Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame

Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame
Established 1939
Location Estadio Latinoamericano, Havana
Number of inductees 78

The Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame (Salón de la Fama del Béisbol Cubano) is a hall of fame that honors eminent baseball players from Cuban baseball. Established in 1939 to honor players, managers, and umpires in the pre-revolution Cuban League, by 1961 it had honored 68 players, managers, and umpires whose names are shown on a marble plaque at Havana's Estadio Latinoamericano.[1] After the revolution, however, the Hall of Fame languished for more than 50 years, seldom mentioned or acknowledged and with no new inductees. Following a campaign led by Cuban filmmaker Ian Padrón, a meeting was held on November 7–8, 2014 to reformulate the Hall of Fame and to propose a museum in which it would be housed. The reformulated Hall recognized the original 68 members, and a jury of 25 people selected 10 new inductees—five from the pre-revolution period and five representing for the first time the post-revolution Cuban National Series. The planned site for the new museum is in the José Antonio Echeverría Workers' Social Club (also known as the Vedado Tennis Club).[2]

History

Pre-revolution (1939 to 1961)

The Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame was established by the DGND (Dirección General Nacional de Deportes), a government agency supervising sports activities in Cuba.[3] The hall was inaugurated on July 26, 1939—about six weeks after the June 12 dedication and opening of the U.S. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown—by placing a bronze plaque at Havana's La Tropical Stadium.[4] The first ten inductees were selected by former and current baseball writers and the DGND's baseball advisers (asesores de baseball). The inaugural class included 19th-century Cuban stars (Antonio María García, Valentín González, Adolfo Luján, and Carlos Royer), black players who had achieved success in the U.S. Negro leagues (Luis Bustamante, José de la Caridad Méndez, Gervasio González, and Cristóbal Torriente), and white players who had played Major League Baseball (Rafael Almeida and Armando Marsans).[5] Méndez and Torriente, along with later inductee Martín Dihigo, subsequently were also recognized by the U.S. Hall of Fame.[6]

The bronze plaque was subsequently replaced by a marble plaque that hangs on a wall "in a poorly lit corner" of Havana's Estadio Latinoamericano.[7] Before listing the names of the inductees, the introductory section of the plaque reads,

Cuban Professional Baseball Hall of Fame
List of players that have been selected as
BASEBALL IMMORTALS
And have deserved this just recognition for their distinguished work
maintaining an undying memory of what they were in this
sport[7]

While all of the inductees were recognized as baseball players, in several cases their distinction reflected, at least in part, accomplishments achieved after their playing careers. For example, Emilio Sabourín, Agustín Molina, and José Rodríguez were long-time managers who won championships, as also were more celebrated players such as Dihigo, Miguel Angel González, Adolfo Luque, and Marsans.[8] Francisco A. Poyo and Eustaquio Gutiérrez served as umpires.[9] Carlos Zaldo, Eugenio Jiménez, and Molina entered the business side of baseball as stadium developer, promoter, and league administrator.[10] Wenceslao Gálvez wrote a history of baseball in Cuba, published in 1889, which according to Roberto González Echevarría "may very well be the first history of the game ever written anywhere."[11]

Other inductees achieved distinction outside of baseball. For example, Juan Antiga, who played in the Cuban League for just two seasons prior to completing medical school, became a notable intellectual, homeopath, government official, and diplomat, serving as ambassador to Switzerland and delegate to the League of Nations.[12] The type of post-playing distinction most often recognized by the hall, however, is military service, especially during the Cuban War of Independence that was fought from 1895 to 1898. Alfredo Arango, Eduardo Machado, and Carlos Maciá served as officers in the Cuban revolutionary army and Sabourín, Juan Manuel Pastoriza, and Ricardo Cabaleiro died in the conflict.[13]

In the 20th century, opportunities to play in the United States became increasingly important to Cuban players. Some of the earliest opportunities to play in the U.S. came in nearby Key West beginning about 1890. Key West had an independent baseball league with considerable participation by Cuban emigrants, and Cuban League players were recruited to play there during the off season. Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame inductees Molina and Poyo began their baseball careers in Key West before moving on to the Cuban League.[14] In 1899, a Cuban all-star team, the All Cubans, undertook their first barnstorming tour of the United States. The team, which was racially integrated (reflecting the racial integration of the Cuban League) played against professional and semi-professional teams, white and black, until 1905.[15]

However, the U.S. color line soon affected Cuban players. By 1904, white Cubans, such as Juan Violá, were playing in the minor leagues, and in 1911 Rafael Almeida and Armando Marsans broke into the majors with the Cincinnati Reds.[16] Meanwhile, Cubans with darker complexions played in the Negro leagues for teams such as the Cuban Stars (West), the Cuban Stars (East), and the New York Cubans. Some Cuban players moved on to success with U.S. teams, such as José Méndez with the Kansas City Monarchs and Cristóbal Torriente with the Chicago American Giants.[17]

Extensions created by Cubans in the United States

After the closing of the Cuban League in 1961, inductions to the Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame ceased in Havana for more than five decades. The players who had migrated to the United States, however, formed an organization, the Federation of Professional Cuban Baseball Players in Exile (Federación de Peloteros Profesionales Cubanos en el Exilio) which held elections in Miami to add new members to the hall.[18] These additional members are not universally recognized; they are not recognized in Cuba,[19] nor are they included in lists of Hall of Fame inductees shown in reference books by historians Peter Bjarkman and Jorge Figueredo.[20] The Miami elections continued in three phases—1962 through 1986, 1997 through 1998, and 2007—ultimately declaring more than 200 additional individuals as inductees.[21]

Reformulation of the Hall of Fame since 2014

In August 2014, Cuban filmmaker and baseball fan Ian Padrón brought together a group of 12 prominent fans to create a group called Enthusiasts for the Refoundation of the Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame. The group developed a set of rules to govern a reformulated hall which would recognize the 68 original members, provide for regular elections of additional professional and amateur players from both the pre-revolution and post-revolution periods, and would help arrange for the hall to be part of a Cuban baseball museum. With support from the National Institute of Sport, Physical Education, and Recreation (INDER), a meeting of sports commentators was held on November 7–8, 2014. The meeting approved the draft rules, selected a jury of 25 people to select the inductees, and planned for subsequent annual elections. Four players and an umpire were honored from the pre-revolution era—Conrado (Connie) Marrero, Orestes (Minnie) Miñoso, Camilo Pascual, Esteban (Steve) Bellán, and umpire Amado Maestri. Five players were also honored the post-revolution era, the first players from that period to be recognized—Omar Linares, Orestes Kindelán, Antonio Muñoz, Luis Casanova, and Braudilio Vinent.[2]

List of members

YearNamePrimary
position[22]
Cuban CareerPlay in the United StatesRef
1939Rafael Almeida3B1904–1925Major League Baseball[23]
1939Luis (Anguilla) BustamanteSS1901–1912Negro leagues[24]
1939Antonio María (El Inglés) García1B1882–1905All Cubans[25]
1939Gervasio GonzálezC1902–1920Negro leagues[26]
1939Valentín (Sirique) González2B1890–1911Minor leagues[27]
1939Adolfo LujánP1882–1891[28]
1939Armando MarsansOF1905–1928Major League Baseball[29]
1939José de la Caridad MéndezP1908–1927Negro leagues[30]
1939Carlos RoyerP1892–1911All Cubans[31]
1939Cristóbal TorrienteOF1913–1927Negro leagues[32]
1940Alfredo ArcañoOF1888–1909All Cubans[33]
1940José (Joseíto) MuñozP1900–1914Negro leagues[34]
1941Regino (Mamelo) GarcíaC1902–1913Negro leagues[35]
1941Emilio Sabourín2B1878–1887[36]
1942Alfredo (Pájaro) CabreraSS1901–1920Major League Baseball[37]
1942Agustín (Tinti) MolinaC1894–1909Key West[38]
1943Julián Castillo1B1901–1913Negro leagues[39]
1943Heliodoro HidalgoOF1901–1916Negro leagues[40]
1943Luis (Mulo) PadrónOF1900–1919Minor leagues[41]
1944Carlos MaciáP1885–1891[42]
1944Alejandro OmsOF1922–1946Negro leagues[43]
1945Bernardo BaróOF1915–1929Negro leagues[44]
1945Román Calzadilla3B1889–1902[45]
1945Valentín DrekeOF1919–1928Negro leagues[46]
1945Carlos (Chino) Morán3B1900–1916Negro leagues[47]
1945Juan Manuel PastorizaP1889–1895[48]
1946Ricardo CabaleiroOF1890–1895[49]
1946Wenceslao GálvezSS1885–1887[50]
1946Francsico A. PoyoC1898–1900Key West[51]
1946Arturo ValdésP1892–1902[48]
1946Rogelio ValdésSS1900–1914Negro leagues[52]
1948Juan Antiga?1890–1892[53]
1948Jacinto CalvoOF1913–1927Major League Baseball[54]
1948Nemesio GuillóOF1878–1883[55]
1948Rafael HernándezOF1885–1898[56]
1948Antonio (Antoñico) Mesa3B1903-1905[57]
1948Tomás (Italiano) RomañachSS1910–1919Minor leagues[58]
1949Pelayo ChacónSS1908–1932Negro leagues[59]
1949Julio (El Cartero) LópezOF1888–1900All Cubans[25]
1949Eduardo MachadoSS1888–1892[60]
1949Gonzalo SánchezC1903–1911All Cubans[61]
1949Manuel VillaOF1908–1920Negro leagues[62]
1950Manuel (Manolo) Cueto3B1912–1933Major League Baseball[63]
1950Rafael FigarolaC1906–1919Negro leagues[64]
1950Eustaquio GutiérrezOF1914–1916Minor leagues[65]
1950Eugenio Jiménez?1897–1902[28]
1950Ricardo MartínezSS1878–1891[66]
1951Alfredo ArangoOF1885–1891[67]
1951Martín DihigoP1922–1947Negro leagues[68]
1951Bienvenido (Pata Jorobá) Jiménez2B1913–1929Negro leagues[69]
1951José (Joseíto) Rodríguez1B1914–1939Major League Baseball[70]
1951José María TeumaOF1882–1889[71]
1953Moisés QuinteroC1887–1905All Cubans[72]
1953Juan VioláOF1903–1915Minor leagues[73]
1953Carlos ZaldoSS1878–1880[74]
1954Emilio PalmeroP1913–1929Major League Baseball[75]
1954Pablo RonquilloOF1885–1891[71]
1955Baldomero (Merito) AcostaOF1913–1925Major League Baseball[76]
1955Miguel Angel GonzálezC1910–1936Major League Baseball[77]
1956Isidro FabréP1918–1939Negro leagues[78]
1956Emilio PalominoOF1901–1913All Cubans[79]
1957Adolfo LuqueP1912–1945Major League Baseball[80]
1958José (Acostica) AcostaP1912–1930Major League Baseball[81]
1958Lázaro Salazar1B1930–1948Negro leagues[82]
1959Ramón BragañaP1926–1948Negro leagues[83]
1959Armando Cabañas2B1900–1916Negro leagues[84]
1960Tomás de la CruzP1934–1947Major League Baseball[85]
1960Oscar Rodríguez2B1918–1939Minor leagues[86]
2014Conrado (Connie) MarreroP1946–1958Major League Baseball[2]
2014Orestes (Minnie) MiñosoOF1945–1961Major League Baseball[2]
2014Camilo PascualP1952–1961Major League Baseball[2]
2014Esteban (Steve) Bellán3B1878–1886National Association of Professional Base Ball Players[2]
2014Amado MaestriUmpire[2]
2014Omar Linares3B1982–2002[2][87][88]
2014Orestes KindelánOF, 1B?[2][88]
2014Antonio Muñoz1B?[2][88]
2014Luis CasanovaOF?[2][88]
2014Braudilio VinentP?[2][88]

See also

Notes

  1. The name shown on the plaque in Havana is Salón de la Fama del Base-Ball Profesional de Cuba (Cuban Professional Baseball Hall of Fame) (see Alfonso 2007), but this longer name is not commonly used in histories of Cuban baseball.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sené, Ismael (12 February 2015), "Refoundation of Cuba's Baseball Hall of Fame", oncubamagazine.com, OnCuba, retrieved 27 March 2016
  3. González Echevarría 1999, pp. 205–206, 277.
  4. Alfonso 2007. González Echevarría 1999, p. 277. Brietz, Eddie (June 13, 1939). "Stars Compete in Baseball Anniversary". Ottawa Citizen. p. 6. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  5. González Echevarría 1999, pp. 275, 277.
  6. "Dihigo, Martin". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved April 13, 2010. "Mendez, Jose". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved April 13, 2010."Torriente, Cristobal". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  7. 1 2 Toot 2004, p. 171.
  8. Bjarkman 2005, pp. 59–60.
  9. Poyo 2009, p. 560. "Baseball: The King of Sports". Dominicana On Line. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
  10. González Echevarría 1999, pp. 91, 122, 125, 410.
  11. González Echevarría 1999, p. 84.
  12. Delgado-García 2005, pp. 50–51.
  13. Pérez 1999, p. 83. Figueredo 2003, p. 33. Figueredo 2005, pp. 16–18.
  14. Poyo 2009, pp. 548–556.
  15. Burgos 2007, pp. 81–82. Hogan, pp. 88–89. Kuntz.
  16. Burgos 2007, pp. 94–98. Toot 2004, pp. 31–45."Juan Violat Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  17. Riley 2002, pp. 203, 545–546, 580, 787–788.
  18. "Cubans in Baseball Halls of Fame". cubanball.com. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  19. For example, see Alfonso 2007.
  20. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Figueredo 2003, pp. 508–509.
  21. "Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame Phase 2". cubanball.com. Retrieved April 15, 2010."Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame Phase 3". cubanball.com. Retrieved April 15, 2010."Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame Phase 4". cubanball.com. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  22. For pitchers after 1885/86 and position players after 1903, the primary position is based on seasonal rosters shown in Figueredo 2003. For earlier players, the source for primary position is cited in the "Ref" column.
  23. Figueredo 2003, pp. 484, 508. "Rafael Almeida Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
  24. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 137–138.
  25. 1 2 Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508. Figueredo 2005, p. 547. Kuntz.
  26. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 508. Riley 2002, p. 325.
  27. Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508. Figueredo 2005, p. 547. "Valentin Gonzales Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
  28. 1 2 Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508.
  29. Figueredo 2003, pp. 487, 508. "Armando Marsans Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
  30. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 545–546.
  31. Figueredo 2003, pp. 483, 508. Kuntz.
  32. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 787–788.
  33. Figueredo 2003, pp. 481, 508. Kuntz.
  34. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 573–574.
  35. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 508. Cuban Stars statistics compiled by Scott Simkus and posted by Ashwill, Gary. "1909 Cuban Stars". agatetype.typepad.com. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  36. Figueredo 2003, pp. 6, 483, 508.
  37. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. "Al Cabrera Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  38. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. Poyo 2009, p. 551.
  39. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. Riley 2002, p. 161.
  40. Figueredo 2003, pp. 487, 508. Riley 2002, p. 380.
  41. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. "Luis Padron Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  42. This name was omitted from Figueredo's list, but is shown by Bjarkman. Figueredo 2003, p. 482. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65.
  43. This name was omitted from Figueredo's list, but is shown by Bjarkman. Figueredo 2003, p. 488. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Riley 2002, pp. 587–588.
  44. Figueredo 2003, pp. 484, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 63–64.
  45. Figueredo 2003, pp. 481, 508. Figueredo 2005, p. 547.
  46. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. Riley 2002, p. 249.
  47. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. Riley 2002, p. 567.
  48. 1 2 Figueredo 2003, pp. 483, 508.
  49. Figueredo 2003, pp. 28, 481, 508. Figueredo 2005, p. 547.
  50. Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508. González Echevarría 1999, p. 98.
  51. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508. Poyo 2009, p. 544.
  52. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 508. Riley 2002, p. 799.
  53. Figueredo 2003, pp. 481, 508.
  54. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. "Jack Calvo Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
  55. Figueredo 2003, pp. 6, 482, 508.
  56. Figueredo 2003, pp. 23, 482, 508.
  57. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 508.
  58. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 508. "Tomas Romanach Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  59. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. Riley 2002, pp. 162–163.
  60. Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508. Pérez 1999, p. 83.
  61. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 508. Kuntz.
  62. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 508. Riley 2002, p. 803.
  63. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 508. "Manuel Cueto Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
  64. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 508. Riley 2002, p. 282.
  65. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 508. Riley 2002, p. 344. "Gutterez Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
  66. Figueredo 2003, pp. 482, 508. Figueredo 2005, p. 547.
  67. Figueredo 2003, pp. 481, 509. Figueredo 2005, p. 10.
  68. Figueredo 2003, pp. 493, 509. Riley 2002, pp. 233–235.
  69. Figueredo 2003, pp. 487, 509. Riley 2002, pp. 427–428.
  70. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 509. "Jose Rodriguez Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  71. 1 2 Figueredo 2003, pp. 483, 509. Figueredo 2005, p. 547.
  72. Figueredo 2003, pp. 483, 509. Figueredo 2005, p. 547. Kuntz.
  73. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 509. "Juan Violat Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  74. Figueredo 2003, pp. 6, 483, 509.
  75. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 509. "Emilio Palmero Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  76. Figueredo 2003, pp. 484, 509. "Merito Acosta Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  77. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1955, and Bjarkman shows 1956. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. "Mike Gonzalez Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
  78. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1956, and Bjarkman shows 1957. Figueredo 2003, pp. 486, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Riley 2002, pp. 273–274.
  79. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1956, and Bjarkman shows 1957. Figueredo 2003, pp. 488, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Kuntz.
  80. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1957, and Bjarkman shows 1958. Figueredo 2003, pp. 487, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. "Dolf Luque Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  81. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1958, and Bjarkman shows 1959. Figueredo 2003, pp. 484, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. "Jose Acosta Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
  82. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1958, and Bjarkman shows 1959. Figueredo 2003, pp. 498, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Riley 2002, pp. 689–690.
  83. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1959, and Bjarkman shows 1960. Figueredo 2003, pp. 492, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Riley 2002, pp. 100–101.
  84. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1959, and Bjarkman shows 1960. Figueredo 2003, pp. 485, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. Riley 2002, p. 142.
  85. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1960, and Bjarkman shows 1961. Figueredo 2003, pp. 493, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. "Tommy de la Cruz Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  86. Sources disagree on year inducted; Figueredo shows 1960, and Bjarkman shows 1961. Figueredo 2003, pp. 489, 509. Bjarkman 2005, p. 65. "Oscar Rodriguez Minor League Statistics & History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 10, 2010. "Oscar Rodríguez Biography". EcuRed. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  87. Bjarkman, Peter C. "Omar Linares". sabr.org. Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  88. 1 2 3 4 5 Hernández Torres, Duanys. "The new Cuban baseball immortals (II)". oncubamagazine.com. OnCuba. Retrieved 27 March 2016.

References

  • Alfonso, Jorge (August 20, 2007). "Salón de la Fama". Béisbol Cubano. Retrieved April 15, 2010. 
  • Bjarkman, Peter C. (2005), Diamonds Around the Globe: The Encyclopedia of International Baseball, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-32268-6 
  • Burgos, Adrian (2007), Playing America's Game: Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-23646-7 
  • Delgado-García, Gregorio (September 2005). "El doctor Juan Antiga y Escobar y la homeopatía en México" (PDF). Boletín Mexicano de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina. 8 (2): 50–52. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  • Figueredo, Jorge S. (2003), Cuban Baseball: A Statistical History, 1878–1961, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1250-X .
  • Figueredo, Jorge S. (2005), Beisbol Cubano : a un Paso de las Grandes Ligas, 1878–1961, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1986-5 .
  • González Echevarría, Roberto (1999), The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514605-0 .
  • Hogan, Lawrence D. (2006), Shades of Glory: The Negro Leagues and the Story of African-American Baseball, Washington DC: National Geographic, ISBN 0-7922-5306-X 
  • Kuntz, Jerry, All Cubans – 1899–1905 : Rosters, archived from the original on October 24, 2007, retrieved April 24, 2010 
  • Pérez, Louis A., Jr. (1999), On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-2487-9 .
  • Poyo, Gerald E. (Spring 2009). "Baseball in Key West and Havana, 1885–1910: The Career of Francisco A. Poyo". Florida Historical Quarterly. 87 (4): 540–564. 
  • Riley, James A. (2002), The Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues, New York: Carroll & Graf, ISBN 0-7867-0959-6 .
  • Toot, Peter T. (2004), Armando Marsans: A Cuban Pioneer in the Major Leagues, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1584-3 
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