Donetsk Oblast

Donetsk Oblast
Донецька область
Donets'ka oblast’
Oblast

Flag

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Донеччина (Donechchyna)
Coordinates: 48°08′N 37°44′E / 48.14°N 37.74°E / 48.14; 37.74Coordinates: 48°08′N 37°44′E / 48.14°N 37.74°E / 48.14; 37.74
Country  Ukraine
Established June 3, 1938
Administrative center Donetsk, temporary Kramatorsk
Government
  Governor Oleksandr Kuts[1]
  Oblast council 150 seats
  Chairperson Andriy Fedoruk[2] (PR[2])
Area
  Total 26,517 km2 (10,238 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 11th
Population (September 1, 2013[3])
  Total 4,356,392
  Rank Ranked 1st
Demographics
  Official language(s) Ukrainian
  Average salary UAH 1161 (2006)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 83000-87999
Area code +380-62
ISO 3166 code UA-14
Vehicle registration АН
Raions 18
Cities (total) 52
 Regional cities 28
Urban-type settlements 131
Villages 1124
FIPS 10-4 UP05
Website dn.gov.ua

The Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Доне́цька о́бласть, translit. Donets'ka oblast'; Russian: Доне́цкая о́бласть, tr. Donetskaya oblast', IPA: [dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə ˈobɫəsʲtʲ]), also referred to as Donechyna (Ukrainian: Донеччина, translit. Donechchyna; Russian: Донетчина, tr. Donetchina; literally: Donetsia), is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast, with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk; however, its Regional State Administration was temporarily relocated to Mariupol because of the ongoing crisis in Donetsk.[4] Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast as Donetsk was then named "Stalino", in honour of Joseph Stalin. As part of the De-Stalinization process, it was renamed as its administrative center after Siversky Donets, the main artery of East Ukraine.

The oblast is known for its urban sprawl of Donetsk-Makiivka and Horlivka-Yenakieve and it is often associated with coal mining industry.

On April 7, 2014, following the annexation of Crimea by Russia, Russian-backed militants occupying the Donetsk Oblast administrative building declared independence from Ukraine and staged an unrecognized referendum on separating from Ukraine on May 11, 2014. Subsequently, the War in Donbass started. After Donetsk was under control of the separatist government, the Donetsk Oblast administration was relocated to Mariupol and later to Kramatorsk.[5]

History

Before the establishment of the Donetsian Oblast, three districts (okruhas) existed on its territory from 1923 to 1930. The Donetsian Governorate was terminated in 1925. As part of Soviet Ukraine, the Donetsian Oblast was established on 2 July 1932 out of the Kharkiv Oblast, the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast and a number of raions that were under the direct administration of Kharkiv (then-capital of Soviet Ukraine). Artemivsk (today Bakhmut) served as the oblast's administrative center for two weeks until 16 July 1932, when the city of Stalino (today Donetsk) took on the role. Until 1938, the Donetsian Oblast included the territories of the modern Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast. In June 1938 it was split into the Stalino Oblast (modern Donetsk Oblast) and the Voroshylovhrad Oblast (modern Luhansk Oblast).

During the Nazi German occupation from fall 1941 to fall 1943, Donetsk Oblast was known as Yuzivka Oblast (after the original name of Donetsk).

As part of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union, in 1961 Stalino along with Stalino Oblast were renamed into Donetsk and Donetsk Oblast, respectively.

During the dissolution of the Soviet Union, 83.9% of voters in Donetsk Oblast approved Ukraine's declaration of independence in the 1991 referendum.[6]

In the mid-1990s the region became known for its heightened criminal activity, including the killings of high-profile business people such as Akhat Bragin and Yevhen Shcherban. Donetsk Oblast was also a base for Ukraine's main pro-Russian political faction, Party of Regions, which became part of the Ukrainian government in 2002 and paved a way into Ukrainian politics for the powerful "Donetsk political clan".

In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining the status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level; however, the referendum was annulled by the Kiev government.[7][8]

In late 2004, the Party of Regions was involved in the creation of a political project, South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic, which also supposed to include the Donetsk Oblast. Having close ties with the Russian government, the Party of Regions along with local communists and pro-Russian activists instigated the 2014 pro-Russian unrest which escalated into an armed conflict involving Russian assistance [citation needed]. In 2014 Ukraine lost control over its border with Russia in Donetsk Oblast. Currently, portions of the region are being controlled by the Novorossiya Armed Forces and claimed by the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic.

Geography

Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,517 km²), comprises about 4.4% of the total area of the country. The oblast borders the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts on the southwest, the Kharkiv Oblast on the north, the Luhansk Oblast on the northeast, the Rostov Oblast in Russia on the east, and with the Sea of Azov on the south.

Its longitude from north to south is 270 km, from east to west – 190 km. The extreme points of the oblast's borders are: Bilosarayska Kosa (spit) on the south, Shevchenko of Velykonovosilkivskyi Raion on the west, Verkhnyi Kut of Shakhtarskyi Raion on the east, and Lozove of Lyman Raion on the north.

The state historic-architectural preserve near the city of Sviatohirsk with the Sviatohirsk Lavra was nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

Administrative divisions

The province is primarily divided into 18 raions (districts) and 28 municipalities of equal status (22 miskradas and 6 mistos - cities of regional significance), including the provincial administrative centre Donetsk. These are listed below with their areas and populations.[9]

NameLocal NameArea
(km2)
Population
Census 2001
Population
Estimate[9]
1 Jan 2012
Admin.ctr
AvdiivkaАвдіївка (місто)2937,23735,257-
BakhmutБахмут (Міськрада)74113,785104,631Bakhmut
DebaltseveДебальцеве (Міськрада)3853,41246,302Debaltseve
DobropilliaДобропілля (Міськрада)11972,81763,938Dobropillia
DokuchaievskДокучаївськ (Міськрада)4725,02424,506Dokuchaevsk
DonetskДонецьк (Міськрада)5711,024,678971,096Donetsk
DruzhkivkaДружківка (Міськрада)2375,00670,126Druzhkivka
HorlivkaГорлівка (Міськрада)422312,284279,500Horlivka
KhartsyzkХарцизьк (Міськрада)207113,685105,104Khartsyzk
Kirovske (Krestivka)Кіровське (місто)731,04128,470-
KostiantynivkaКостянтинівка (місто)6694,88678,114-
KramatorskКраматорськ (Міськрада)356215,729199,020Kramatorsk
LymanЛиман (Міськрада)19228,99623,740Lyman
MakiivkaМакіївка (Міськрада)426431,023394,604Makiivka
MariupolМаріуполь (Міськрада)244510,835486,320Mariupol
MyrnohradМирноград (Міськрада)2056,70250,995Myrnohrad
NovohrodivkaНовогродівка (місто)617,55915,560-
PokrovskПокровськ (Міськрада)3982,83077,891Pokrovsk
SelydoveСелидове (Міськрада)10862,81954,626Selydove
ShakhtarskШахтарськ (Міськрада)5172,71161,234Shakhtarsk
SlovianskСлов'янськ (Міськрада)74142,873138,450Sloviansk
SnizhneСніжне (Міськрада)18983,04671,277Snizhne
ToretskТорецьк (Міськрада)6286,28174,435Toretsk
TorezТорез (Міськрада)10596,02681,761Torez
VuhledarВугледар (місто)517,51815,477-
YasynuvataЯcинувата (місто)1936,90335,843-
YenakiieveЄнакієве (Міськрада)425162,778132,110Yenakiieve
ZhdanivkaЖданівка (Міськрада)214,37513,377Zhdanivka
Amvrosiivsky (raion)Амвросіївський (район)1,45554,93946,081Amvrosiivsk
Bakhmutsky (raion)Бахмутський (район)1,68754,06545,367Bakhmut
Dobropilsky (raion)Добропільський (район)94920,65916,980Dobropillia
Kostyantynivsky (raion)Костянтинівський (район)1,17221,13219,256Kostiantynivka
Lymansky (raion)Лиманський (район)1,01824,97422,136Lyman
Marynsky (raion)Мар'їнський (район)1,35090,04584,571Marïnka
Novoazovsky (raion)Новоазовський (район)1,00038,90236,066Novoazovsk
Oleksandrivsky (raion)Олександрівський (район)1,01023,03619,804Oleksandrivka
Pershotravnevy (raion)Першотравневий (район)79229,31227,325Manhush
Shakhtarsky (raion)Шахтарський (район)1,19424,26219,974Shakhtarsk
Pokrovsk (raion)Покровський (район)1,31637,56732,439Pokrovsk
Slovyansky (raion)Слов'янський (район)1,27439,18834,334Sloviansk
Starobeshivsky (raion)Старобешівський (район)1,25555,95251,068Starobesheve
Telmanivsky (raion)Тельманівський (район)1,34035,36529,965Telmanove
Velikonovosilkivsky (raion)Великоновосілівський (район)1,90149,32341,943Velyka Novosilka
Volnovasky (raion)Волноваський (район)1,84892,48984,579Volnovakha
Volodarsky (raion)Володарський (район)1,22131,16829,472Volodarske
Yasynuvatsky (raion)Ясинуватський (район)80930,32616,980Yasynuvata
Total OblastДонецька (Область)26,5174,825,5634,403,178Donetsk
  Territories controlled by the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic.

The province's secondary division consists of various municipalities that are governed by their councils. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. All are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located.

The following data incorporates the number of each type of second-level administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast:

  • total of Settlements – 1,283, including:
    • Villages — 1,124;
    • Cities/Towns — 159, including:
  • SelsovetsN/A.

The local administration of the oblast' is controlled by the Donetsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast' is the Head of Donetsk Oblast administration, appointed by the President of Ukraine.

Cities

Demographics

In 2013 the population of Donetsk Oblast was 4.43 million, which constituted 10% of the overall Ukrainian population, making it the most populous and most densely populated region of the country. Its large population is due to the presence of several big industrial cities and numerous villages agglomerated around them.

During the 2004 presidential election, political supporters of Viktor Yanukovych threatened to demand autonomy for Donetsk and neighbouring oblasts if the election of their candidate was not recognised. However, no official moves were ever made.

At the 2001 Ukrainian National Census, the ethnic groups within the Donetsk Oblast were: Ukrainians – 2,744,100 (56.9%), Russians – 1,844,400 (38.2%), Pontic Greeks – 77,500 (1.6%), Belarusians – 44,500 (0.9%), others (2.3%).[10]

At the 2001 census, the languages spoken within the oblast were: Russian — 74.9%, Ukrainian – 24.1%.[10]

The oblast also contains 21% of the country's Muslims.[10]

YearFertilityBirthYearFertilityBirthYearFertilityBirth
19901,658 05020000,930 04220101,241 258
19911,554 46620010,929 93120111,341 720
19921,450 25820020,931 21620121,342 839
19931,346 34420030,933 433
19941,243 19520041,035 526
19951,138 80820051,035 883
19961,136 34920061,139 327
19971,034 34720071,240 560
19981,033 51820081,344 394
19990,930 50320091,343 373

Age structure

0–14 years: 12.6% (male 283,584/female 266,977)
15–64 years: 70.4% (male 1,453,273/female 1,619,241)
65 years and over: 17.0% (male 243,048/female 496,434) (2013 official)

Median age

total: 41.9 years
male: 38.0 years
female: 45.8 years (2013 official)

Economy

Industry

The Donetsk Oblast covers more than one half coal, finished steel, coke, cast iron and steel production in Ukraine. Ferrous metallurgy, fuel industry and power industry are in demand in the structure of industry production. There are about 882 industry enterprises that are on independent balance, and 2,095 small industry enterprises in the oblast.[11]

The oblast' has a developed transport infrastructure which includes the Donetsk railway (covers 40% of national transportation), the Mariupol Port, the Donetsk International Airport, passenger airports in Mariupol and Kramatorsk, and dense road systems. In the Donetsk Oblast two special economic zones have been created, Donetsk and Azov, which have a privileged tax regime.[11]

Agriculture

In 1999, the gross grain yield in the oblast was about 999.1 thousand tons, sugar beets – 27.1 thousand tons, sunflower seeds – 309.4 thousand tons, and potatoes – 380.2 thousand tons.[11] Also, 134.2 thousand tons of meat, 494.3 thousand tons of milk and 646.4 million eggs have been produced. At the beginning of 1999 there was 2108 farms within the oblast.[11]

Geology

The Donetsk Oblast's climate is mostly continental, which is characterised by hot summers and relatively cold winters with changeable snow surfaces. East and southeast strong winds, high temperatures and heavy rain showers are typical in the summer. The average annual rainfall is 524 mm.

The basic minerals found here are: coal (reserves – 25 billion tons), rock salt, lime carbonate, potassium, mercury, asbestos, and graphite. The area is also rich in fertile black earth.

Important resources for recreation within the area are: the mild climate, the Sea of Azov coast, curative mud, sources of minerals, and radon and table water. Due to these numerous recreation resources, many resort hotels and camps are located here. There are about 26 health centres and pensions, 52 rest homes and boarding houses, and rest camps for children in the oblast.[11]

The curative areas in the oblast include the Slovyansk salt lakes and mineral water sources. The oblast also contains many park zones, some of which are of great national value. They include the Khomutivsky steppe and the Azov sea coast. Overall, the Donetsk Oblast contains about 70 protected park and nature attractions including branches of the Ukrainian steppe park, six state reserves, ten memorials of nature, landscapes, and six park tracts.[11]

Polls

During the 1991 referendum, 83.90% of votes in Donetsk Oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, fourth lowest in the country after Crimea, Sevastopol and Luhansk Oblast. A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 18.5% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 53.8% did not support the idea, 22.5% were undecided, and 5.2% did not respond; insurgent-controlled areas (which hold over 50% of the population)[12] were not polled.[13]

See also

References

  1. SBU General Oleksandr Kuts becomes Donetsk region Head, 112 Ukraine (22 June 2018)
  2. 1 2 Donetsk Regional Council elects new chairman, Kyiv Post (August 4, 2011)
  3. "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". Archived from the original on September 15, 2002. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
  4. "The President instructed the Head of the Donetsk Regional State Administration to relocate temporarily the administration office to Mariupol". president.gov.ua. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  5. "Kikhtenko to move Donetsk administration to Kramatorsk and to leave power structures in Mariupol". Zerkalo Nedeli (in Russian). Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  6. "Independence – over 90% vote yes in referendum; Kravchuk elected president of Ukraine],". The Ukrainian Weekly. 8 December 1991.
  7. http://thekievtimes.ua/society/372400-donbass-zabytyj-referendum-1994.html
  8. http://www.nakanune.ru/articles/18807/
  9. 1 2 State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, Kiev.
  10. 1 2 3 Ukrcensus.gov.ua — Donetsk region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine — Donetsk Region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
  12. "Self-proclaimed Luhansk People's Republic governs most residents". TASS. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  13. Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian). 3 January 2015.
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