Curcuma zedoaria
1896 illustration[1]
Scientific classification
  • Kua Rheede ex Medic.
  • Erndlia Giseke
  • Stissera Giseke 1792, illegitimate homonym not Heist. ex Fabr. 1759
  • Hitcheniopsis (Baker) Ridl.
  • Paracautleya R.M.Sm.

Curcuma is a genus of about 100 accepted species in the family Zingiberaceae that contains such species as turmeric and Siam Tulip. They are native to Southeast Asia, southern China, the Indian Subcontinent, New Guinea and northern Australia. Some species are reportedly naturalised in other warm parts of the world such as tropical Africa, Central America, Florida, and various islands of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

The name comes from the Sanskrit kuṅkuma, referring to turmeric. Turmeric has been used in India since ancient times as a substitute for saffron and other yellowish pigments.[8] Since assembly of the genus Curcuma by Linnaeus in 1753 about 130 species have been described so far. Some of the species descriptions are without Latin diagnosis or type specimen, therefore the legitimacy of many species is unclear. An overview about the taxonomical classification along with citation of the most relevant literature of Curcuma species can be found at Wikispecies Species:Curcuma.


  1. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.
  2. Curcuma albicoma S.Q.Tong
  3. Curcuma albiflora Thwaites
  4. Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. : Siam tulip
  5. Curcuma amada Roxb. : mango-ginger
  6. Curcuma amarissima Roscoe
  7. Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.
  8. Curcuma aromatica Salisb. : wild turmeric
  9. Curcuma attenuata Wall. ex Baker
  10. Curcuma aurantiaca van Zijp
  11. Curcuma australasica Hook.f.
  12. Curcuma bakeriana Hemsl. nomen illegit.
  13. Curcuma bicolor Mood & K.Larsen
  14. Curcuma bhatii (R.M.Smith) Skornickova & M.Sabu
  15. Curcuma burttii K.Larsen & R.M.Smith
  16. Curcuma caesia Roxb. : black turmeric
  17. Curcuma ceratotheca K.Schum.
  18. Curcuma chuanezhu Z.Y.Zhu nomen illegit.
  19. Curcuma chuanhuangjiang Z.Y.Zhu nomen illegit.
  20. Curcuma chuanyujin C.K.Hsieh & H.Zhang
  21. Curcuma cochinchinensis Gagnep.
  22. Curcuma codonantha Skornickova
  23. Curcuma coerulea K.Schum.
  24. Curcuma colorata Valeton
  25. Curcuma comosa Roxb.
  26. Curcuma coriacea Mangaly & M.Sabu
  27. Curcuma decipiens Dalzell
  28. Curcuma ecalcarata Sivar. & Balach.
  29. Curcuma euchroma Valeton
  30. Curcuma ecomata Craib
  31. Curcuma elata Roxb.
  32. Curcuma exigua N.Liu
  33. Curcuma ferruginea Roxb.
  34. Curcuma flaviflora S.Q.Tong
  35. Curcuma glans K.Larsen & Mood
  36. Curcuma gracillima Gagnep.
  37. Curcuma grandiflora Wall. ex Baker
  38. Curcuma haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu
  39. Curcuma harmandii Gagnep.
  40. Curcuma heyneana Valeton & van Zijp
  41. Curcuma inodora Blatt.
  42. Curcuma karnatakensis Amalraj
  43. Curcuma kudagensis Velayudhan, V.S.Pillai & Amalraj
  44. Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee & C.L.Liang
  45. Curcuma lanceolata Ridley
  46. Curcuma larsenii C.Maknoi & T.Jenjittikul
  47. Curcuma latiflora Valeton
  48. Curcuma latifolia Roscoe
  49. Curcuma leonidii identified at Bu Gia Map National Park[9]
  50. Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb.
  51. Curcuma loerzingii Valeton
  52. Curcuma longa L. : turmeric
  53. Curcuma longispica Valeton
  54. Curcuma malabarica Velayudhan, Amalraj & Muralidharan
  55. Curcuma meraukensis Valeton
  56. Curcuma mutabilis Skornickova, M.Sabu & Prasanthkumar
  57. Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight
  58. Curcuma nilamburensis K.C.Velayudhan et al.
  59. Curcuma oligantha Trimen
  60. Curcuma ornata Wall. ex Baker
  61. Curcuma parviflora Wall.
  62. Curcuma parvula Gage
  63. Curcuma peethapushpa Sasidh. & Sivar.
  64. Curcuma petiolata Roxb.
  65. Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton
  66. Curcuma pierreana Gagnep.
  67. Curcuma plicata Wall. ex Baker
  68. Curcuma porphyrotaenia Zipp. ex Span.
  69. Curcuma prakasha S.Tripathi
  70. Curcuma pseudomontana J.Graham
  71. Curcuma purpurascens Blume
  72. Curcuma purpurea Blatt.
  73. Curcuma raktakanta Mangaly & M.Sabu
  74. Curcuma reclinata Roxb.
  75. Curcuma rhabdota Sirirugsa & M.F.Newman
  76. Curcuma rhomba Mood & K.Larsen
  77. Curcuma roscoeana Wall.
  78. Curcuma rubescens Roxb.
  79. Curcuma rubrobracteata Skornickova, M.Sabu & Prasanthkumar
  80. Curcuma sattayasaii A.Chaveerach & R.Sudmoon
  81. Curcuma sichuanensis X.X.Chen
  82. Curcuma singularis Gagnep.
  83. Curcuma sparganiifolia Gagnep.
  84. Curcuma stenochila Gagnep.
  85. Curcuma strobilifera Wall. ex Baker
  86. Curcuma sulcata Haines
  87. Curcuma sumatrana Miq.
  88. Curcuma sylvatica Valeton
  89. Curcuma thalakaveriensis Velayudhan et al.
  90. Curcuma thorelii Gagnep.
  91. Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep.
  92. Curcuma vamana M.Sabu & Mangaly
  93. Curcuma vellanikkarensis K.C.Velayudhan et al.
  94. Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen & C.Ling
  95. Curcuma wenchowensis Y.H.Chen & C.Ling
  96. Curcuma yunnanensis N.Liu & C.Senjen
  97. Curcuma zanthorrhiza Roxb. : temu lawak
  98. Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe : zedoary
  99. Curcuma zedoaroides A.Chaveerach & T.Tanee


  1. Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. 1 2 Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. Flora of China v 24 p 359, 姜黄属 jiang huang shu, Curcuma Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 2. 1753.
  4. Raju, V.S., Reddy, C.S. & Ragan, A. (2006). Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) in Andhra Pradesh: a preliminary study. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 773-775.
  5. Sirirugsa, P., Larsen, K. & Maknoi, C. (2007). The genus Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae): distribution and classification with reference to species diversity in Thailand. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 59: 203-220.
  6. Leong-Skornicková, J., Sída, O., Wijesundara, S. & Marhold, K. (2008). On the identity of turmeric: the typification of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 157: 37-46.
  7. Škornicková, J.L., Sída, O. & Marhold, K. (2010). Back to types! Towards stability of names in Indian Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae). Taxon 59: 269-282.
  8. Tawney, C. H. (1924). The Ocean of Story, chapter 104. p. 13.
  9. "Leonid crocus (Curcuma leonidii) – a new species discovered in Bu Gia Map National Park in Binh Phuoc province". Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
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