Deaflympics

Deaflympics Games
Deaflympics Logo
Motto PER LUDOS AEQUALITAS (Equality through sport)
First event 1924 in Paris, France1924 Summer Deaflympics[1]
Occur every 4 years
Last event 2017 in Samsun, Turkey2017 Summer Deaflympics
Purpose Provision of opportunities for deaf persons to participate in elite sports
Website www.deaflympics.com
www.ciss.org

The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level. Unlike the athletes in other IOC-sanctioned events (the Olympics, the Paralympics, and the Special Olympics), the Deaflympians cannot be guided by sounds (e.g., the starter's guns, bullhorn commands or referee whistles).[2] The games have been organized by the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS, "The International Committee of Sports for the Deaf") since the first event.

History

The Deaflympics are held every four years, and are the longest running multi-sport event excluding the Olympics themselves.[3] The first games, held in Paris in 1924, were also the first ever international sporting event for athletes with a disability.[4] The event has been held every four years since, apart from a break for World War II, and an additional event, the Deaflympic Winter Games, was added in 1949.[5] The games began as a small gathering of 148 athletes from nine European nations competing in the International Silent Games in Paris, France, in 1924; now, they have grown into a global movement.[2]

Officially, the games were originally called the "International Games for the Deaf" from 1924 to 1965, but were sometimes also referred to as the "International Silent Games". From 1966 to 1999 they were called the "World Games for the Deaf", and occasionally referred to as the "World Silent Games". From 2001, the games have been known by their current name Deaflympics (often mistakenly called the Deaf Olympics).[5]

To qualify for the games, athletes must have a hearing loss of at least 55 db in their "better ear". Hearing aids, cochlear implants and the like are not allowed to be used in competition, to place all athletes on the same level.[5] Other examples of ways the games vary from hearing competitions are the manner in which they are officiated. To address the issue of Deaflympians not being able to be guided by sounds, certain sports use alternative methods of commencing the game. For example, the football referees wave a flag instead of blowing a whistle; on the track, races are started by using a light, instead of a starter pistol. It is also customary for spectators not to cheer or clap, but rather to wave – usually with both hands.

Host nations and cities

To date, the Summer Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 21 cities in 17 countries, but by cities outside Europe on only six occasions (Washington D.C. 1965, Los Angeles 1985, Christchurch 1989, Melbourne 2005, Taipei 2009 and Samsun 2017). The last summer games were held in Samsun, Turkey in 2017. The Winter Deaflympic Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. The last winter games were held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russian Federation in 2015.

The 2011 Winter Games scheduled to be held in Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia were cancelled due to the lack of readiness by the organizing committee to host the games.[6][7] The International Committee of Deaf Sports filed a criminal complaint against the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee and its President, Mr. Jaromír Ruda.[8] The criminal complaint demands reimbursement of the funds that were transferred to the Slovak Deaflympics Organizing Committee from national deaf sports federations, to cover hotel accommodations and other Deaflympics-related expenses.[8] According to the Slovak newspaper, SME, "Jaromír Ruda, head of the Slovak Organising Committee, [is] a champion of promises and someone who is accused of a 1.6 million Euro Deaflympics-related fraud".[9] In a letter to the United States Deaflympians, International Committee of Sports for the Deaf ICSD President Craig Crowley expressed "his deep apologies for the cancellation of the 17th Winter Deaflympics".[10] Currently, the Slovak Deaflympic Committee and the Slovakia Association of Deaf Sportsmen Unions have been suspended.[11] In 2013 the Special Criminal Court in Banská Bystrica sentenced Ruda to a prison term of 14 and a half years for defrauding €1.6 million that should have been used for Winter Deaflympics.[12]

The host cities and NOCs for all past and scheduled games are as follows:[4][13]

List of Summer Deaflympics Hosts

Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1924 Paris, France Gaston Doumergue 10–17 August 9148147 1 631  France
2 1928 Amsterdam, Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands 18–26 August 10212198 14 538  Great Britain
3 1931 Nuremberg, Germany 19–23 August 14316288 28 643  Germany
4 1935 London, Great Britain 17–24 August 12221178 43 541  Great Britain
5 1939 Stockholm, Sweden 24–27 August 13250208 42 643  Great Britain
6 1949 Copenhagen, Denmark 12–16 August 14391342 49 751  Great Britain
7 1953 Brussels, Belgium 15–19 August 16 473 432 41 7 57  Germany
8 1957 Milan, Italy 25–30 August 25 635 565 70 9 69  Soviet Union
9 1961 Helsinki, Finland 6–10 August 24 613 503 110 10 94  Soviet Union
10 1965 Washington DC, United States Lyndon B. Johnson 27 June – 3 July 27 687 575 112 9 85  Soviet Union
11 1969 Belgrade, Yugoslavia 9–16 August 33 1189 964 225 12 105  Soviet Union
12 1973 Malmö, Sweden 21–28 August 31 1116 893 223 11 97  United States
13 1977 Bucharest, Romania Nicolae Ceauşescu 17–27 July 32 1150 913 237 11 106  United States
14 1981 Köln, West Germany 23 July – 1 August 32 1198 893 305 11 110  United States
15 1985 Los Angeles, United States Ronald Reagan 10–20 August 29 995 745 250 11 96  United States
16 1989 Christchurch, New Zealand David Cargill 7–17 January 30 955 726 229 12 120  United States
17 1993 Sofia, Bulgaria 24 July − 2 August 52 1679 1295 384 12 126  United States
18 1997 Copenhagen, Denmark John M. Lovett 13–26 July 65 2028 1496 534 14 140  United States
19 2001 Rome, Italy 22 July − 1 August 67 2208 1562 646 14 143  United States
20 2005 Melbourne, Australia Marigold Southey 5–16 January 63 2038 1402 636 14 147  Ukraine
21 2009 Taipei, Taiwan Ma Ying-jeou 5–15 September 80 2670 1714 779 17 177  Russia
22 2013 Sofia, Bulgaria
Füssen, Germany
Rosen Plevneliev 26 July – 4 August 83 2711 1792 919 16 203  Russia
23 2017 Samsun, Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 18–30 July 97 2856 1897 959 18 219  Russia
24 2021

List of Winter Deaflympics Hosts

Games Year Host Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1949 Seefeld, Austria 26–30 February 53333025 Switzerland
2 1953 Oslo, Norway 20–24 February 64442249  Norway
3 1955 Oberammergau, Germany 10–13 February 859545411  Norway
4 1959 Montana-Vermala, Switzerland 27–31 January 14  Norway
5 1963 Åre, Sweden 12–16 March 13  Austria
6 1967 Berchtesgaden, West Germany 20–25 February 11  Norway
7 1971 Adelboden, Switzerland 25–30 February 11 Switzerland
8 1975 Lake Placid, United States 2–8 February 12  Canada
9 1979 Méribel, France 21–27 January 12  Soviet Union
10 1983 Madonna di Campiglio, Italy 13–23 January 17  Soviet Union
11 1987 Oslo, Norway 7–14 February 18  Norway
12 1991 Banff, Canada 2–9 March 18  Soviet Union
13 1995 Ylläs, Finland 14–19 March 15  Russia
14 1999 Davos, Switzerland 6–14 March 17  Russia
15 2003 Sundsvall, Sweden 26 February – 9 March 23  Russia
16 2007 Salt Lake City, United States 1–10 February 26  Russia
17 2011 Vysoké Tatry, Slovakia 16–28 February Cancelled
18 2015 Khanty-Mansiysk and Magnitogorsk, Russia 28 March – 5 April 31  Russia
19 2019 TBC

All-time medal table

Summer Deaflympics

An all-time Summer Deaflympics from 1924 Summer Deaflympics to 2017 Summer Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Summer Deaflympics. [14]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States3553103381003
2 Russia240151220662
3 Soviet Union173124108405
4 Germany168207207587
5 Ukraine10184130370
6 Iran896978236
7 Italy8884111283
8 Great Britain688595248
9 Japan676550182
10 France669092248
11 Sweden648060204
12 South Korea625741160
13 Hungary514438133
14 Finland475147145
15 Denmark464053139
16 China463644125
17 Australia39243093
18 Belarus374026103
19 Poland365472162
20 South Africa3518962
21 Turkey343660130
22 Netherlands32352895
23 Norway32282585
24 Canada314037108
25 Chinese Taipei27313492
26 Yugoslavia24132158
27 India1881338
28 Ireland16151142
29 Czech Republic1691035
30 Bulgaria154249106
31 Belgium15294185
32 Kenya14131542
33 Lithuania13172757
34 Venezuela12101537
35 Cuba1251227
36 Estonia1181332
37 Switzerland9161641
38 East Germany78822
39 Romania691429
40 Greece69722
41 New Zealand56718
42 Portugal54413
43 Croatia45312
44 Czechoslovakia37919
45 Latvia35311
46 Slovakia34310
47 Kazakhstan31812
48 Puerto Rico3014
49 Austria26816
50 Thailand2103
51 Malaysia17311
52 Mongolia161320
53 Spain13610
54 Argentina1337
55 Mexico1236
56 Brazil1179
57 Macau1012
57 Singapore1012
59 Slovenia0213
59 Nigeria0213
61 Georgia0213
62 Armenia0156
63 Indonesia0134
64 Serbia0123
65 Moldova0112
66 Ecuador0101
67 Iceland0101
68 Kyrgyzstan0055
69 Israel0022
70 Cyprus0011
70 Colombia0011
70 Hong Kong0011
70 Egypt0011
70 Turkmenistan0011
70 Saudi Arabia0011
70 Uzbekistan0011
Total

Winter Deaflympics

An all-time Winter Deaflympics from 1949 Winter Deaflympics to 2015 Winter Deaflympics, is tabulated below. The table is simply the consequence of the sum of the medal tables of the various editions of the Winter Deaflympics. [15]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Norway483640124
2 Russia35222885
3 Canada2791147
4 Soviet Union24262171
5 Switzerland22292475
6 Finland21192060
7 United States204140101
8 Italy18111240
9 Austria17242061
10 Czech Republic165526
11 Germany13152856
12 France1012830
13 Japan82313
14 Australia64111
15 Sweden2151027
16 Slovakia25714
17 Slovenia2237
18 Great Britain2226
19 China1135
20 Ukraine010616
21 Yugoslavia0112
22 Lithuania0101
23 Croatia0011
24 Turkey0011
Total

Sports

Summer Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Summer Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 24 28 31 35 39 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 01 05 09 13 17
 
Current summer sports
 
Aquatics – Swimming 7 10 11 10 11 14 18 14 14 15 17 17 26 26 34 31 34 32 38 38 38 38 40
 
Athletics 17 20 23 23 23 24 26 32 32 33 34 34 35 30 32 36 40 40 43 42 43 44 43
Badminton 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 6
Basketball DIBF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Bowling 10 10 10 10 8 12
 
Cycling – Mountain 2 2
Cycling – Road 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 8
 
Football 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Golf 2
Handball 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
Judo 10 17 17
Karate 5 15 18
Orienteering 6 6 5 8 9
Shooting 1 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 8 7 7 6 6 10 11 12
Table Tennis 5 5 7 7 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Taekwondo 8 13 13
Tennis 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
 
Volleyball – Beach 2 2 2 2
Volleyball – Indoor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Wrestling – Freestyle 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
Wrestling – Greco-Roman 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 7 7 7 8
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Aquatics – Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aquatics – Water Polo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Gymnastics – Artistic 2 2 13 12 12
 
Demonstration summer sports
 
Gymnastics – Artistic
Gymnastics – Rhythmic
 
Total 31 38 43 45 47 51 57 69 94 85 105 97 106 110 96 120 126 140 143 147 177 203 219

These sports are organised by the CISS but haven't appeared in the Deaflympics:

  • Futsal

Winter Deaflympics

The following sports have been contested in a Winter Deaflympic Games programme:

Sport (Discipline) Body 49 53 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 99 03 07 15
 
Current winter sports
 
Curling 2 2
Ice hockey 1 1 1 1 1 1
 
Skiing – Alpine 3 4 6 10 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 8 8 8 10 10
Skiing – Snowboarding 6 5 10
Skiing – Nordic – Cross-Country 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 9 8
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Skiing – Nordic – Nordic Combined 1 1
Skiing – Nordic – Ski jumping 1 1 1
 
Speed skating 3 4 5
 
Demonstration winter sports
 
Curling
Ice hockey AHIHA
 
Skiing – Snowboarding
 
Speed skating
 
Total 5 9 11 14 13 11 11 12 12 17 18 18 15 17 23 27 31

See also

References

  1. "Constitution". International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  2. 1 2 International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – News Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  3. What are the Deaflympics?. Disabled World. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  4. 1 2 Future Directions of the Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  5. 1 2 3 Historical overview of the Paralympics, Special Olympics, and Deaflympics. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  6. Winter Olympics: 2011 Winter Deaflympics Cancelled Archived 25 January 2013 at Archive.is. Healthyhearing.com (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  7. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Deaflympics.com (13 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  8. 1 2 ICSD Pursuing Legal Action Following Failure of 17th Winter Deaflympics. Deaf Sports Mag. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  9. Slovakia: Deaflympics 2011 Controversy · Global Voices. Globalvoices.org. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  10. 2011 US Deaflympics – Article | Letter from ICSD to USA athletes Archived 9 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Usdeaflympics.org (17 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  11. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – PressRelease Archived 18 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Deaflympics.com (14 February 2011). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  12. Deaflympics Committee Head Sentenced to Thirteen Years – English News. Webnoviny.sk. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  13. International Committee of Sports for the Deaf – Games. Deaflympics.com. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.
  14. "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  15. "Deaflympics". deaflympics.com. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
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