A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
A dependency is commonly distinguished from subnational entities in that they are not considered to be part of the integral territory of the governing state. A subnational entity typically represents a division of the state proper, while a dependent territory often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling state. Historically, most colonies were considered to be dependencies of their controlling state. The dependencies that remain generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. At the same time, not all autonomous entities are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.
Some political entities have a special position recognized by international treaty or agreement resulting in a certain level of autonomy or differences in immigration rules. These are sometimes considered dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).
Summary of list contents
The following listings indicate (or can be interpreted to indicate):
- Dependent territories
- 2 states in free association, 1 territory and 1 dependency claim in the listing for New Zealand;
- 1 uninhabited territory and 2 dependency claims in the listing for Norway;
- 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies, 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas and 1 dependency claim in the listing for the United Kingdom;
- 13 unincorporated territories (5 inhabited, 8 uninhabited), 2 dependency claims and 1 unorganized incorporated territory in the listing for the United States.
- Similar entities
- 6 external territories (3 inhabited, 3 uninhabited) and 1 dependency claim in the listing for Australia;
- 2 special administrative regions in the listing for China;
- 2 constituent countries with autonomy in internal affairs in the listing for Denmark;
- 1 autonomous territory governed according to an act and international treaties in the listing for Finland;
- 6 autonomous collectivities and 2 uninhabited territories in the listing for France;
- 3 constituent countries with autonomy in internal affairs in the listing for the Netherlands;
- 1 internal territory with limited sovereignty in the listing for Norway.
Lists of dependent territories
This list includes all territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state, including several territories that are not on the list of non-self-governing territories listed by the General Assembly of the United Nations. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Summary: The Realm of New Zealand includes two self-governing states in free association with New Zealand, one territory (Tokelau), and a territorial claim in Antarctica.
|In free association||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Cook Islands Government. The government of New Zealand does not consider the Cook Islands to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.||CK COK 184|
|Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Government of Niue. The government of New Zealand does not consider Niue to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.||NU NIU 570|
|Territory||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the 2⁄3 margin.||TK TKL 772|
|No permanent population. New Zealand's Antarctic claim. Unlike Tokelau and the associated states (Cook Islands and Niue), it is constitutionally part of New Zealand.||No separate code|
Summary: Norway has 1 dependent territory and 2 dependency claims.
|Dependency||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|No permanent population. Dependency administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police.||BV BVT 074|
| ||No permanent population. Dependencies (subject to the Antarctic Treaty System) administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police.||No separate code|
| ||No separate code|
Summary: the United Kingdom has 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies (autonomous), 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas, and 1 dependency claim.
Summary: the United States has 13 dependent territories and 2 dependency claims. The United States also has one incorporated territory.
|Unincorporated organized territories|
|Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations between Guam and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||GU GUM 316|
|Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior.||MP MNP 580|
|Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President.||PR PRI 630|
|Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations between the U.S. Virgin Islands and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||VI VIR 850|
|Unincorporated unorganized territories|
|Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Unincorporated unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||AS ASM 016|
|Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior.||UM UMI 581|
|Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. Claimed by the Marshall Islands.|
|Unincorporated unorganized territories|
|Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Unincorporated unorganized territories of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior.||UM UMI 581|
|Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior from the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act.|
|Incorporated unorganized territory|
|Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Incorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the U.S. federal government.||No separate code|
Lists of similar entities
The following entities are according to the law of their state, integral parts of the state, but exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories. This list is generally limited to entities which are either subject to an international treaty on their status, uninhabited, or have a unique level of autonomy and are largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs. As a result, it does not include most entities with no unique autonomy, such as the overseas regions of France, the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, or Alaska and Hawaii, or only limited unique autonomy, such as the Autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous communities of Spain, or Zanzibar. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Summary: Australia has 6 territories in its administration and 1 dependency claim.
Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated (with the exception of Coral Sea Islands which was part of Queensland). They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.
|External territories (inhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.||CX CXR 162|
|CC CCK 166|
|Commonwealth responsibilities administered from Canberra through the Attorney-General's Department.||NF NFK 574|
|External territories (uninhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.||No separate code|
|No separate code|
|Administered from Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment.||No separate code|
|HM HMD 334|
Summary: China has 2 special administrative regions which are governed according to international treaties. The SARs greatly varies with mainland China in terms of administrative, economic, legislative and judiciary systems, including currency, left- and right-hand traffic, official languages and immigration affairs.
|Special Administrative Regions||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Former British colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1997 pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Hong Kong Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the one country, two systems model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered as an integral part of the People's Republic of China.||HK HKG 344|
|Former Portuguese colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1999 pursuant to the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Macau Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the "one country, two systems" model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered as an integral part of the People's Republic of China.||MO MAC 446|
The Kingdom of Denmark contains 2 self-governing countries.
|Constituent country||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1948. Part of Denmark, but not of the European Union.||FO FRO 234|
|Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1979. Part of Denmark. Withdrew from the European Economic Community in 1985.||GL GRL 304|
|Division||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarized status||AX ALA 248|
Summary: France has 6 autonomous collectivities, and 2 uninhabited territories. This does not include the overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) of Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Mayotte, which although also located overseas, have the same status as metropolitan France's regions. Nonetheless, all of France's overseas territory is considered to be an integral part of the French Republic.
|Overseas collectivities||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Seceded from Guadeloupe to become an overseas collectivity in 2007.||BL BLM 652|
|Seceded from Guadeloupe to become an overseas collectivity in 2007. It is the only overseas collectivity which is fully part of the European Union.||MF MAF 663|
|Territorial collectivity since 1985; overseas collectivity since 2003.||PM SPM 666|
|Overseas territory since 1961; overseas collectivity since 2003.||WF WLF 876|
|Overseas collectivity since 2003; named overseas country since 2004. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||PF PYF 258|
|Special collectivity||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|"Sui generis" collectivity since 1999. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||NC NCL 540|
|Minor territory (uninhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Island administered by the Minister for Overseas Territories. No permanent population.||No separate code|
|Overseas territory (uninhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (called TAAF for Terres australes et antartiques françaises) is an Overseas territory since 1955, administered from Paris by an Administrateur Supérieur. No permanent population. Includes the French territorial claim in Antarctica: Adelie Land.||TF ATF 260|
Summary: The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of 3 Caribbean countries with autonomy in internal affairs, and one country—the Netherlands—with most of its area in Europe, except 3 municipalities also in the Caribbean. The 3 municipalities in the Caribbean—Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius—are not listed as they are directly administered by the Government of the Netherlands. All Dutch citizens of the Kingdom share the same nationality and are thus citizens of the European Union.
|Country||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Each is defined as a "country" ("land") within the Kingdom of the Netherlands by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Aruba obtained full autonomy in internal affairs upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986. Curaçao and Sint Maarten were part of the Netherlands Antilles until it was dissolved in October 2010. The government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands coincides with the government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands but not of the European Union, but owing to their Dutch nationality, its citizens are Citizens of the European Union.||AW ABW 533|
|CW CUW 531|
|SX SXM 534|
Summary: Norway has one internal territory with limited Norwegian sovereignty—Svalbard. It is part of the Kingdom of Norway, unlike the country's Antarctic dependent territory—Bouvet Island, and two dependency claims (see above).
|Division||Administration||ISO 3166 country code|
|Svalbard is subject to an international treaty with some limits to Norwegian sovereignty.||SJ SJM 744†|
† Svalbard shares an ISO code with Jan Mayen, a remote uninhabited Norwegian island situated south west of the archipelago.
Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the UK. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation, and has ultimate responsibility for ensuring good government. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but they are not an integrated part of the UK, nor do they form part of the European Union. The UK Parliament retains the ability to legislate for the Crown dependencies even without the agreement of the insular legislatures. None of the Crown dependencies has representatives in the UK Parliament. Bermuda and Gibraltar have similar relationships to the UK as the Crown dependencies. While Britain is officially responsible for defence and international representation, these jurisdictions maintain their own militaries and have been granted limited diplomatic powers, in addition to having internal self-government. Nevertheless, they are British Overseas Territories.
Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States. The mutually negotiated Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in Political Union with the United States was approved in 1976. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents.
Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act. The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Association and at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States. For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their own foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory… belonging to the United States.". Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desire for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.
This kind of relationship also can be found in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is a federacy. The continental part is organized like a unitary state but the status of its territories (Aruba, since 1986, and the Netherlands Antilles, since 1954 until 2010) can be considered dependencies or "associated non-independent states". After the split-up of the Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao and Sint Maarten are separate associated states like Aruba.
Additionally, Denmark operates in a similar manner to a federacy. The Faroes and Greenland are two self-governing territories, or regions within the Kingdom. The relationship between Denmark proper and the two territories is semi-officially termed the "Rigsfællesskabet".
Overview of dependent territories and similar entities
- Associated state
- List of autonomous areas by country
- List of current dependent territory leaders
- List of sovereign states
- List of former sovereign states - Section: Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories
- List of administrative divisions by country
- Territorial claims in Antarctica
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- Minister of the Colonies
Notes and references
- United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514
- "United Nations Trusteeship Council".
- United Nations General Assembly 15th Session - The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509-510) Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- For the list, see Special Committee on Decolonization (2002). "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations, Special Committee on Decolonization. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Conan, Neal. "Pacific News Minute: Cook Islands Bid for UN Membership On Hold".
- New Zealand and Antarctica. NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2010
- CIA (2010-07-15). "Guernsey at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- CIA (2010-07-15). "Jersey at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- CIA (2010-07-15). "The Isle of Man at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- Carney, Gerard (2006). The constitutional systems of the Australian states and territories. Canberra: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86305-6.
- First Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (2008-01-30). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories.
- Territories and Information Law Division; First Assistant Secretary, Territories and Information Law Division (7 September 2009). "Cocos Islands Governance and Administration". Territories of Australia. Australian Government, Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Willis Island is permanently manned by a small team of meteorologists.
- 广电总局批准31个境外频道在涉外宾馆等申请接收. Gov.cn (2006-12-30). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- 2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报（第1号） Archived 2012-06-18 at the Wayback Machine.. Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- 項懷誠：香港是社保基金境外投資的首選地之一. Big5.huaxia.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty, US Department of State. "Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius now fall under the direct administration of the Netherlands". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- CIA (2010-07-15). "Northern Mariana Islands at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803-1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico by virtue of the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")
- CIA (2010-07-15). "Puerto Rico at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
- December 2005 report of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. July 2016.
- "Field Listing :: Area". CIA.
- "Field Listing :: Dependency Status". CIA.
- George Drower, Britain's Dependent Territories, Dartmouth, 1992
- George Drower, Overseas Territories Handbook, TSO, 1998