Curva

Curva [ˈkurva] (plural: curve [ˈkurve]) is an Italian term or name for curved stands of seating located at sports stadiums, particularly in Italy; so named, originally, due to their curved or bending shape. The curva plays an integral part in the culture of Ultras and European football.

Composition

The majority of stands referred to as a "curva" are located behind the goals in their respective stadiums and contain the most vocal supporters within them, often known as Ultras. They are usually curved in shape, in some form whether minor or major, often due to the presence of a running track around the pitch.[1] The Stadio Giuseppe Meazza provides an example of two prominent stands referred to as "curva", "Curva Nord" and "Curva Sud", which contain only minor curves at their corners, while the Stadio Olimpico provides an example of two completely curved stands. A curva may extend from one corner flag to another or be located centrally behind the goal, bordered by two separate corner sections for ticketing or organizational purposes.[2]

Significance

Being home to the most openly passionate supporters in a stadium, the curva is usually the focal point of a club's support. It is often the scene of dramatic choreographed displays of support and occasionally, disapproval for a team or club.[3] These displays often take on an importance of their own, particularly in games involving rivals where both sets of supporters aim to outdo each other.[4] In certain countries, particularly those where sports clubs and supporters are extremely reflective of the local culture, the curva can become quite politicized in nature.[4] Therefore, it is not uncommon for a curva to be split into individual factions or groups, either solely or partially, based on politics, and for one group to hold significant control of the curva and its inhabitants on match days. Ultras groups within a curva often benefit from this degree of relative uniformity, when there are issues regarding supporters' rights and the commercialization of sports and football in particular.

Locations

Algeria

Stadium Club Stand
July 5, 1962 StadiumMC AlgerUltras Verde Leone (Virage Sud)
May 19, 1956 StadiumUSM AnnabaLes indepandants de bone (Curva Nord Annaba)
Stade 20 Août 1955,
Skikda
JSM SkikdaUltras Senza Confine (Curva Sud)
Mohamed Hamlaoui Stadium,
Constantine
CS ConstantineUltras Loca Ragazzi (Curva Nord)
November 1, 1954 Stadium (Tizi Ouzou),
Tizi-Ouzou
JS KabylieUltras Kabylie Boys (Zona Amazigh)
August 20, 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
CR BelouizdadUltras Fanatic Reds (Volcana)
Stade 8 Mai 1945,
Setif
ES SetifUltras Inferno (Curva Nord)
Mohamed Boumezrag Stadium,
Chlef
ASO ChlefUltras Polina (Curva Sud)
November 1, 1954 Stadium (Batna),
Batna
CA BatnaUltras Aurès Boys (Curva Sud)

Austria

Stadium Club Stand
Allianz StadionSK Rapid WienBlock West

Bulgaria

Stadium Club Stand
Georgi Asparuhov StadiumLevski SofiaSektor B / Juzhnata Tribuna / South Stand
Bulgarian Army StadiumCSKA SofiaSektor G / Severnata Tribuna / North Stand
Hristo Botev Stadium (Plovdiv)Botev PlovdivTribuna Iztok / Tribune East / East Stand
Lokomotiv Stadium (Plovdiv)Lokomotiv PlovdivTribuna Besika / Tribune Bessica / North Stand

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion Asim Ferhatović HaseSarajevo"Vedran Puljić"-Sjever / North Stand
Stadion GrbavicaŽeljezničarSector C-Jug / South Stand
Stadion Bilino poljeČelikJug / South Stand
Tušanj City StadiumSlobodaSjever / North Stand
Banja Luka City StadiumBoracSjever / North Stand
Gradski SRC SlavijaStadion SRC SlavijaJug / South Stand

China

Stadium Club Stand Group
CSUFT East-Garden StadiumHunan BillowsCurva NordBad Billows Boys

Croatia

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion MaksimirDinamo ZagrebNorth Stand / Sjever
Stadion PoljudHNK Hajduk SplitNorth Stand / Sjever
Stadion KantridaHNK RijekaWest Stand / Zapad
Stadion Gradski VrtNK OsijekSouthEast/East Stand /Jugoistok/Istok
Stadion Alde DrosineNK Istra 1961North Stand / Sjever

Cyprus

Stadium Club Stand
GSP StadiumAC Omonia NicosiaNorth Stand/Gate-9
GSP StadiumAPOEL FCSouth Stand/AU79
Tsirion StadiumAEL LimassolEast Stand/Gate-3
Tsirion StadiumApollon LimassolWest Stand/Gate-1
Antonis Papadopoulos StadiumAnorthosis Famagusta FCSouth Stand/Maxhtec

Denmark

Stadium Club Stand
Aalborg Portland ParkAalborg BKVesttribunen
Blue Water ArenaEsbjerg fBNordvestkurve
Viborg StadionViborg FFSydtribunen
Brøndby StadionBrøndby IFSydsiden (earlier Faxetribunen)
Telia ParkenFC CopenhagenSektion 12
TRE-FOR ParkOdense BKStiften
NRGi ParkAarhus GFSpeakers Corner

Egypt

Stadium Club Stand
Cairo International StadiumAl Ahly SCUltras Ahlawy/Curva Nord
Cairo International StadiumZamalek SCUltras White Knights/Curva Sud
Port Said StadiumAl-Masry SCUltras Green Eagles
Suez StadiumSuez MontakhabUltras Suez Fedyan
Ghazl El Mahalla StadiumGhazl El Mahalla SCUltras Whales 2008
Ismailia StadiumIsmaily SCUltras Yellow Dragons
Alexandria StadiumAl Ittihad Alexandria ClubUltras Green Magic

Finland

Stadium Club Stand
Helsinki Olympic StadiumFinland national football teamPohjoiskaarre
Sonera StadiumHJK HelsinkiKlubipääty

Malta

Stadium Club Stand
Ta' Qali StadiumValletta F.C.Ultras Beltin 999
Ta' Qali StadiumBirkirkara F.C.Ultras Birkirkara 97
Hibernians StadiumHibernians F.C.Paola Boys Hibs Ultras 07
Sirens StadiumSirens F.C.Ultras Sireni 16
Centenary StadiumMarsa F.C.Ultras Marsin 10
Ta' Qali StadiumSliema Wanderers F.C.Sliema Ultras 2008
Centenary StadiumTarxien Rainbows F.C.Tarxien Ultras 2014
Gozo StadiumXewkija Tigers F.C.12th Tiger Supporters Club
Gozo StadiumNadur Youngsters F.C.White Force Nadur Ultras
Gozo StadiumGhajnsielem F.C.Black Pride 2007
Gozo StadiumXaghra United F.C.Blue Warriors Xaghra Ultras
Gharb StadiumGharb Rangers F.C.West Blue Army est.2013
Luxol StadiumMelita F.C.Melita Supporters Club

France

Stadium Club Stand
Stade Armand CesariSC BastiaEst/Petrignani
Stade Chaban-DelmasGirondins de BordeauxVirage Sud
Stade VélodromeOlympique de MarseilleVirage Nord/Sud
Parc des PrincesParis Saint-Germain FCKop of Boulogne/Virage Auteuil

Germany

Stadium Club Stand
Signal Iduna ParkBorussia DortmundSüdtribüne/Gelbe Wand
Olympiastadion/Allianz ArenaBayern MünchenSüdkurve
Volkswagen ArenaWolfsburgNordkurve
Commerzbank-ArenaEintracht FrankfurtNordwestkurve
Fritz-Walter-Stadion1. FC KaiserslauternWestkurve
Max Morlock Stadion1. FC NürnbergNordkurve
AWD-ArenaHannover 96Nordkurve
WeserstadionWerder BremenOstkurve
OlympiastadionHertha BSCOstkurve Hertha BSC
Veltins-ArenaFC Schalke 04Nordkurve
Borussia ParkBorussia MönchengladbachNordkurve
BayArenaBayer 04 LeverkusenNordkurve

Greece

Stadium Club Stand
Peristeri Stadium Atromitos F.C. Fentagin
Apostolos NikolaidisPanathinaikos F.C.Gate 13
Karaiskaki StadiumOlympiacos F.C.Gate 7
Toumba StadiumPAOK F.C.Gate 4
Olympic Stadium (Athens)AEK Athens F.C.Original 21
Kleanthis Vikelidis StadiumAris F.C.Super-3
Kaftanzoglio StadiumIraklis Thessaloniki F.C.Autonomous Gate 10
AEL FC ArenaAEL 1964 F.C.Monsters Gate 1
Genti KouleOFI CreteSnakes Gate 4
Nea Smyrni StadiumPanioniosPanthers Gate 3

India

Stadium Club Stand
Salt Lake Stadium, East Bengal Ground East Bengal F.C. Curva Nord

Indonesia

Stadium Club Stand
Si Jalak Harupat StadiumPersib BandungLa Curva Pasundan
Gelora Bung Karno StadiumPersija JakartaCurva Nord Persija
Maguwoharjo StadiumPSS SlemanBrigata Curva Sud
Gelora Bung Tomo StadiumPersebaya 1927Green Nord
Tridharma Petrokima StadiumGresik UnitedUltras Gresik Curva Sud
Gelora Delta StadiumDeltras F.C.Curva North
Mandala Krida StadiumPSIM YogyakartaMataram Independent 1929
Rumbai StadiumPSPS PekanbaruCurva Nord
Surajaya StadiumPersela LamonganCurva Boys 1967
Persikabo StadiumPersikabo BogorCurva Sud
Wijayakusuma StadiumPSCS CilacapCurva Nord Squadra 1950
Benteng StadiumPersita TangerangNorth Legion
Brawijaya StadiumPersik KediriCurva Nord
Kanjuruhan StadiumArema Cronous F.C.Curva Sud 1987
Batik City StadiumPersip PekalonganCurva Sud BBC
Gelora Bumi Kartini StadiumPersijap JeparaCurva Nord Syndicate
Goentoer Darjono StadiumPersibangga PurbalinggaBraling Mania Curva Nord
Sultan Agung StadiumPersiba BantulCurva Nord Famiglia X 1967
Letjen Haji Sudirman StadiumPersibo BojonegoroCurva Nord 1949
Mahakam StadiumDepok United F.C.Curva Nord
Manahan StadiumPersis Solo F.C.Curva Nord
Merpati StadiumPersikad DepokCurva Nord
Madya StadiumPPSM Kartika NusantaraGate 3
Haji Agus Salim StadiumSemen Padang F.C.Curva Sud UWS

Ireland

Stadium Club Stand
Turner's CrossCork City FCThe Shed End

Italy

Stadium Club Stand
Juventus StadiumJuventus F.C.Curva Sud / Curva Scirea
Arena GaribaldiPisa CalcioCurva Nord Maurizio Alberti
San SiroF.C. Internazionale MilanoCurva Nord Milano
San SiroA.C. MilanCurva Sud
Stadio Artemio FranchiACF FiorentinaCurva Fiesole
Stadio Atleti Azzurri d'ItaliaAtalanta B.C.Curva Pisani
Stadio Ennio TardiniParma F.C.Curva Nord
Stadio Luigi FerrarisGenoa C.F.C.Gradinata Nord
Stadio Luigi FerrarisU.C. SampdoriaGradinata Sud
Stadio Marc'Antonio BentegodiA.C. Chievo VeronaCurva Nord
Stadio Marc'Antonio BentegodiHellas Verona F.C.Curva Sud
Stadio OlimpicoS.S. LazioCurva Nord
Stadio OlimpicoA.S. RomaCurva Sud
Stadio Olimpico (Torino)Torino F.C.Curva Maratona
Stadio Partenio A. LombardiU.S. Avellino 1912Curva Sud
Stadio Renato Dall'AraBologna F.C. 1909Curva Bulgarelli
Stadio San PaoloS.S.C. NapoliCurva A/Curva B
Stadio San NicolaA.S. BariCurva Nord
Stadio Angelo MassiminoCalcio CataniaCurva Nord
Stadio Nicola CeravoloFC CatanzaroCurva Massimo Capraro
Stadio Sant'EliaCagliari CalcioCurva Nord
Stadio Mario RigamontiBrescia CalcioCurva Nord
Stadio FriuliUdinese CalcioCurva Nord
Stadio Franco OssolaA.S. Varese 1910Curva Nord

Macedonia

Stadium Club Stand Group
Philip II ArenaFK VardarWest StandKomiti

Malaysia

Stadium Team/Club Stand Group
Stadium Nasional Bukit Jalil Malaysia National Football Team Curva Ultras Malaya 07 Ultras Malaya
Stadium Bolasepak Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur Football Team Droogs Curva Kuala Lumpur Ultras (the Cityboys)
Shah Alam Stadium Selangor FA Green Curva Nord ultraSel
Stadium Perak Perak FA Silvermania Curva / Belang Tarung Tiga Warna Silver State Ultras
Stadium Negeri Sarawak FA Curva Distrixtigabelas GB-13
Darul Makmur Stadium Pahang FA Curva Sebelas Elephant Army
Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium Johor Darul Ta'zim FC Boys Of Straits
Sultan Muhammad IV Stadium Kelantan FA Gate H Boys
Darul Aman Stadium Kedah FA Terrace 1- T1 Ultras Kedah
Likas Stadium Sabah FA North Borneo Ultras
Stadium Sultan Mizan Zainal Abiddin Terengganu FA Curva Gong Badak Ultras Tranung

Morocco

Stade Mohamed VRaja CasablancaUltras Green Boys 05 /Curva Sud magana
Prince Moulay Abdellah StadiumAssociation Sportive des FARUltras Askary 2005, Black Army 1427 / Curva Sud Che
Stade de MarrakechKawkab MarrakechUltras crazy boys 2006 /Curva Sud 36 (Mitica)
Stade Mohamed VWydad Casablancaultras winners 2005 /Curva Nord
Stade AdrarHassania AgadirUltras Imazighen 2006/Curva Sud

Ultras Red Rebels/ Curva Nord

Stade Saniat RmelMoghreb TetouanUltras Los Matadores 2005 - Ultras Siempre Paloma 2006 / Gate 3 - Curva Norte
Stade Mimoun Al ArsiChabab Rif Al HoceimaUltras Los Rifeños 2012/Curva Rifeña
Ibn Batouta StadiumIttihad Riadi TangerUltra Hercules 2007/Curva Loca

Netherlands

Stadium Club Stand
Amsterdam ArenaAFC AjaxZuid/F-Side Vak 410
De KuipFeyenoordGerard Meijer Tribune

Philippines

Stadium Club Stand
Panaad Park and StadiumCeres–Negros F.C.South Side Curva

Poland

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion GOSiRArka GdyniaGórka
Stadion MiejskiLech PoznańKocioł
Polish Army StadiumLegia WarszawaŻyleta

Portugal

Stadium Club Stand
Estádio do DragãoF.C. PortoTopo Sul
Estádio das AntasF.C. PortoCurva Norte
Estádio da LuzS.L. BenficaTopo Sul
Estádio José AlvaladeSporting Clube de PortugalCurva Sul
Estádio 1º de MaioSporting Clube de BragaCurva Norte

Romania

Stadium Club Stand
Stadionul SteauaFC Steaua BucureştiPeluza Nord
Stadionul SteauaFC Steaua BucureştiPeluza Sud
Stadionul GiuleştiFC Rapid BucureştiPeluza Nord 1996
Stadionul Dan PăltinişanuFC TimişoaraCurva Sud
Stadionul Stefan cel MareFC Dinamo BucureştiPeluza Catalin Haldan / Peluza Sud
Stadionul Ilie OanaFC Petrolul PloiestiLupii Galbeni / Peluza I
Stadionul Ilie OanaFC Petrolul PloiestiPeluza Latina
Stadionul Ion OblemencoCS Universitatea CraiovaPeluza Nord

Russia

Stadium Club Stand
Petrovsky StadiumFC Zenit Saint PetersburgVirazh(Virage)

(in Russian)

Stadium Club Stand
Lokomotiv StadiumFC Lokomotiv MoscowJug(South)

Scotland

Stadium Club Stand
Celtic ParkCelticBlock 111
Ibrox StadiumRangersSection BF1
Pittodrie StadiumAberdeen RDS Centre Block

Serbia

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion Crvena ZvezdaCrvena ZvezdaNorth Stand / Sever
Stadion PartizanFK PartizanSouth Stand / Jug
Stadion ČairFK Radnički NišSouth Stand / Jug
Stadion KarađorđeFK VojvodinaNorth Stand / Sever
Omladinski StadionOFK BeogradSouth Stand / Jug

Spain

Stadium Club Stand
Estadio Vicente CalderónAtlético de MadridFondo Sur
Estadio Santiago BernabéuReal MadridFondo Sur
Estadio Manuel Ruiz de LoperaReal BetisGol Sur
Estadio Ramón Sánchez PizjuánSevillaGol Norte
Estadi RCDERCD EspanyolGol Cornellà
Estadio MestallaValenciaCurva Nord Mario Alberto Kempes
La RosaledaMálaga CFFrente Bokeron / Brigadas Sur
Estadio Municipal de RiazorDeportivo la CoruñaRiazor Blues/Maratón inferior

Sweden

Stadium Club Stand
Friends ArenaAIKNorra Stå
Tele2 ArenaDjurgårdens IFSofialäktaren (Södra Stå)
Gamla UlleviGAIS, Örgryte ISSektion 23, Östra Stå
Tele2 ArenaHammarby IFVästra Långsidan Bajen Fans 1981

Norra Stå Hammarby Ultras 1993, Ultras Boys 1999, Söder Bröder 1998, Bajen Fans flagg-Grupp, Bara Bajare 1996, Bajen Kollektivet

OlympiaHelsingborgs IFSödra Stå

Sektion 37

Borås ArenaIF ElfsborgElfsborgsläktaren
Gamla UlleviIFK GöteborgKommandobryggan
Nya ParkenIFK NorrköpingCurva Nordahl
StadionMalmö FFNorra Ståplats
Behrn ArenaÖrebro SKVästra Stå

Switzerland

Stadium Club Stand
LetzigrundFC ZürichSüdkurve
St. Jakob-ParkFC BaselMuttenzerkurve

Tunisia

Stadium Club Stand
Stade Olympique de RadèsES TunisCurva Sud Tunis
Stade Olympique de RadèsClub AfricainCurva Nord Tunis
Stade Taïeb MhiriCS SfaxienCurva Nord Sfax
Stade Olympique de Sousse ES SahelCurva Nord Sousse
Stade Olympique de GabesSG GabesCurva Sud Gabes

Turkey

Stadium Club Stand
BJK İnönü StadıBeşiktaş J.K.Kapalı Tribün
Şükrü Saracoğlu StadiumFenerbahçe SKTürk Telekom Tribünü
Bursa Atatürk Stadium Bursaspor SKTeksas (taraftar grubu)

Ukraine

Stadium Club Stand
Olimpiyskiy National Sports ComplexDynamo KyivSector'41 & Sector'43
Dnipro-ArenaFC DniproCurva Nord (Sector'9)
Ukraina StadiumKarpaty LvivSector 15'16
Donbas ArenaShakhtar DonetskSector 111'112
Metalist Oblast Sports ComplexMetalist KharkivCurva South
Chornomorets StadiumChornomorets OdesaSectot 20
Oleksiy Butovskyi Vorskla StadiumFC Vorskla PoltavaSectot 22
Avanhard StadiumFC Volyn LutskSectot 17
Slavutych-ArenaMetalurh ZaporizhyaSʹomyy Sektor
Avanhard StadiumFC Zorya LuhanskSectot'7

See also

References

Specific
  1. "Football in Rome". Italy Heaven. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  2. "LO STADIO OLIMPICO". Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  3. Micheal Lehane (7 January 2004). "Soccer: Roma Therapy". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  4. 1 2 "Il Derby della Capitale". CBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
General
  • Testa, A. and Armstrong, G. (2008). "Words and actions: Italian ultras and neo-fascism" Social Identities, vol. 14 (4), pp. 473 – 490
  • Testa, A. (2009) "UltraS: an Emerging Social Movement", Review of European Studies, vol. 1 (2), 54–63
  • Testa, A. (2010). Contested Meanings: the Italian Media and the UltraS. Review of European Studies, vol 2(1), 15–24
  • Testa, A. and Armstrong, G. (in press; November 2010). Football, Fascism and Fandom: The UltraS of Italian Football, A&C (Bloomsbury), London, Black Publishers.
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