Demographics of Israel
|Demographics of |
Population of Israel since 1949
|Birth rate||21.5 births/1,000 population (101st)|
|Death rate||5.2 deaths/1,000 population (174th)|
|Life expectancy||82.01 years (8th)|
|• male||80.02 years|
|• female||84.0 years|
|Fertility rate||3.13 children born/woman (76th)|
|Infant mortality rate||4.03 deaths/1,000 live births (25th)|
|65 and over||10.5%|
|At birth||1.05 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.05 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||1.03 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.78 male(s)/female|
|Minor ethnic||Arabs, Druze, Arameans, Armenians, Circassians|
|Spoken||Arabic, Russian, Yiddish, French, English|
The demographics of Israel are monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The State of Israel has a population of approximately 8,855,000 inhabitants as of the first half of 2018. Some 74.5% are Jews of all backgrounds (about 6,556,000 individuals), 20.9% are Arab of any religion other than Jewish (about 1,837,000 individuals), while the remaining 4.6% (about 400,000 individuals) are defined as "others", including persons of Jewish ancestry deemed non-Jewish by religious law and persons of non-Jewish ancestry who are family members of Jewish immigrants (neither of which are registered at the Ministry of Interior as Jews), Christian non-Arabs, Muslim non-Arabs and all other residents who have neither an ethnic nor religious classification.
Israel's annual population growth rate stood at 2.0% in 2015, more than three times faster than the OECD average of around 0.6%. With an average of three children per woman, Israel also has the highest fertility rate in the OECD by a considerable margin and much higher than the OECD average of 1.7.
Generally, population trends in Israel reflect distinct patterns of two sub-groups: Jews (around 74.71% of the population) and Arabs (20.7%). Over the past decade, the Muslim annual population growth has fallen significantly, from around 3% to less than 2.2% by 2013, while the overall Jewish growth rate rose from around 1.4% to 1.7%, primarily due to the expanding Orthodox Jewish sector.
The territory of Israel can be defined in a number of ways as a result of a complex and unresolved political situation (see table below). For example, whilst the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics defines the area of Israel to include the annexed East Jerusalem and Golan Heights, and to exclude the militarily controlled regions of the West Bank, the CBS defines the population of Israel to also include Israeli settlers living in the Area C of West Bank and the Muslim residents of East Jerusalem and Area C, who have Israeli residency or citizenship.
|Region||Status||Population (thousands)||Area (km2)|
|Israelis (including Jews and Muslims)||Cumulative total||Non-Israeli Palestinians||Cumulative total||Area||Cumulative total|
|Green Line||Area sovereign to Israel after 1949 Armistice Agreements||6,819||-||-||-||20,582|
|East Jerusalem||Occupied by Israel in 1967. Annexed by Israel via the Jerusalem Law of 1980, The law was not recognised internationally and determined null and void by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478.||455||-||225 (double counted)||-||336||-|
|Golan Heights||Occupied by Israel in 1967. Annexed by Israel via the Golan Heights Law of 1981, The law was not recognised internationally and determined null and void by United Nations Security Council Resolution 497.||42||7,316||n.a. (Syrians)||n.a.||1,154||22,072|
|Seam Zone||Area between the Green Line and the West Bank barrier - area occupied by Israel in 1967, currently part of Area C||188||-||35||-||200||-|
|Other Israeli settlements and IDF military areas (West Bank Area C)||Israeli control, except over Palestinian civilians, according to the administrative divisions of the Oslo Accords||57||7,620||115||375||2,961||25,233|
|Palestinian National Authority (West Bank Areas A and B)||Palestinian civil control, according to the administrative divisions of the Oslo Accords||-||-||2,311||2,686||2,143||27,376|
|Gaza Strip||Palestinian governed area. Israel controls airspace, maritime border and 80% of land border.||-||-||1,816||4,502||360||27,736|
Within Israel's system of local government, an urban municipality can be granted a city council by the Israeli Interior Ministry when its population exceeds 20,000. The term "city" does not generally refer to local councils or urban agglomerations, even though a defined city often contains only a small portion of an urban area or metropolitan area's population.
Largest cities in Israel
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
|1||Jerusalem||Jerusalem||901,302a||11||Ramat Gan||Tel Aviv||156,277|
|2||Tel Aviv||Tel Aviv||443,939||12||Rehovot||Central||138,379|
|4||Rishon LeZion||Central||249,860||14||Bat Yam||Tel Aviv||128,655|
|5||Petah Tikva||Central||240,357||15||Beit Shemesh||Jerusalem||114,371|
|9||Bnei Brak||Tel Aviv||193,774||19||Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut||Central||91,328|
Ethnic and religious groups
According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2008, of Israel's 7.3 million people, 75.6 percent were Jews of any background. Among them, 70.3 percent were Sabras (born in Israel), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim (Jewish immigrants to Israel)—20.5 percent from Europe and the Americas, and 9.2 percent from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.
The paternal lineage of the Jewish population of Israel as of 2015 is as follows:
|Countries of Origin||Population||Percentage|
|From Israel by paternal country of origin:||2,765,500||2,043,800||44.06%||37%|
|From Europe by own or paternal country of origin:||1,648,000||1,662,800||26.26%||30.1%|
|Russia and former USSR||891,700||923,600||14.21%||16.83%|
|Germany and Austria||70,800||49,700||1.13%||0.9%|
|Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia||59,800||64,900||0.95%||1.17%|
|Bulgaria and Greece||45,500||48,900||0.72%||0.89%|
|From Africa by own or paternal country of origin:||897,300||859,100||14.3%||15.53%|
|Algeria and Tunisia||133,500||120,600||2.13%||2.18%|
|From Asia by own or paternal country of origin:||674,500||681,400||10.75%||12.33%|
|India and Pakistan||47,600||45,600||0.76%||0.83%|
|Syria and Lebanon||34,500||35,300||0.55%||0.64%|
|From the Americas and Oceania by own or paternal country of origin:||291,500||249,800||4.64%||4.52%|
|United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand||181,000||149,200||2.88%||2.7%|
|Other Latin American||47,900||41,200||0.76%||0.75%|
The 2009 survey by the Guttman Center found the following distribution:
- Believing in the existence of God – 80%
- Not believing in the existence of God – 20%
Fertility rates between secular and religious Jewish groups also differ significantly.
Arab citizens of Israel are those Arab residents of Mandatory Palestine, who remained within Israel's borders following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and the establishment of the state of Israel. It is including those born within the state borders subsequent to this time, as well as those who had left during the establishment of the state (or their descendants), who have since re-entered by means accepted as lawful residence by the Israeli state (primarily family reunifications).
In 2006, the official number of Arab residents in Israel was 1,413,500 people, about 20 percent of Israel’s population. This figure includes 209,000 Arabs (14% of the Israeli Arab population) in East Jerusalem, also counted in the Palestinian statistics, although 98 percent of East Jerusalem Palestinians have either Israeli residency or Israeli citizenship.
Most Arab citizens of Israel are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. A small minority are Ahmadiyya sect and there are also some Alawites (affiliated with Shia Islam) of Ghajar with Israeli citizenship. As of 2008, Arab citizens of Israel comprised just over 20 percent of the country's total population. About 82.6 percent of the Arab population in Israel was Sunni Muslim (with a very small minority of Shia), another 9 percent was Druze, and around 9 percent was Christian (mostly Eastern Orthodox and Catholic denominations).
The Arab Muslim citizens of Israel include also the Bedouins, who are divided into two main groups: the Bedouin in the north of Israel, who live in villages and towns for the most part, and the Bedouin in the Negev, who include half-nomadic and inhabitants of towns and Unrecognized villages. According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as of 1999, 110,000 Bedouins live in the Negev, 50,000 in the Galilee and 10,000 in the central region of Israel. The vast majority of Arab Bedouins of Israel practice Sunni Islam.
The Ahmadiyya community was first established in the region in the 1920s, in what was then Mandatory Palestine. Israel is the only country in the Middle East, where Ahmadi Muslims can openly practice their faith, which is not recognized as part of Islam by most Sunni and Shi'a denominations. As such, Kababir, a neighbourhood on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel, acts as the Middle East headquarters of the Community. It is unknown how many Israeli Ahmadis there are, although it is estimated there are about 2,200 Ahmadis in Kababir alone.
Some 1,000 Israeli citizens belong to the Coptic community, originated in Egypt.
The Arab citizens of Israel include also the Druze who were numbered at an estimated 129,800 at the end of 2011. All of the Druze living in what was then British Mandate Palestine became Israeli citizens after the declaration of the State of Israel. Though a few individuals identify themselves as "Palestinian Druze", the vast majority of Druze do not consider themselves to be 'Palestinian', and consider their Israeli identity stronger than their Arab identity. Druze serve prominently in the Israel Defense Forces, and are represented in mainstream Israeli politics and business as well, unlike Muslim Arabs who are not required to and generally choose not to serve in the Israeli army.
In 2014, Israel has decided to recognize the Aramaic community within its borders as a national minority, allowing some of the Christians in Israel to be registered as "Aramean" instead of "Arab". As of October 2014, some 600 Israelis requested to be registered as Arameans, with several thousand eligible for the status - mostly members of the Maronite community.
The Maronite Christian community in Israel of around 7,000 resides mostly in the Galilee, with a presence in Haifa, Nazareth and Jerusalem. It is largely composed of families that lived in Upper Galilee in villages such as Jish long before the establishment of Israel in 1948. In the year 2000, the community was joined by a group of Lebanese SLA militia members and their families, who fled Lebanon after 2000 withdrawal of IDF from South Lebanon.
There are around 1,000 Assyrians living in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem and Nazareth. Assyrians are an Aramaic speaking, Eastern Rite Christian minority who are descended from the ancient Mesopotamians. The old Syriac Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark lies in Jerusalem. Other than followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, there are also followers of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church living in Israel.
The Samaritans are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian Exile up to the beginning of the Common Era. 2007 population estimates show that 712 Samaritans live half in Holon, Israel and half at Mount Gerizim in the West Bank. The Holon community holds Israeli citizenship, while the Gerizim community resides at an Israeli controlled enclave, holding dual Israeli-Palestinian citizenship.
About 4,000 Armenians reside in Israel mostly in Jerusalem (including in the Armenian Quarter), but also in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jaffa. Armenians have a Patriarchate in Jerusalem and churches in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa. Although Armenians of Old Jerusalem have Israeli identity cards, they are officially holders of Jordanian passports.
In Israel, there are also a few thousand Circassians, living mostly in Kfar Kama (2,000) and Reyhaniye (1,000). These two villages were a part of a greater group of Circassian villages around the Golan Heights. The Circassians in Israel enjoy, like Druzes, a status aparte. Male Circassians (at their leader's request) are mandated for military service, while females are not.
People from post-Soviet states
Ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, and Belorussians, immigrants from the former Soviet Union, who were eligible to emigrate due to having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent and thus qualified for Israeli citizenship under the revised Law of Return. A number of these immigrants also belong to various ethnic groups from the Former Soviet Union such as Armenians, Georgians, Azeris, Uzbeks, Moldovans, Tatars, among others. Some of them, having Jewish father or grandfather identify as Jews, but being non-Jewish by Halakha (Jewish religion law), they are not recognized formally as Jews by state. Most of them are in the mainstream of Israel culture and are called "expanded Jewish population". In addition, a certain number of former Soviet citizens, primarily women of Russian and Ukrainian ethnicity, emigrated to Israel, after marrying Muslim or Christian Arab citizens of Israel, who went to study in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s.
Although most people of Finnish origin in Israel are Finnish Jews who immigrated to Israel, and their descendants, a small number of Finnish Christians moved to Israel in the 1940s before the independence and gained citizenship following independence. For the most part, many of the original Finnish settlers intermarried with the other communities in the country, and therefore remain very small in number. A Moshav shitufi near Jerusalem named Yad HaShmona, meaning the "Memorial for the Eight", was established in 1971 by a group of Finnish Christian-Israelis, although today, most members are Israeli, and are predominantly Hebrew speakers, and the moshav has become a center of so-called "Messianic Jews".
The Bahá'í population in Israel is almost entirely made up of volunteers serving at the Bahá'í World Centre. Bahá'u'lláh (1817-1892), the Faith's founder, was banished to Akka and died nearby where his shrine is located. During his lifetime he instructed his followers not to teach and convert those living in the area, and the Bahá'ís descending from those original immigrants were later asked to leave and teach elsewhere. For nearly a century there has been a policy by Shoghi Effendi and later the Universal House of Justice to not accept converts from Israel. The 650 or so foreign national Bahá'ís living in Israel are almost all on temporary duty serving at the shrines and administrative offices. A fluctuating segment of Baha'is consists of pilgrims.
The number of Vietnamese people in Israel and their descendants is estimated at 150 to 200. Most of them came to Israel in between 1976–1979, after prime minister Menachem Begin authorized their admission to Israel and granted them political asylum. The Vietnamese people living in Israel are Israeli citizens who also serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Tel Aviv, but also a few dozen Vietnamese-Israelis or Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Haifa, Jerusalem, and Ofakim.
African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem
The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem is a small spiritual group of African Americans, whose members believe they are descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. With a population of over 5,000, most members live in their own community in Dimona, Israel, with additional families in Arad, Mitzpe Ramon, and the Tiberias area. At least some of them consider themselves to be Jewish, but mainstream scholarship does not consider them to be of Israelite but of subsaharan African origin. Their ancestors were African Americans who after several years in Liberia migrated to Israel in the late 1960s and demanded that Israel give them citizenship in the state. When Israel refused, they relinquished their United States citizenship and de facto became stateless. After some deliberation, the Israeli government granted them citizenship. The African Hebrew Israelites, like the Haredim and most Israeli Arabs, are not required to serve in the military; however, some do so, and they do receive social benefits from the state, including free health care. Most believe in a kind of Paleo-Judaism based on the Torah without the Oral Laws; however, at least one member of the community underwent a conversion to Orthodox Judaism.
Naturalized foreign workers
The number and status of African migrants in Israel is disputed and controversial, but it is estimated that at least 70,000 refugees mainly from Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and the Ivory Coast reside and work in Israel. A count in late 2011 published in Ynet pointed out the number only in Tel Aviv is 40,000, which represents 10 percent of the city's population. The vast majority is living at the southern parts of the city. There is a significant population in the southern Israeli cities of Eilat, Arad, and Beersheba.
There are around 300,000 foreign workers, residing in Israel under temporary work visas, including Palestinians. Most of those foreign workers engage in agriculture and construction. The main groups of those foreign workers include the Chinese, Thai, Filipinos, Nigerians, Romanians, and Latin Americans.
Approximately 100–200 refugees from Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraqi Kurdistan, and North Korea were absorbed in Israel as refugees. Most of them were also given Israeli resident status, and currently reside in Israel. As of 2006, some 200 ethnic Kurdish refugees from Turkey resided in Israel as illegal immigrants, fleeing the Turkey-PKK conflict.
Due to its immigrant nature, Israel is one of the most multicultural and multilingual societies in the world. Hebrew is the official language of the country, and Arabic is given special status, while English and Russian are the two most widely spoken non-official languages. A certain degree of English is spoken widely, and is the language of choice for many Israeli businesses. Courses of Hebrew and English language are mandatory in the Israeli school system, and most schools offer either Arabic, French, Spanish, German, Italian, or Russian.
According to a 2010 Israel Central Bureau of Statistics study of Israelis aged over 18, 8% of Israeli Jews define themselves as Haredim (or ultra-Orthodox); an additional 12% are "religious" (non-Haredi Orthodox, also known as: dati leumi/national-religious or religious Zionist); 13% consider themselves "religious-traditionalists" (mostly adhering to Jewish Halakha); 25% are "non-religious traditionalists" (only partly respecting the Jewish Halakha), and 43% are "secular". Among the seculars, 53% say they believe in God. Due to the higher birth rate of religious and traditionalists over seculars, their share among the overall population is growing as time passes.
Education between ages 5 and 15 is compulsory. It is not free, but it is subsidized by the government, individual organizations (such as the Beit Yaakov System), or a combination. Parents are expected to participate in courses as well. The school system is organized into kindergartens, 6-year primary schools, and either 6-year secondary schools or 3-year junior secondary schools + 3-year senior secondary schools (depending on region), after which a comprehensive examination is offered for university admissions.
As Israel's continued existence as a Jewish state relies upon maintenance of a Jewish demographic majority, Israeli demographers, politicians, and bureaucrats have treated Jewish population growth promotion as a central question in their research and policymaking. Non-Jewish population growth and immigration is regarded as a threat to the Jewish demographic majority, and to Israel's security, as detailed in the Koenig Memorandum.
Israel is the thirty-fourth most-densely crowded country in the world. In an academic article, Jewish National Fund Board member Daniel Orenstein, argues that, as elsewhere, overpopulation is a stressor on the environment in Israel; he shows that environmentalists have conspicuously failed to consider the impact of population on the environment, and argues that overpopulation in Israel has not been appropriately addressed for ideological reasons.
Citizenship and Entry Law
The Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order) 5763 was first passed on 31 July 2003, and has since been extended until 31 July 2008. The law places age restrictions for the automatic granting of Israeli citizenship and residency permits to spouses of Israeli citizens, such that spouses who are inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are ineligible. On 8 May 2005, the Israeli ministerial committee for issues of legislation once again amended the Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law, to restrict citizenship and residence in Israel only to Palestinian men over the age of 35, and Palestinian women over the age of 25. Those in favor of the law say the law not only limits the possibility of the entrance of terrorists into Israel, but, as Ze'ev Boim asserts, allows Israel "to maintain the state's democratic nature, but also its Jewish nature" (i. e., its Jewish demographic majority). Critics, including the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, say the law disproportionately affects Arab citizens of Israel, since Arabs in Israel are far more likely to have spouses from the West Bank and Gaza Strip than other Israeli citizens.
In the constitutional challenges to the Citizenship and Entry to Israel Law, the state, represented by the Attorney General, insisted that security was the only objective behind the law. The state also added that even if the law was intended to achieve demographic objectives, it is still in conformity with Israel's Jewish and democratic definition, and thus constitutional. In a 2012 ruling by the Supreme Court on the issue, some of the judges on the panel discussed demography, and were inclined to accept that demography is a legitimate consideration in devising family reunification policies that violate the right to family life.
During the 1970s about 163,000 people of Jewish descent immigrated to Israel from the USSR.
Later Ariel Sharon, in his capacity as Minister of Housing & Construction and member of the Ministerial Committee for Immigration & Absorption, launched an unprecedented large-scale construction effort to accommodate the new Russian population in Israel so as to facilitate their smooth integration and encourage further Jewish immigration as an ongoing means of increasing the Jewish population of Israel. Between 1989 and 2006, about 979,000 Jews emigrated from the former Soviet Union to Israel.
Note: includes over 200,000 Israelis and 250,000 Arabs in East Jerusalem, about 421,400 Jewish settlers on the West Bank (Judea and Samaria), and about 42,000 in the Golan Heights (July 2007 est.). Does not include Arab populations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Does not include 222,000 foreigners living in the country.
|Group||Population||Proportion of total||Growth rate|
- 0–14 years: 28.0%
- 15–64 years: 62.1%
- 65 years and over: 9.9%
- 0–14 years: 25.5%
- 15–64 years: 63.1%
- 65 years and over: 11.4%
- 0–14 years: 37.5%
- 15–64 years: 58.6%
- 65 years and over: 3.9% (2010 est.)
- Total: 29.7
- Jewish: 31.6
- Arab: 21.1
The Jewish median age in Jerusalem district and the West Bank are 24.9 and 19.7, respectively, and both account for 16% of the Jewish population, but 24% of 0–4 year olds. The lowest median age in Israel, and one of the lowest in the world, is found in two of the West Bank's biggest Jewish cities: Modi'in Illit (11), Beitar Illit (11) followed by Bedouin towns in the Negev (15.2).
Population growth rate
- 2.0% (2016)
During the 1990s, the Jewish population growth rate was about 3% per year, as a result of massive immigration to Israel, primarily from the republics of the former Soviet Union. There is also a very high population growth rate among certain Jewish groups, especially adherents of Orthodox Judaism. The growth rate of the Arab population in Israel is 2.2%, while the growth rate of the Jewish population in Israel is 1.7%. The growth rate of the Arab population has slowed from 3.8% in 1999 to 2.2% in 2013, and for the Jewish population, the growth rate declined from 2.7% to its lowest rate of 1.4% in 2005, before picking up since then to 1.7%.
- Total: 21.3 births/1,000 population
- Jews and others: 20.5 births/1,000 population
- Muslims: 24.6 births/1,000 population
- Christians: 14.4 births/1,000 population
- Druze: 17.3 births/1,000 population
|Year||Jewish||Muslim||Christian||Druze||Others||Total||% Jewish||% Muslim|
Current natural population growth
- Births from January-April 2017 = Jewish: 43,506; Muslim: 12,114; Christian: 751; Druze: 709; Others: 1,473; Total: 58,553
- Births from January-April 2018 = Jewish: 43,986; Muslim: 11,487; Christian: 843; Druze: 773; Others: 1,453; Total: 58,542
Between the mid-1980s and 2000, the fertility rate in the Muslim sector was stable at 4.6–4.7 children per woman; after 2001, a gradual decline became evident, reaching 3.51 children per woman in 2011. By point of comparison, in 2011, there was a rising fertility rate of 2.98 children among the Jewish population.
|Year||Population (x1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural increase||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase||TFR|
|1950||1 370||43 431||8 700||34 731||34.1||6.8||27.3|
|1951||1 578||50 542||9 866||40 676||34.3||6.7||27.6|
|1952||1 630||52 556||11 666||40 890||32.8||7.3||25.5|
|1953||1 669||52 552||10 916||41 636||31.9||6.6||25.3|
|1954||1 718||48 951||11 328||37 623||28.9||6.7||22.2|
|1955||1 789||50 686||10 532||40 154||28.9||6.0||22.9||4.03|
|1956||1 872||52 287||12 025||40 262||28.6||6.6||22.0|
|1957||1 976||53 940||12 487||41 453||28.0||6.5||21.5|
|1958||2 032||52 649||11 615||41 034||26.3||5.8||20.5|
|1959||2 089||54 604||12 056||42 548||26.5||5.9||20.6|
|1960||2 150||56 002||12 053||43 949||26.4||5.7||20.7|
|1961||2 234||54 869||12 663||42 206||25.0||5.8||19.2|
|1962||2 332||56 356||13 701||42 655||24.7||6.0||18.7|
|1963||2 430||59 491||14 425||45 066||25.0||6.1||18.9|
|1964||2 526||63 544||15 491||48 053||25.6||6.3||19.3|
|1965||2 598||66 146||16 261||49 885||25.8||6.3||19.5||3.99|
|1966||2 657||67 148||16 582||50 566||25.6||6.3||19.3|
|1967||2 776||64 980||17 463||47 517||23.9||6.4||17.5|
|1968||2 841||69 911||18 689||51 222||24.9||6.7||18.2|
|1969||2 930||73 666||19 767||53 899||25.5||6.9||18.6|
|1970||3 022||80 843||21 234||59 609||27.2||7.1||20.1|
|1971||3 121||85 899||21 415||64 484||28.0||7.0||21.0|
|1972||3 225||85 544||22 719||62 825||27.0||7.2||19.8|
|1973||3 338||88 545||23 054||65 491||27.0||7.0||20.0|
|1974||3 422||93 166||24 135||69 031||27.6||7.1||20.5|
|1975||3 493||95 628||24 600||71 028||27.7||7.1||20.6||3.68|
|1976||3 575||98 763||24 012||74 751||27.9||6.8||21.1|
|1977||3 653||95 315||24 951||70 364||26.4||6.9||19.5|
|1978||3 738||92 602||25 153||67 449||25.1||6.8||18.3||3.28|
|1979||3 836||93 710||25 700||68 010||24.7||6.8||17.9||3.21|
|1980||3 922||94 321||26 364||67 957||24.3||6.8||17.5||3.14|
|1981||3 978||93 308||26 085||67 223||23.6||6.6||17.0||3.06|
|1982||4 064||96 695||27 780||68 915||24.0||6.9||17.1||3.12|
|1983||4 119||98 724||27 731||70 993||24.0||6.7||17.3||3.14|
|1984||4 200||98 478||27 805||70 673||23.3||6.6||16.7||3.13|
|1985||4 266||99 376||28 093||71 283||23.1||6.5||16.6||3.12|
|1986||4 331||99 341||29 415||69 926||22.7||6.7||16.0||3.09|
|1987||4 407||99 022||29 244||69 778||22.2||6.6||15.6||3.05|
|1988||4 477||100 454||29 176||71 278||22.2||6.4||15.8||3.06|
|1989||4 560||100 757||28 580||72 177||22.1||6.3||15.8||3.03|
|1990||4 822||103 349||28 734||74 615||22.0||6.1||15.9||3.02|
|1991||5 059||105 725||31 266||74 459||21.4||6.3||15.1||2.91|
|1992||5 196||110 062||33 327||76 735||21.5||6.5||15.0||2.93|
|1993||5 328||112 330||33 000||79 330||21.3||6.3||15.0||2.92|
|1994||5 472||114 543||33 535||81 008||21.2||6.2||15.0||2.90|
|1995||5 612||116 886||35 348||81 538||21.1||6.4||14.7||2.88|
|1996||5 758||121 333||34 664||86 669||21.3||6.1||15.2||2.94|
|1997||5 900||124 478||36 124||88 354||21.4||6.2||15.2||2.93|
|1998||6 041||130 080||36 955||93 125||21.8||6.2||15.6||2.98|
|1999||6 209||131 936||37 291||94 645||21.6||6.1||15.5||2.94|
|2000||6 369||136 390||37 688||98 702||21.7||6.0||15.7||2.95|
|2001||6 509||136 636||37 186||99 450||21.2||5.8||15.4||2.89|
|2002||6 631||139 535||38 415||101 120||21.2||5.8||15.4||2.89|
|2003||6 748||144 936||38 499||106 437||21.7||5.8||15.9||2.95|
|2004||6 870||145 207||37 938||107 269||21.3||5.6||15.7||2.90|
|2005||6 991||143 913||39 038||104 875||20.8||5.6||15.2||2.84|
|2006||7 117||148 170||38 765||109 405||21.0||5.5||15.5||2.88|
|2007||7 244||151 679||39 813||111 866||21.1||5.5||15.6||2.90|
|2008||7 419||156 923||39 484||117 439||21.5||5.4||16.1||2.96|
|2009||7 552||161 042||38 812||122 230||21.5||5.2||16.3||2.96|
|2010||7 695||166 255||39 613||126 642||21.8||5.2||16.6||3.03|
|2011||7 837||166 296||40 889||125 407||21.4||5.3||16.1||3.00|
|2012||7 984||170 940||42 100||128 840||21.6||5.3||16.3||3.05|
|2013||8 134||171 444||41 683||129 761||21.3||5.2||16.1||3.03|
|2014||8 297||176 427||42 457||133 970||21.5||5;2||16.3||3.08|
|2015||8 463||178 723||44 507||134 216||21.3||5.3||16.0||3.09|
|2016||8 629||181 405||44 204||137 201||21.2||5.1||16.1||3.11|
|2017||8 797||183 656||44 423||139 233||21.1||5.1||16.0|
Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (Estimates) :
|Total||3 916 125||3 994 400||7 910 525||100|
|0-4||417 479||397 686||815 165||10,30|
|5-9||377 005||358 520||735 525||9,30|
|10-14||346 662||329 776||676 438||8,55|
|15-19||314 286||299 211||613 497||7,76|
|20-24||300 332||289 936||590 268||7,46|
|25-29||291 710||287 934||579 644||7,33|
|30-34||276 871||278 321||555 191||7,02|
|35-39||268 377||270 934||539 311||6,82|
|40-44||232 269||236 767||469 036||5,93|
|45-49||201 080||206 786||407 867||5,16|
|50-54||189 222||201 916||391 138||4,94|
|55-59||179 379||194 732||374 111||4,73|
|60-64||165 789||183 357||349 146||4,41|
|65-69||115 943||130 457||246 400||3,11|
|70-74||89 904||103 747||188 651||2,38|
|75-79||68 016||88 979||156 994||1,98|
|80-84||46 204||67 535||113 739||1,44|
|85-89||26 669||45 650||72 319||0,91|
|90-94||10 499||16 451||26 950||0,34|
|95-99||2 418||4 374||6 792||0,09|
|100+||1 012||1 331||2 342||0,03|
|0-14||1 141 146||1 085 982||2 227 128||28,15|
|15-64||2 419 314||2 449 894||4 869 208||61,55|
|65+||355 665||458 524||814 189||10,29|
- 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
There were a total of 38,666 deaths in 2006. (39,026 in 2005 & 37,688 in 2000). Of this 33,568 were Jews (34,031 in 2005 & 33,421 in 2000). 3,078 were Muslims (2,968 in 2005 & 2,683 in 2000). 360 were Druze (363 in 2005 & 305 in 2000). 712 were Christian (686 in 2005 & 666 in 2000).
Net migration rate
- 1.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
There were a total of 26,500 immigrants who made Aliyah to Israel in 2014: 11,430 from the Former Soviet Union, 7,000 from France, 3,470 from the United States, 620 from the United Kingdom, 620 from Colombia, 400 from Canada, 340 from Italy, 300 from Brazil, 297 from Argentina, 240 from Belgium, 232 from Eastern Europe (including 126 from Hungary), 200 from Australia and New Zealand, 190 from South Africa, 120 from Germany, 76 from Mexico, 70 from Venezuela, 58 from Uruguay, and 52 from Chile.
For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable. In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, "Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world's Jews, the opposite movement—Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere—clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem."
In the past several decades, emigration (yerida) has seen a considerable increase. From 1990 to 2005, 230,000 Israelis left the country; a large proportion of these departures included people who initially immigrated to Israel and then reversed their course (48% of all post-1990 departures and even 60% of 2003 and 2004 departures were former immigrants to Israel). 8% of Jewish immigrants in the post-1990 period left Israel, while 15% of non-Jewish immigrants did. In 2005 alone, 21,500 Israelis left the country and had not yet returned at the end of 2006; among them 73% were Jews, 5% Arabs, and 22% "Others" (mostly non-Jewish immigrants, with Jewish ancestry, from USSR). At the same time, 10,500 Israelis came back to Israel after over one year abroad; 84% were Jews, 9% Others, and 7% Arabs.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of 2005, 650,000 Israelis had left the country for over one year and not returned. Of them, 530,000 are still alive today. This number does not include the children born overseas. It should also be noted that Israeli law grants citizenship only to the first generation of children born to Israeli emigrants.
- At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
- Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate
- 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate
- Total: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
- Male: 4.20 deaths/1,000 live births
- Female: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.
|Period||Life expectancy in
|Period||Life expectancy in|
Total fertility rate
- 3.13 children born/woman (2016)
Jewish total fertility rate increased by 10.2% during 1998–2009, and was recorded at 2.90 during 2009. During the same time period, Arab TFR decreased by 20.5%. Muslim TFR was measured at 3.73 for 2009. During 2000, the Arab TFR in Jerusalem (4.43) was higher than that of the Jews residing there (3.79). But as of 2009, Jewish TFR in Jerusalem was measured higher than the Arab TFR (2010: 4.26 vs 3.85, 2009: 4.16 vs 3.87). TFR for Arab residents in the West Bank was measured at 2.91 in 2013, while that for the Jewish residents was reported at 5.10 children per woman.
The ethnic group with highest recorded TFR is the Bedouin of Negev. Their TFR was reported at 10.06 in 1998, and 5.73 in 2009. TFR is also very high among Haredi Jews. For Ashkenazi Haredim, the TFR rose from 6.91 in 1980 to 8.51 in 1996. The figure for 2008 is estimated to be even higher. TFR for Sephardi/Mizrahi Haredim rose from 4.57 in 1980 to 6.57 in 1996.
- 7.6% of total GDP (2010)
- 3.63 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density
- 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate
- 0.2% (2009 est.)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate
- 5.9% of total GDP (2009)
- Total population: 97.8%
- Male: 98.7%
- Female: 96.8%
In June 2013, the Central Bureau of Statistics released a demographic report, projecting that Israel's population would grow to 11.4 million by 2035, with the Jewish population numbering 8.3 million, or 73% of the population, and the Arab population at 2.6 million, or 23%. This includes some 2.3 million Muslims (20% of the population), 185,000 Druze, and 152,000 Christians. The report predicts that the Israeli population growth rate will decline to 1.4% annually, with growth in the Muslim population remaining higher than the Jewish population until 2035, at which point the Jewish population will begin growing the fastest.
In 2017, the Central Bureau of Statistics projected that Israel's population would rise to about 18 million by 2059, including 14.4 million Jews and 3.6 million Arabs. Of the Jewish population, about 5.25 million would be ultra-Orthodox Jews. Overall, the forecast projected that 49% of the population would be either ultra-Orthodox Jews (29%) and Arabs (20%). It also projected a population of 20 million in 2065.
- "Growth Rate. Yearly average since last census conducted 27/12/2008" (PDF).
- "Population of Israel on the Eve of 2018 - 8.8 Million". Press Release. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 31 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
- "Population growth, OECD". OECD. 2012. Retrieved 17 Feb 2014.
- "Society at a Glance 2014 Highlights: ISRAEL, OECD" (PDF). OECD. 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Statistical Abstract of Israel 2013 - No. 64 Subject 2 - Table No. 1
- Figure calculated from other sourced figures in table
- BBC News. Regions and territories: The Golan Heights.
- United Nations. Security Council Resolutions, 1981.
- Council on Foreign Relations. UN Security Council Resolution 497.
- Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. "Jerusalem Statistical Yearbook 2009/10" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Middle East Forum. "The Politics of Palestinian Demography". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. "Barrier Report July 2009. Calculation based on East Jerusalem area of 346km2 being 97% west of the barrier, and 9.5% of the West bank including East Jerusalem being in the Seam Zone" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. "Israeli Census data" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. "Israeli statistical Area data" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "The Separation Barrier - Statistics". B'Tselem. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. "Area C Humanitarian Response Plan Fact Sheet September 2010. Assumes 35,000 Palestinians estimated by B'Tselem to be living in the Seam Zone are included in the 150,000 OCHA estimate" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- CIA World Factbook. "West Bank population. Based on total area of 5,640km2 including East Jerusalem and excluding water. Figure shown calculated from other figures sourced on page". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- CIA World Factbook. "West Bank population. Assumes CIA World Factbook number excludes Israeli settlers but includes estimated 225k Palestinians living in East Jerusalem". Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- CIA World Factbook. "Gaza Strip population. Excludes Israeli settlers, but includes estimated 225k Non-Israeli Palestinians in East Jerusalem". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Structure of Local Government". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
- "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- "Population, by Population Group" (PDF). Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 31 December 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 17 Feb 2014.
- Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 - Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2015, CBS. "Table 2.8 - Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "Selected Statistics on Jerusalem Day 2007 (Hebrew)". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 14 May 2007.
- Ben-David, Yosef (1 July 1999). "The Bedouin in Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Kababir and Central Carmel – Multiculturalism on the Carmel". Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- "Visit Haifa". Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- "Kababir". Israel and You. Archived from the original on 30 January 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- "Population, by Religion". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Khoury, Jack; Stern, Yoav (2 May 2007). "Balad's MK-to-be: 'Anti-Israelization' conscientious objector". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Joyce M. Davis. Jerusalem’s Armenian Quarter. Catholic Near East Welfare Association.
- "Circassians in Israel". Circassian World. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Finnish associations – Embassy of Finland, Tel Aviv". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Landers, Ann (7 February 1997). "Readers Recall Heroic War Efforts". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "The Worldwide Bahá'í Community". Bahai.org. Retrieved 2018-07-13.
- Nechemia Meyers (1995). "Peace to all nations - Baha'is Establish Israel's Second Holy Mountain". The World & I. Retrieved Mar 5, 2015
- Donald H. Harrison (April 3, 1998). "The Fourth Faith". Jewish Sightseeing (Haifa, Israel). Retrieved Mar 5, 2015
- World Religions in America: An Introduction - Page 264, Jacob Neusner - 2003
- Hebrew: טורקיה והכורדים: קלאב MAD
- "Population, by Religion". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Israel 2010: 42% of Jews are secular". Ynetnews. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "The other Israeli conflict: with itself". The Christian Science Monitor. 9 July 2010.
- "At the edge of the abyss". Haaretz. 24 November 2009.
- "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2016".
- Orenstein, Daniel E. (2004). "Population Growth and Environmental Impact: Ideology and Academic Discourse in Israel". Population and Environment. Springer Science+Business Media. 26 (1): 41–60. doi:10.1023/B:POEN.0000039952.74913.53.
- Daniel Orenstein and Steven Hamburg."The JNF's Assault on the Negev"; The Jerusalem Report, 28 November 2005
- "Arab spouses face Israeli legal purge". The Scotsman. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "UN blasts Israeli marriage law". BBC News. 15 August 2003.
- "Israeli marriage law blocks citizenship for Palestinians". San Francisco Chronicle. 1 August 2003. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Mazen Masri, "Love Suspended: Demography, Comparative Law and Palestinian Couples in the Israeli Supreme Court", Social & Legal Studies (2013) 22(3) 309-334. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2330291
- "Ariel Sharon". Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Population, by Population Group". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Monthly Bulletin of Statistics for Population". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- הודעות לעיתונות. Cbs.gov.il. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
- "שנתון החברה החרדית לשנת 2017". www.idi.org.il (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2018-01-03.
- גילו גיל גיל גיל (in Hebrew). Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Population, by Population Group, Religion, Age and Sex, District and Sub-District". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "השנתון הסטטיסטי לישראל 2014" [Statistical Abstract of Israel 2014] (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Developed Countries Demography". Institut National d'Études Demographiques - INED. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- "Aliyah Hits Ten-Year High: Approximately 26,500 New Immigrants Arrived in Israel in 2014". Jewish Agency For Israel. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Henry Kamm. "Israeli emigration inspires anger and fear;" New York Times 4 January 1981
- Stephen J. Gold. The Israeli Diaspora; Routledge 2002, p.8
- ICBS 2005 departures and returns. Cbs.gov.il. Retrieved on 8 September 2011.
- "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
- "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
- "Total Fertility Rate". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "Fertility Rates, Average Age of Mother and Sex Ratio at Birth, by Selected Characteristics of the Mother". Statistical Abstract of Israel. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "The Fertility Dynamic of Israel's Ultra-Orthodox Jews and Pronatalist Governmental Policy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- Statistilite 133 - Women & Men in Israel - 1990-2011 Archived 16 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine., on cbs.gov.il
- "The World Factbook – Literacy". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "Field Listing: Total Fertility Rate". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
- "Country Comparison: GDP – Per Capita (PPP)". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
- Peering into the crystal ball: How Israel will look, statistically, in 2035 – Haaretz
- DellaPergola, Sergio (2001). Demography in Israel/Palestine: Trends, Prospects, Policy Implications (PDF). The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Goldscheider, Calvin (2002). Israel's Changing Society: Population, Ethnicity & Development. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3917-7.
- Tal, Alon (February 2017). "The Land Is Full: Addressing Overpopulation in Israel". Foreign Affairs. Book review by John Waterbury.
- Videos of academic lectures posted on the official YouTube VOD (video on demand) channel of Tel Aviv University:
- Rabinowitz, Dan (2012-11-18). "The Sacred Cow of Israel: The Environmental Implications of Zionism's Population Policy". (28 min)
- Dayan, Tamar (2012-11-18). "Population Increase and the Impact on Biodiversity in Israel". (16 min)
- Ehrlich, Paul; Rabinowitz, Dan; Dayan, Tamar (2012-11-18). "Questions & Answers Panel". (31 min)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demographics of Israel.|
- Official website of the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
- Demographics of Israel at the Jewish Virtual Library
- Population of Israel by the Tourism Ministry
- "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Issues in Israeli Society at the Jewish Agency for Israel
- Israel: Society and Culture at Curlie (based on DMOZ)