Demographics of Trinidad and Tobago

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Trinidad and Tobago, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Census population and growth rate
YearPop.±%
1851 82,978    
1861 99,848+20.3%
1871 126,692+26.9%
1881 171,179+35.1%
1891 218,381+27.6%
1901 273,899+25.4%
1911 333,552+21.8%
1921 365,913+9.7%
1931 412,783+12.8%
1946 563,222+36.4%
1960 834,350+48.1%
1970 945,210+13.3%
1980 1,079,791+14.2%
1990 1,213,733+12.4%
2000 1,262,366+4.0%
2011 1,328,019+5.2%
2016 1,353,895+1.9%
Source: [1]

Population

The total population of Trinidad and Tobago was 1,328,018 according to the 2011 census,[1] an increase of 5.2% since the 2000 census. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2] the total population was estimated at 1,364,962 in 2016, compared to only 646,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 20.7%, 71% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 8.3% was 65 years or older.[3]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 64639.956.14.0
1955 74042.254.23.7
1960 84842.853.73.5
1965 91243.453.23.4
1970 94641.454.34.2
1975 1 01137.657.54.8
1980 1 08534.060.65.5
1985 1 17134.360.25.6
1990 1 22233.660.75.8
1995 1 25530.863.26.1
2000 1 26825.667.96.5
2005 1 29721.870.97.2
2010 1 32820.771.08.3

Structure of the population [4]

Structure of the population (09.01.2011) (Census) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 666 305 661 714 1 328 019 100
0-4 47 847 46 274 94 121 7,09
5-9 46 379 44 952 91 330 6,88
10-14 44 953 43 010 87 963 6,62
15-19 49 709 48 670 98 378 7,41
20-24 57 407 56 833 114 240 8,60
25-29 62 268 61 250 123 517 9,30
30-34 53 897 51 683 105 580 7,95
35-39 46 862 45 677 92 538 6,97
40-44 43 491 42 672 86 163 6,49
45-49 48 685 47 429 96 113 7,24
50-54 43 981 43 203 87 184 6,56
55-59 36 719 36 496 73 215 5,51
60-64 29 645 29 002 58 647 4,42
65-69 21 582 23 055 44 639 3,36
70-74 14 209 16 079 30 289 2,28
75-79 9 286 11 463 20 750 1,56
80+ 9 384 13 966 23 351 1,76
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 139 179 134 236 273 415 20,59
15-64 472 665 462 915 935 580 70,45
65+ 54 461 64 563 119 024 8,96

Due to decreasing fertility, the proportion of children below the age of 15 is decreasing, while the proportion of elderly is increasing. The median age has increased from 21.6 in 1980, 24.1 in 1990, 28.1 in 2000 to 32.6 in 2011.[1] The estimated mid-year population of 2014 is 1,344,000 (medium fertility scenario of The 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects).[3]

Emigration

Emigration from Trinidad and Tobago, as with other Caribbean nations, has historically been high; most emigrants go to the United States, Canada, and Britain. Emigration has continued, albeit at a lower rate, even as the birth-rate sharply dropped to levels typical of industrialised countries. Largely because of this phenomenon, as of 2011, Trinidad and Tobago has been experiencing a low population growth rate (0.48%). More recently, there has been some return migration, chiefly from the United States after the recession of 2008, which caused a population jump in the last census in 2011.

Vital statistics

[5][6][7]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1934 428 12 7437 9704 773 29.818.611.2
1935 435 14 3527 6186 734 33.017.515.5
1936 442 14 6257 2307 395 33.116.416.7
1937 450 14 2267 8486 378 31.617.414.2
1938 458 15 1197 2837 836 33.015.917.1
1939 466 14 5257 4917 034 31.216.115.1
1940 476 16 5357 4999 036 34.715.819.0
1941 492 16 4947 9068 588 33.516.117.5
1942 510 17 7299 0288 701 34.817.717.1
1943 525 20 2108 69911 511 38.516.621.9
1944 536 20 9448 05512 889 39.115.024.0
1945 547 21 6167 95913 657 39.514.625.0
1946 561 21 7677 73414 033 38.813.825.0
1947 578 22 3427 82814 514 38.713.525.1
1948 600 23 9407 29316 647 39.912.227.7
1949 616 22 9317 48715 444 37.212.225.1
1950 646 23 7227 66516 057 37.512.125.4
1951 659 23 8047 81515 989 36.712.024.6
1952 676 22 9238 00014 923 34.612.122.5
1953 695 25 5657 26218 303 37.710.727.0
1954 717 29 2536 80722 446 41.99.832.2
1955 740 30 2167 46222 754 41.910.331.6
1956 763 27 4477 13620 311 36.99.627.3
1957 786 28 8487 28321 565 37.79.528.2
1958 809 29 6677 28822 379 37.69.228.4
1959 829 30 5927 47623 116 37.49.228.3
1960 848 32 8586 60826 250 39.17.931.2
1961 865 32 8806 89125 989 37.97.930.0
1962 880 34 1076 46527 642 37.97.230.7
1963 893 32 8986 66826 230 35.67.228.4
1964 903 32 9556 67526 280 34.77.027.6
1965 912 31 9536 73125 222 32.86.925.9
1966 920 30 0797 06023 019 30.27.123.1
1967 926 28 4626 77521 687 28.26.721.5
1968 931 28 1077 11620 991 27.57.020.6
1969 938 25 1307 06818 062 24.46.917.6
1970 946 25 1516 95618 120 24.46.817.6
1971 956 26 1167 04418 473 24.66.817.9
1972 969 28 0496 95520 099 26.37.019.2
1973 983 26 2317 51718 714 24.87.117.7
1974 997 26 1386 71619 422 24.56.318.2
1975 1 011 25 6736 89918 774 25.46.818.6
1976 1 026 27 1497 38819 761 26.57.219.3
1977 1 040 27 8957 31120 584 26.87.019.8
1978 1 054 28 2956 82421 471 27.06.520.5
1979 1 069 29 6987 06022 638 27.96.621.3
1980 1 085 29 8697 50622 363 27.66.920.7
1981 1 103 32 1777 35524 822 29.46.722.7
1982 1 121 32 5377 64124 896 29.26.822.3
1983 1 139 33 2087 54625 662 29.26.622.5
1984 1 156 31 5997 81923 780 27.06.720.3
1985 1 171 33 7198 02625 693 28.86.921.9
1986 1 184 31 8867 69924 187 26.96.520.4
1987 1 195 29 1678 05421 113 24.46.717.7
1988 1 205 26 9838 03618 947 22.46.715.7
1989 1 214 25 0728 21316 859 20.76.813.9
1990 1 222 23 9608 19615 764 19.66.712.9
1991 1 230 22 3688 19214 176 18.26.711.5
1992 1 237 23 0648 53314 531 18.66.911.7
1993 1 244 21 0948 80712 287 17.07.19.9
1994 1 250 19 6829 26510 417 15.77.48.3
1995 1 255 19 2589 04210 216 15.37.28.1 1.84
1996 1 258 17 9929 3768 616 14.37.56.8 1.71
1997 1 261 18 4529 1579 295 14.67.37.4 1.75
1998 1 263 17 8989 3658 533 14.27.46.8 1.67
1999 1 265 18 32110 0148 307 14.57.96.6 1.73
2000 1 268 18 1609 4788 682 14.37.56.8 1.72
2001 1 272 18 0789 7538 325 14.27.76.5 1.72
2002 1 278 16 9909 7977 193 13.37.75.6 1.61
2003 1 284 17 98910 2067 783 14.07.96.1 1.67
2004 1 290 17 2359 8727 363 13.47.75.7 1.60
2005 1 294 17 2649 8857 379 13.37.65.7 1.61
2006 1 297 18 0909 6688 422 13.97.56.4 1.66
2007 1 303 18 8899 6549 235 14.57.47.1 1.72
2008 1 308 19 88810 4639 425 15.28.07.2 1.83
2009 1 310 17 4999 6937 806 13.47.46.0 1.55
2010 1 317 19 09210 4778 615 14.58.06.5 1.72
2011 1 328 18 14110 0078 134 13.77.56.2 1.60
2012 1 335 19 8019 62710 174 14.837.217.62 1.77
2013 1 340 18 74110 3768 365 13.987.746.24 1.73
2014 1 345 18 43110 6427 789 13.77.915.79 1.68
2015 1 350 18 89611 5807 316 14.08.585.42 1.74

Life expectancy at birth

Period Life expectancy in

Years

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 57.9 1985–1990 68.2
1955–1960 60.8 1990–1995 68.4
1960–1965 64.1 1995–2000 68.7
1965–1970 64.8 2000–2005 69.3
1970–1975 65.5 2005–2010 70.2
1975–1980 66.7 2010–2015 70.8
1980–1985 67.3

Source: UN World Population Prospects[8]

Ethnic groups

Population of Trinidad and Tobago according to ethnic group[5]
Ethnic
group
Census 1946Census 1960Census 1980Census 1990Census 2000Census 2011 [1]
Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%
Indian195,74735.1301,94636.5426,66040.3453,06940.3446,27340.0470,52437.6
African261,48546.9358,58843.3434,73041.1445,44439.6418,26837.5452,53636.3
Mixed78,77514.1134,74916.3175,15016.5207,55818.4228,08920.5301,86624.2
White15,2832.715,7181.99,8500.97,2540.67,0340.67,8320.63
Chinese5,6411.08,3611.05,6700.54,3140.43,8000.34,0030.3
Amerindian1,3940.1
Syrian, Lebanese or Arab8890.21,5900.21,0100.19340.18490.11,0290.2
Other6,7140.82,9000.31,7240.21,9720.22,2800.2
Unknown1500.02910.02,3500.24,8310.48,4870.85,4720.4
Total557,970827,9571,058,3201,125,1281,114,7721,322,546
Ethnic groups of Trinidad and Tobago [9]
Ethnic groups percent
East Indian
35.4%
African
34.2%
Mixed
15.3%
Mixed African/East Indian
7.7%
Unspecified
6.2%
Other
1.3%

Indo-Trinidadian

Indo-Trinidadians make up the country's largest ethnic group (approximately 37.6%).[1] They are primarily descendants from indentured workers from South Asia, or the then British Raj, brought to replace emancipated Africans who refused to continue working under the violent, exploitative conditions on the sugar plantations. The Indian community is divided roughly half-and-half between those who maintained their original religions, and those who have converted to Christianity or have no religious affiliation. Through cultural preservation groups, Trinidadians of Indian descent maintain many of their customs, traditions, and language.

African-Trinidadian and Tobagonians

Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian make up the country's second largest ethnic group (approximately 36.3%).[1] Although enslaved Africans were first imported in 1517, they constituted only 11 percent of the population (310) in 1783.[10] The majority of the enslaved Africans were brought in the last few years of Trinidad's Spanish Colonial era, and the beginning of the British colonial period. The Cedula of Population transformed a small colony of 1,000 in 1773 to 18,627 by 1797. In the census of 1777 there were only 2,763 people recorded as living on the island, including some 2,000 Arawaks. In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act 1807 that abolished the trading of enslaved persons, and the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished the practice of slavery itself.

White-Trinidadians

The White-Trinidadian (or Euro Trinidadian) population is primarily descended from early settlers and immigrants. The recent census counted 7,832 people of European descent.[1] These numbers do not include people who have at least some European ancestry or self-identify as African or Indian.

The French arrived mostly during the Spanish period to take advantage of free agricultural lands. Some Portuguese arrived in mid nineteenth century and more came at the turn of the century.[11] The Europeans who remained in Trinidad live in areas in and around Port of Spain. Furthermore, British rule led to an influx of settlers from the United Kingdom and the British colonies of the Eastern Caribbean and descendants of English indentured workers brought in as overseers following the end of the Second World War.

The Portuguese came to Tobago and Trinidad as early as the 17th century, including groups of Portuguese Jews, Catholics and Protestants. For over 140 years, from 1834 up to 1975, the ancestors of the modern Portuguese community in Trinidad and Tobago hailed mostly from the archipelago of Madeira, starting from 1846, with the earliest registers being from the Azores in 1834.

The Portuguese came directly from Madeira, and also via Guyana, St Vincent, Antigua and St Kitts.

Important communities settled in Port of Spain, Arima, Arouca, Chaguanas, San Fernando and Scarborough.

In 2011, the Madeiran Portuguese Community of Trinidad and Tobago celebrated their 165th Anniversary of arrival of the first Madeirans in Trinidad back in 1846.

Recalling the presence of the Portuguese in the nation today are over 100 Portuguese surname, some of which have become street nomenclature. As an independent nation, the country has recognised several members of the Portuguese community, through official awards.[12]

In Tobago, many white residents are retirees who have recently arrived there.

Mixed ethnicity

Given the large number of ethnic identities in Trinidad and Tobago, many citizens have a mixed ethnic heritage due to influences from French, West African, Creole, Chinese, Liberian, Indians, Scotts, Irish, Welsh, German, Swiss, Portuguese, English, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Arab, Jewish, and Russian ancestors. Additionally, there are also nationals of Hispanic ancestry, mainly from Venezuela and Colombia, along with a small number from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Common ethnic mixtures include people of European and African descent, mulattos, and Indian and African descent (often colloquially known as dougla). This mixed population is estimated at around 22.8%; however, it is much higher when considering the various degrees of African, Indian, European, and indigenous Amerindian ancestry of the total population. A person might self identify as African based on physical appearance, for instance, but he or she might be genetically more similar to a person of Indian descent (dougla).[13][14][15]

Sino-Trinidadians and Arab-Trinidadians

There are groups of Chinese who, like the Indians, are descended from indentured labourers. They account for about 4,003 people and live mostly in Port-of-Spain and San Fernando.

In Trinidad there were, about twenty years ago [i.e. about 1886], 4,000 or 5,000 Chinese, but they have decreased to probably about 2,000 or 3,000, [2,200 in 1900]. They used to work in sugar plantations, but are now principally shopkeepers,as well as general merchants, miners and railway builders,etc.[16]

There are also about 1,062 Arabs, originating from Syria and Lebanon who live mostly in Port-of-Spain. The Syrian and Lebanese communities of Trinidad are predominantly Christian, migrating from the Middle East in the 19th century from the Ottoman Empire later landing in the Caribbean and Latin America. Other Lebanese and Syrians came in the early to middle 20th century to escape the war and turmoil in the region.[17]

Indigenous (Caribs)

Finally there are the mixed raced Caribs who are descended from the native, precolonial people of the islands. They are organized around the Santa Rosa Carib Community and live mostly in and around Arima.

Religion

Religions of Trinidad and Tobago [9]
Religion percent
Protestant
32.1%
Roman Catholic
21.6%
Hindu
18.2%
Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel
12%
Unspecified
11.1%
Other
8.4%
Baptist
6.9%
Islam
5%
Anglican
5.7%
Seventh-Day Adventist
4.1%
None
2.2%
Presbyterian/Congregational
2.5%
Jehovah's Witness
1.5%

In 2011, according to census, Roman Catholicism was again the largest religious denomination with 285,671 followers (21.6% of the total population), having declined from a membership of 289,711 in 2000 (26% of the population).[1] Other religious denominations that experienced decreases in their membership in 2011 were Hinduism (from 22.5% in 2000 to 18.2% in 2011), Anglican (from 7.8% to 5.7%), Presbyterian/Congregational (from 3.3% to 2.5%) and Methodist (from 0.9% to 0.7%). The number of persons claiming affiliation to Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel more than doubled from 76,327 in 2000 (6.8%) to 159,033 in 2011 (12.0%). The number of Muslims slightly increased but as proportion of the total population there was a decrease from 5.8% in 2000 to 5.0% in 2011. The category ‘None’ witnessed a small increase from 1.9% to 2.2%, while those who did not state a religion increased significantly, from 1.4% to 11.1%. 1.2% of the population are adherents of Baha'i. The African religions and specifically Orisha have become institutions in Trinidad and Tobago's society.They serve not only the obvious religious needs but also as a source of inspiration for personal identity. Many people, motivated by the need to re-claim their African heritage can now openly support these religions because they see in them a source of understanding and a coming to terms with their enslavement and the colonial past.[18]

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Trinidad and Tobago 2011 Population and Housing Census Demographic Report Archived May 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. 1 2 Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org.
  5. 1 2 "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  6. "Central Statistical Office". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. "DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO" (PDF). Caricomstats.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  8. "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  9. 1 2 "Central America and Caribbean :: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO". CIA The World Factbook.
  10. "Trinidad and Tobago - HISTORY". countrystudies.us.
  11. The Portuguese of Trinidad and Tobago Jo-Anne S Ferreira Institute of Social and Economic Research The University of. The West Indies St Augustine Trinidad
  12. [Trinidad & Tobago 50 Years of Independence, THE PORTUGUESE OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, Locating an important minority, Dr Jo-Anne Ferreira Lecturer in Linguistics, UWI, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad,September 28, 2017]
  13. Brereton, Bridget (6 June 2002). "Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad 1870-1900". Cambridge University Press via Google Books.
  14. Trinidad French Creole Archived 2010-03-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. "Estimates of African, European and Native American Ancestry in Afro-Caribbean Men ". Content.karger.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  16. Things Chinese or Notes Connected with China. 4th Edition. J. Dyer Ball (1906), New York, Charles Scribner's Son, p. 144
  17. "Syrian Lebanese". Nalis.gov.tt. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  18. "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)" QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.