Demographics of Ethiopia

Demographics of Ethiopia
Population 100,613,986 (2017 est.)(14th)[1]
Growth rate 2.9% (2013 est.) (12th)
Birth rate 33.5 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)[2]
Death rate 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Life expectancy 60 years (2013 est.)
  male 57.73 years (2013 est.)
  female 62.35 years (2013 est.)
Fertility rate 4.6 children born/woman (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate 68 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Under 15 1.00 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
15–64 years 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
65 and over 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Nationality
Major ethnic See Ethnic Groups of Ethiopia
Language
Official See Languages of Ethiopia

The demographics of Ethiopia encompass the demographic features of Ethiopia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic groups in Ethiopia[3]
Ethnic group percent
Oromo
32.4%
Amhara
26%
Somali
10%
Tigray
6.2%
Sidama
4%
Gurage
2.5%
Welayta
2.3%
Hadiya
1.7%
Afar
3.7%
Gamo
1.5%
Silte
1.3%
Kefficho
1.3%
Other
8.8%

The country's population is highly diverse, comprising over 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afroasiatic languages, mainly of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans, who together constitute around three-quarters of the population.

Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities also inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas bordering South Sudan. Among these are the Mursi and Anuak.

Languages

There are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia.[4] The 1994 Ethiopian census indicates that some 77 tongues were spoken locally. Most of these languages belong to the Afroasiatic family (Cushitic and Semitic). Omotic languages are also spoken, though their classification is uncertain. Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities.

The most widely spoken languages are Oromo (34.4%), Amharic (27%), Somali (6.2%), and Tigrinya (6.1%).[5]

Amharic is the only official national language of Ethiopia. It was also the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromo,Somali and Tigrinya. English is the most widely spoken foreign language, and is officially taught in all secondary schools.

Religions

Various religions are adhered to in Ethiopia. Most Christians live in the highlands, whereas Muslims mainly inhabit the lowlands. Adherents of traditional faiths are primarily concentrated in the southern regions.

According to the Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (2007 census), the national religious composition is Orthodox 43.5%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 0.7%, Muslim 33.9%, traditional 2.6%, and others 0.6%.[6]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2011 85,555,555    
2012 84,320,987−1.44%
2013 86,613,986+2.72%

Source: Central Statistical Agency (CSA)[7]

UN estimates

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[8], the total population was 102,403,196 in 2016, compared to 18,434,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.5%, 55.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.3% was 65 years or older.The average age is 25.1. [9]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 18 43444.152.93
1955 20 29843.953.32.8
1960 22 55343.553.82.6
1965 25 48043.553.92.6
1970 28 95944.153.32.7
1975 32 95944.552.72.8
1980 35 42644.552.62.9
1985 41 07844.652.62.9
1990 48 33345.452.12.9
1995 57 04245.951.22.9
2000 65 57845.951.13.0
2005 74 26444.552.43.1
2010 82 95041.555.23.3

UN projections

Below are the UN's medium variant projections; numbers are in thousands:[9]

  • 2015 91,999
  • 2020 101,046
  • 2025 109,969
  • 2030 118,514
  • 2035 126,392
  • 2040 133,466
  • 2045 139,729
  • 2050 145,187

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events in Ethiopia is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates: [9]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR CDR NC TFR IMR
1950-1955956 000580 000377 00049.429.919.57.17199
1955-19601 027 000572 000455 00047.926.721.26.90181
1960-19651 155 000565 000589 00048.123.524.56.90160
1965-19701 298 000594 000704 00047.721.825.96.87148
1970-19751 450 000638 000812 00046.820.626.26.81140
1975-19801 579 000676 000902 00046.219.826.46.76135
1980-19851 804 000794 0001 011 00047.220.826.46.94140
1985-19902 145 000850 0001 295 00048.019.029.07.06127
1990-19952 501 000913 0001 588 00047.517.330.17.00115
1995-20002 694 000932 0001 763 00043.915.228.76.48101
2000-20052 713 000908 0001 805 00038.813.025.85.6087
2005-20102 619 000822 0001 797 00033.310.522.94.6072
2010-20153 108 000730 0002 378 0004.59

CBR = crude birth rate (per 1,000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1,000); NC = natural change (per 1,000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1,000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths[10]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2007* 73 750 932 2 218 457 839 038 1 379 419 28,8 10,9 17,9 4,16
  • Data refer to the 12 months preceding the census in May.

Life expectancy

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 34.1 1985–1990 46.2
1955–1960 36.7 1990–1995 48.1
1960–1965 40.1 1995–2000 50.7
1965–1970 42.1 2000–2005 53.6
1970–1975 43.5 2005–2010 59.1
1975–1980 44.3 2010–2015 63.7
1980–1985 43.5

Source: UN World Population Prospects[11]

Total Fertility rate in Ethiopia (Census 2007)

As per 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia [12]

Region Urban TFR Rural TFR Total TFR (U+R)
Ethiopia (Country Total)2,2204,6505.35
Tigray Region2.914.904.44
Afar Region2.442.002.07
Amhara Region2.134.544,17
Oromia Region2,6355,2354.84
Somali Region2,1751,9852.010
Benishangul - Gumuz Region3.004.804.52
S.N.N.P Region2.754.7154.49
Gambella Region2.7252,9302,885
Harari Region1,7254,7252,885
Addis Ababa City Administration1.485-1.485
Dira Dawa City Administration2,1555,4552,985
Region 173,2102,5852,845

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[13]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2000 41.3 5.9 (4.9) 30.7 3.3 (2.7) 42.9 6.4 (5.4)
2005 35.7 5.4 (4.0) 23.4 2.4 (1.8) 37.3 6.0 (4.5)
2011 34.5 4.8 (3.8) 26.4 2.6 36.2 5.5
2016 31.8 4.6 (3.6) 23.9 2.3 (2.1) 33.2 5.2 (4.0)

Fertility data as of 2011 (DHS Program):[14]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Tigray4.67.26.4
Afar5.09.97.3
Amhara4.24.76.9
Oromiya5.68.37.1
Somali7.112.47.9
Benishangul-Gumuz5.210.26.6
SNNP4.99.37.3
Gambela4.05.75.6
Harari3.86.75.5
Addis Ababa1.53.63.3
Dire Dawa3.47.24.8

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

99,465,819

Age structure

0-14 years: 43.94% (male 21,900,571/female 21,809,643)
15-24 years: 19.98% (male 9,865,976/female 10,009,596)
25-54 years: 29.31% (male 14,487,280/female 14,667,179)
55-64 years: 3.88% (male 1,882,315/female 1,981,762)
65 years and over: 2.88% (male 1,289,336/female 1,572,161) (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years
female: 17.8 years (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

2.89% (2015 est.)

Birth rate

37.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Death rate

8.19 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Urbanization

urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 61.48 years
male: 59.11 years
female: 63.93 years (2015 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.15 children born/woman (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS

adult prevalence rate: 1.15%
people living with HIV/AIDS: 730,300
deaths: 23,400 (2014 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)

See also

References

  1. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  2. "Statistics". Unicef.org. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  3. "Africa - Ethiopia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  4. "Ethiopia". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  5. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  6. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  8. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  9. 1 2 3 "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  10. "3. Live births, deaths, and infant deaths, latest available year (2002 - 2016)" (PDF). Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  11. "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  12. "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  13. "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  14. "Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".

  1. , Ethiopian Government Portal
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