328
one child

Maria
After 1387
one child

Sophia of Anhalt-Bernburg
12 March 1346
no children

Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
1363
no children
Albert IIIc.13391361–13831383GrubenhagenAgnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
c.1380?
one child
Sons of Ernest II, ruled jointly. John abdicated 1364 to join the clergy and Albert became sole ruler.
John IIIc.13391361–136418 January 1401GrubenhagenAdelheid of Everstein-Polle
June 1335
nine children
Otto V the Evil13301367–139413 November 1394GöttingenMargarethe of Jülich-Berg
1379
two children
Magnus II of the Necklace (Torquatus)13041369–137325 July 1373Wolfenbüttel and LüneburgKatherine of Anhalt-Bernburg
1327
eight children
Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. However, the Lüneburg War of Succession allowed his succession also in this duchy. However, the War of Succession brought, after his death, the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg to the government.
Frederick I13571373–14005 June 1400WolfenbüttelAnna of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
two children
Fulfilling the agreement of Hanover, married the daughter of the Duke Wenceslaus of Saxe-Wittenberg.
After the death of Magnus II with the Necklace, a treaty (the Reconciliation of Hanover) was agreed between the widow of Magnus II and her sons and the claimers, Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg and his uncle Duke Wenceslaus I of Saxe-Wittenberg: the estates of the Principality were to pay homage both to the Welfs and to the Ascanians, and the two noble houses would govern the state alternately. Initially, the land would be given to the two Ascanians from Wittenberg, and after their death it would go to the sons of the fallen Duke Magnus II. After their death, rule of the Principality was to revert to the Ascanians. In order to underpin the agreement, in 1374 Albert of Saxe-Lüneburg married Catharina, the widow of Magnus II. The treaty also envisaged the creation of a statutory body representing the estates, which was to supervise the treaty. However, 1373–1388 would be the only period in which a Brunswick-Luneburg land was not ruled by a Welf.
Albert IV (Ascanian)before 13501373–138528 June 1385LüneburgKatherine of Anhalt-Bernburg
10 November 1373
Hanover
11 July 1374
Celle
one child
Inherited Lüneburg as he was son of Elisabeth, daughter of William the Elder. To reinforce his claim married the widow of the previous duke, Katherine. Albert also moved the residence to Celle after the slighting of Lüneburg Castle. With no male heirs, his co-ruler and uncle, Wenceslaus I of Saxe-Wittenberg, took the entire government of Lüneburg.
Wenceslaus I (Ascanian)13371373–138815 May 1388LüneburgCecilia da Carrara
23 January 1376
six children
Took the entire government of the duchy after the death of his nephew, the natural heir. After his death,according to the treaty, the duchy was returned to the Welfs.
In the wake of his death, Elector Wenceslas appointed Bernard, his brother-in-law, as co-regent involved him in the government. But his younger brother Henry did not agree with this ruling, and after vain attempts to reach an agreement, the fight flared up again in the spring of 1388. Elector Wenceslas had to assemble an army without the help of Bernard, supported by the town of Lüneburg. From Winsen an der Aller, he wanted to attack Celle, which was held by Henry and his mother. During the preparations, however, Elector Wenceslas fell seriously ill and died shortly thereafter. According to legend, he was poisoned. Lüneburg continued the preparations, formed an alliance with the Bishop of Minden and Count of Schaumburg and set up his own army. On 28 May 1388, battle was joined at Winsen an der Aller; it ended in victory for Henry. According to the provisions of the Treaty of Hanover from the year 1373, after the death of Wensceslas, the Principality passed to the House of Welf. In 1389, a inheritance agreement between the Welfs and the Ascanians was concluded, the treaty of 1374 was abolished, and the Principality was finally secured for the Welfs.
Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Osterode (regent)c.13831383–140128 May 1427GrubenhagenAdelaide of Anhalt-Zerbst
c.1395?
one child
Brother of Albert III, regent on behalf of his nephew, Eric
Eric I the Winnerc.13831401–142728 May 1427GrubenhagenElisabeth of Brunswick-Göttingen
six children
Henry III the Mild 1355 1388–1400 14 October 1416 Lüneburg Sophia of Pomerania
11 November 1388
two children

Margaret of Hesse
30 January 1409
one child
Sons of Magnus II, ruled jointly. They permanently recovered Lüneburg for the Welfs. In 1400 inherited Wolfenbüttel and in 1416 divided their lands: Henry retained Lüneburg and Bernard kept Wolfenbüttel until 1428, when exchanged it with Lüneburg from his nephews.
1400-1409Lüneburg and Wolfenbüttel
1409–1416Lüneburg
Bernard I between 1358 and 1364 1388–1400 11 June 1434 Lüneburg Margaret of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
three children
1400–1409Lüneburg and Wolfenbüttel
1409-1428Wolfenbüttel
Otto VI the One-Eyed13801394–14636 February 1463GöttingenAgnes of Hesse
1408
one child
With no male heirs, after his death Gottingen is absorbed by Calenberg.
William IV the Victorious 1392 1416–1428 25 July 1482 Lüneburg Cecilia of Brandenburg
30 May/6 June 1423
Berlin
two children

Matilda of Holstein-Schauenburg-Pinneberg
1466
one child
Sons of Henry III, ruled jointly. In 1428 they exchanged, with their uncle Bernard I, Lüneburg for Wolfenbüttel. In 1432 founded the Principality of Calenberg, a split-off from Lüneburg, and left the remaining Wolfenbüttel to his brother Henry IV. After the latter's death William took his lands. In 1463, attached the Principality of Göttingen to Calenberg.
1428–1432Wolfenbüttel
1432–1482Calenberg (and Göttingen)
1473–1482Wolfenbüttel
Henry IV the Peaceful 1411 1416–1428 7 December 1473 Lüneburg Helena of Clèves
1436
one child
1428-1473Wolfenbüttel
Henry V14161427–146420 December 1464Grubenhagen (Part 1 from 1440)Margaret of Żagań
before 27 June 1457
two children
In 1440 divided Grubenhagen with his brother Albert.
Bernard Ibetween 1358 and 13641428–143411 June 1434LüneburgMargaret of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
three children
In 1428, Bernard recovered Luneburg from his nephews.
Otto VII the Lame?1434–14461446LüneburgElisabeth of Eberstein
1425
one child
Ruled jointly. Their rule was marked by major building work to Celle Castle and also by numerous reforms which improved the legal situation of farmers vis-a-vis their local lords.
Frederick II the Pious14181434–145719 March 1478LüneburgMagdalene of Brandenburg
3 July 1429
Tangermünde
three children
Albert V1 November 14191440–148515 August 1485Grubenhagen (Part 2)Elisabeth of Waldeck
15 October 1471
two children
In 1440 Henry V divided Grubenhagen with his brother, Albert.
Bernard II14371457–14641464LüneburgUnmarriedAlso Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim. Ruled jointly with his brother Otto.
Otto VIII Magnanimous14391457–14719 January 1471LüneburgAnna of Nassau-Dillenburg
25 September 1467
Celle
two children
Ruled jointly with his brother Bernard until 1464.
Albert V (regent)1 November 14191464–147915 August 1485Grubenhagen (Part 1)Elisabeth of Waldeck
15 October 1471
two children
Appointed regent for his nephew Henry.
Henry VI14601479–15266 December 1526Grubenhagen (Part 1)Elisabeth of Saxe-Lauenburg
26 August 1494
Einbeck
no children
With his uncle Albert V, officialized the division of Grubenhagen. However, his death without descendants allowed his cousins (sons of Albert) to reunite Grubenhagen.
Frederick II the Pious14181471–147819 March 1478LüneburgMagdalene of Brandenburg
3 July 1429
Tangermünde
three children
2nd rule.
Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg (regent)14411478–14868 April 1513LüneburgOtto VIII
25 September 1467
Celle
two children

Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen
1474
no children
Regent on behalf of his son after the death of his grandfather.
Henry VII the Middle15 September 14681486–152019 February 1532LüneburgMargaret of Saxony
27 February 1487
Celle
seven children

Anna von Camp
c.1528?
no children
As he opposed to the newly elected Emperor Charles V, the latter deposed him from the duchy and gave it to his sons.
Frederick III the Turbulent14241482–14857 July 1503CalenbergAnna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
After 1460
no children

Margaret of Rietberg
10 May 1483
no children
Imprisoned by his brother William, who took his place.
William V the Younger 1425 1482–1485 7 July 1503 Wolfenbüttel Elizabeth of Stolberg-Wernigerode
1444
three children
Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. Joined Wolfenbüttel to his domains in 1485, when he imprisoned his brother. Abdicated to his sons in 1491.
1485–1491Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel
Philip I14761485–15514 September 1551Grubenhagen (Part 2 until 1526)Unknown
before 1509
one child

Catherine of Mansfeld-Vorderort
c.1510?
nine children
Son of Albert V, in 1526 reunited Grubenhagen under his hands.
Henry VIII the Elder 14 June 14631491–1494 23 June 1514Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel Catherine of Pomerania-Wolgast
1486
nine children
Sons of William V, ruled jointly. In 1494, they divided their lands. Henry retained Wolfenbüttel and Eric retained Calenberg.
1494–1514Wolfenbüttel
Eric II the Elder 16 February 14701491-1494 30 July 1540Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel Katharina of Saxony
1496/97
no children

Elisabeth of Brandenburg
7 July 1525
Stettin
four children
1494–1540Calenberg
Henry IX the Younger10 November 14891514–156811 June 1568WolfenbüttelMaria of Württemberg
1515
eight children

Sophia of Poland
22/25 February 1556
no children
He was the last Catholic of his family. Under him the medieval fortress (Burg) was rebuilt into a castle (Schloss); he was a passionate opponent of the Lutherans, and driving force behind the Catholic alliance established against the Schmalkaldic League; the disinheritance of a third son could not be carried out.
Otto IX24 August 14951520–152711 August 1549LüneburgMeta von Camp
1527
no children
Sons of Henry VII, ruled jointly. Otto abdicated in 1527 and founded his own estate, the Lordship of Harburg, which passed to his own descendants. Ernest was a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. Francis started his co-rulership in 1536, and abdicated three years later to rule in his own estate, the Principality of Gifhorn, which was reannexed to Lüneburg after his death as he left no descendants.
Ernest III the Confessor27 June 14971520–154611 January 1546LüneburgSophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
2 June 1528
Schwerin
seven children
Francis I23 November 15081536–153923 November 1549LüneburgClara of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 September 1547
Amt Neuhaus
seven children
Interin government: 1546–1555
Elisabeth of Brandenburg (regent)24 August 1510 1540–154525 May 1558CalenbergEric II the Elder
7 July 1525
Stettin
four children

Poppo XII of Henneberg
1546
no children
Regent on behalf of her son, Eric. Called The Reformation Princess, implemented the Reformation in Calenberg. She also wrote a "government manual" for Eric II, with important advice that should serve him as a guide.
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (regent)13 November 150431 March 1567CalenbergChristine of Saxony
11 December 1523
Dresden
ten children

Margarethe von der Saale
4 March 1540
(morganatic and bigamous)
nine children
Regent on behalf of Eric III.
Eric III10 August 15281545–158417 November 1584CalenbergSidonie of Saxony
17 May 1545
Hann. Münden
no children

Dorothea of Lorraine
26 November 1575
Nancy
no children
Left no descendants, and Calenberg was annexed to Wolfenbüttel.
Ernest IV17 December 15181551–15672 April 1567GrubenhagenMargaret of Pomerania-Wolgast
9 October 1547
Wolgast
one child
Left no male descendants. The land passed to his brother Wolfgang.
Francis Otto20 June 15301555–155929 April 1559LüneburgElizabeth Magdalene of Brandenburg
1559
no children
Left no descendants. The land passed to his brothers.
Henry X15331559–156919 January 1598LüneburgUrsula of Saxe-Lauenburg
1569
seven children
Brothers of Francis Otto, ruled jointly. In 1569 Henry founded the duchy of Dannenberg, which left to his own descendants. William ruled alone from 1569.
William VI the Younger4 July 15351559–159220 August 1592LüneburgDorothea of Denmark
12 October 1561
fifteen children
Wolfgang6 April 15311567–159514 May 1595GrubenhagenDorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
10 December 1570
Osterode am Harz
no children
Like most of his predecessors, he had financial problems, so he was often forced to sell or pledge major parts of his possession and he had to demand high taxes. As he left no male descendants, the land passed to his brother Philip.
Julius 29 June 1528 1568–1584 3 May 1589 Wolfenbüttel Hedwig of Brandenburg
25 February 1560
Cölln
eleven children
In 1584 absorbes the Principality of Calenberg. By embracing the Protestant Reformation, establishing the University of Helmstedt, and introducing a series of administrative reforms, Julius was one of the most important Brunswick dukes in the early modern era.
1584–1589Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg
Henry Julius15 October 15641589–159630 July 1613Wolfenbüttel and CalenbergDorothea of Saxony
26 September 1585
Wolfenbüttel
one child

Elizabeth of Denmark
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
In 1596 occupied Grubenhagen.
Ernest V31 December 15641592–16112 March 1611LüneburgUnmarriedLeft no descendants. The land passed to his brother, Christian.
Philip II2 May 15331595–15964 April 1596GrubenhagenClara of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 July 1560
Wolfenbüttel
no children
As he left no male descendants, the land had no heir and was occupied by the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Henry Julius15 October 15641596–161330 July 1613Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and GrubenhagenDorothea of Saxony
26 September 1585
Wolfenbüttel
one child

Elizabeth of Denmark
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
Christian the Elder9 November 15661611–16178 November 1633LüneburgUnmarriedIn 1617 annexed Grubenhagen to his domains
Frederick Ulrich5 April 15911613–161611 August 1634Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and GrubenhagenAnna Sophia of Brandenburg
4 September 1614
Wolfenbüttel
no children
Because of his alcoholism, was deposed by his own mother, who took the regency in his name.
Elizabeth of Denmark (regent)25 August 15731616–162219 July 1625Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and GrubenhagenHenry Julius
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
With the help of her brother, Christian IV of Denmark, she managed to depose her son, as he was alcoholic and at that point unfit for ruling. However she lost in 1617 the Principality of Grubenhagen. Left the government business for Anton von Streithorst, who nearly ruined the state by minting coins from cheap metals and thus causing inflation. Because of the bad situation of the state, the king of Denmark had Frederick take control of the government again.
Christian the Elder9 November 15661617–16338 November 1633Lüneburg and GrubenhagenUnmarriedAbsorbed Grubenhagen from Wolfenbüttel. As he left no descendants, the land passed to his brother, Augustus. Grubenhagen is definitively annexed to Lüneburg.
Frederick Ulrich5 April 15911622–163411 August 1634Wolfenbüttel and CalenbergAnna Sophia of Brandenburg
4 September 1614
Wolfenbüttel
no children
Left no descendants. His lands passed to collateral lines of the Lüneburg Welfs.
Augustus I the Elder18 November 15681633–16361 October 1636Lüneburg (and Grubenhagen)UnmarriedNo legitimate issue. The land passed to his brother, Frederick IV.
George I17 February 15821634–16412 April 1641CalenbergAnne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
14 December 1617
Darmstadt
eight children
Younger son of William VI. Inherited Calenberg from his cousin Frederick Ulrich, who had left no descendants. Abdicated to his son in 1641.
Augustus II the Younger10 April 15791634–166617 September 1666WolfenbüttelClara Maria of Pomerania-Barth
13 December 1607
Strelitz
two children

Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst
26 October 1623
Zerbst
five children

Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg
1635
two children
Younger son of Henry X. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his cousin Frederick Ulrich, who had left no descendants. In 1643 he moved into the Residence at Wolfenbüttel, was the founder of a barock theatre and the Bibliotheca Augusta.
Frederick IV28 August 15741636–164810 December 1648Lüneburg (and Grubenhagen)UnmarriedAs he left no descendants, the land passed to a nephew, Christian Louis, son of Frederick's brother George.
Christian Louis 25 February 1622 1641–1648 15 March 1665 Calenberg Sophia Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
9 October 1653
no children
In 1648 inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from his uncle Frederick IV, he gave Calenberg to his younger brother George William, and instead ruled the larger territory of Lüneburg.
1648-1665Lüneburg
George William 26 January 16241648–1665 28 August 1705Calenberg Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse
1676
one child
When his brother, Christian Louis died childless in 1665, George William inherited Luneburg. He then gave Calenberg to his next brother, John Frederick. At his death without male descendants, the land passed to his son-in-law, the Elector of Hanover. Lüneburg is annexed to Hanover.
1665-1705Lüneburg
Rudolf Augustus16 May 16271666–170426 January 1704WolfenbüttelChristiane Elizabeth of Barby-Mühlingen
1650
three children

Rosine Elisabeth Menthe
1681
(morganatic)
no children
Sons of Augustus II, ruled jointly from 1685 to 1702. According to reports dating to 1677, Rudolf Augustus slashed a way through the Lechlum Forest, the Alten Weg ("Old Way"), later the "Barock Road" between the Lustschloss of Antoinettenruh via the little barock castle [later the Sternhaus] to the Großes Weghaus at Stöckheim; in 1671 captured the town and fortress of Brunswick. After the death of Rudolf Augustus, Anthony Ulrich returned to the throne and ruled alone. A politician, art lover and poet, he founded a museum named after him in Brunswick; he had also Salzdahlum Castle built.
Anthony Ulrich4 October 16331685-1702

1704–1714
27 March 1714WolfenbüttelElizabeth Juliana of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Nordborg
17 August 1656
thirteen children
John Frederick25 April 16251665–167918 December 1679CalenbergBenedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate
30 November 1668
Hanover
three children
Brother of Christian Louis and George William. As he left no male heirs, the land passed to his younger brother, Ernest Augustus.
Ernest Augustus I 20 November 1629 1679–1692 23 January 1698 Calenberg Sophia of the Palatinate
30 September 1658
Heidelberg
seven children
Youngest son of George I. Brother of Christian Louis, George William and John Frederick. In 1692, he was appointed Prince-elector by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus raising the House of Welf to electoral dignity. The old Principality of Calenberg thus adopted the new name of Electorate of Hanover.
1692-1698Electorate of Hanover
George II Louis 28 May 1660 1698–1705 11 June 1727 Electorate of Hanover Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
22 November 1682
Celle
(annulled 1694)
two children
The electorship became effective under his rule. In 1705 reunited his father-in-law's princedom of Lüneburg to the Electorate. In 1714 was chosen for King of Great Britain, starting a personal union between Hanover and this new country. Lüneburg was definitely annexed to the Electorate. Thus the Wolfenbüttel was the remaining old land of Brunswick-Lüneburg that remained separate. Usually numbered I as Elector and King of Great Britain.
1705–1727Electorate of Hanover and Lüneburg
Augustus William8 March 16621714–173123 March 1731WolfenbüttelChristine Sophie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1681
no children

Sophie Amalie of Holstein-Gottorp
1695
no children

Elisabeth Sophie Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderborg-Norburg
1710
no children
Son of Anthony Ulrich. Ruler of the only land that was still not in Hanoverian lands, to which it would never belong.
George III Augustus30 October / 9 November 1683O.S./N.S.1727–176025 October 1760Electorate of HanoverWilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August / 2 September 1705O.S./N.S.
Hanover
ten children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered II as Elector and King of Great Britain.
Louis Rudolph22 July 16711731–17351 March 1735WolfenbüttelChristine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
22 April 1690
Aurich
three children
Left no male heirs, and his land passed to a collateral line.
Ferdinand Albert29 May 168017352 September 1735WolfenbüttelAntoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
15 October 1712
Brunswick
thirteen children
From the line of Brunswick-Bevern. Grandson of Augustus II.
Charles I1 August 17131735–177326 March 1780WolfenbüttelPhilippine Charlotte of Prussia
2 June 1733
Berlin
thirteen children
Founder of the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick, the porcelain makers of Fürstenberg, the fire office; in 1753 the Residence was moved to Brunswick.
George IV William Frederick4 June 17381760-181129 January 1820Electorate of HanoverCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
8 September 1761
London
fifteen children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered III as Elector and King of Great Britain. Born in England, never visited Hanover.
Charles II William Ferdinand9 October 17351773–180610 November 1806WolfenbüttelAugusta of Great Britain
16 January 1764
London
seven children
Due to financial problems, was obliged to replace his father. He was the head of the Prussian Army; died in the Battle of Jena; because his son and heir died young, and two other sons were not eligible, rule passed to his youngest son.
With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ceased to exist. However, its successor states continued.
Frederick William the Black Duke9 October 17711806–180716 June 1815WolfenbüttelMarie Elisabeth Wilhelmine of Baden
1 November 1802
Karlsruhe
three children
Duke of Oels/Silesia, the "Black Duke"; recruited a Freikorps (volunteer corps), the Black Brunswickers, at the outbreak of the War of the Fifth Coalition in Bohemia in 1809, and made his way via Brunswick to the North Sea and then on to Great Britain.
On the Eve of Napoleonic era, in 1807 the Duchy was briefly annexed to the Kingdom of France, to appear again in 1813 as Duchy of Brunswick.
George V Augustus Frederick12 August 17621811–183026 June 1830Electorate of Hanover (until 1814)
Kingdom of Hanover (from 1814)
Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 April 1795
London
one child
In personal union with Great Britain. Named regent of his father due to his illness, succeeding him after his death in 1820. Usually numbered IV as King of Hanover and Great Britain. Left no male descendants. The land passed to his brother.
Frederick William the Black Duke9 October 17711813–181516 June 1815BrunswickMarie Elisabeth Wilhelmine of Baden
1 November 1802
Karlsruhe
three children
Restored to his duchy.
George IV of Great Britain (regent)12 August 17621815-182326 June 1830BrunswickCaroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 April 1795
London
one child
Regent on behalf of the Duke of Brunswick, Charles.
Charles III30 October 18041815–183018 August 1873BrunswickUnmarriedOn the eve of the July Revolution of 1830, Charles was in Paris, and did not manage to keep the duchy for himself; his brother William took over with the agreement of the people and his international neighbours.
William VII Henry21 August 17651830–183720 June 1837Kingdom of HanoverAdelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
13 July 1818
London
four children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered IV as King of Hanover and Great Britain. As he left no descendants, the land passed to his brother.
William VIII25 April 18061830–188418 October 1884BrunswickUnmarried
Ernest Augustus5 June 17711837–185118 November 1851Kingdom of HanoverFrederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
29 May 1815
Neustrelitz
three children
End of personal union with Great Britain, as in this country the successor in 1837 was Queen Victoria (in Hanover the Salic Law was still active).
George VI Frederick27 May 18191851–186612 June 1878Kingdom of HanoverMarie of Saxe-Altenburg (I)
18 February 1843
Hanover
three children
Usually numbered V as King of Hanover. He was the last king of Hanover, as his reign ended with the Unification of Germany.
Albert of Prussia (regent)8 May 18371885–190613 September 1906BrunswickMarie of Saxe-Altenburg (II)
9 April 1873
Berlin
three children
John Albert of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (regent)8 December 18571906–191320 February 1920BrunswickElisabeth Sybille of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
6 November 1886
Weimar
no children

Elisabeth of Stolberg-Rossla
15 December 1909
no children
The regency came to an end on 1 November 1913 when Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover's son Ernest Augustus was permitted to ascend to Duchy following his marriage to Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
Ernest Augustus17 November 18871913–191830 January 1953BrunswickVictoria Louise of Prussia
24 May 1913
Berlin
five children
In 1918, with the abolition of the monarchy, all nobles titles were equally abolished.

See also

References

  1. "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being among the most considerable in Germany;
  2. Riedesel, Friedrich Adolf (1868). von Eelking, Max, ed. Memoirs, and Letters and Journals, of Major General Riedesel During His Residence in America. 1. Translated by Stone, William L. Albany: J. Munsell. p. 29. I remain ever, Your affectionate Charles, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg. Brunswick, February 14, 1776. To Colonel Riedesel.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.