Common Security and Defence Policy

European Defence Union
Arms of the Military Committee (left) and its chairman (middle), as well as the Military Staff (right)

Structure
Founded 1999 (as the European Security and Defence Policy of the European Union)
Current form 2009 (Treaty of Lisbon)
Headquarters Kortenberg building, Brussels, Belgium (Military Planning and Conduct Capability)
Website eeas.europa.eu
Leadership
HR/VP Federica Mogherini
DGEUMS Lt. Gen Esa Pulkkinen
CEUMC General Michail Kostarakos
Manpower
Active personnel 1,823,000 (2014)[2]
Expenditures
Budget $226.73 billion (2016)[2]
Percent of GDP 1.42% (2014)[2]

The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and crisis management, and a main component of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states[lower-alpha 4] as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration.

The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structure, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS) — including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC) — a number of FAC preparatory bodies — such as the Military Committee (EUMC) — as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA). The CSDP structure is sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union (EDU), especially in relation to its prospective development as the EU's defence arm.[3][4][5][lower-alpha 5]

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History

The post-war period saw several short-lived or ill-fated initiatives for European defence integration intended to protect against potential Soviet or German aggression: The Western Union and the proposed European Defence Community were respectively cannibalised by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and rejected by the French Parliament. The largely dormant Western European Union (WEU) succeeded the Western Union's remainder in 1954.

In 1970 the European Political Cooperation (EPC) brought about the European Communities' (EC) initial foreign policy coordination. Opposition to the addition of security and defence matters to the EPC led to the reactivation of the WEU in 1984 by its member states, which were also EC member states.

After the end of the Cold War, European defence integration gained momentum. In 1992, the WEU was given new tasks, and the following year the Treaty of Maastricht founded the EU and replaced the EPC with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) pillar. In 1996 NATO agreed to let the WEU develop a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI).[6] The 1998 St. Malo declaration signalled that the traditionally hesitant United Kingdom was prepared to provide the EU with autonomous defence structures.[7] This facilitated the transformation of the ESDI into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999, when it was transferred to the EU. In 2003 the EU deployed its first CSDP missions, and adopted the European Security Strategy identifying common threats and objectives. In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP, while establishing the EEAS, the mutual defence clause and enabling a subset of member states to pursue defence integration within PESCO. In 2011 the WEU, whose tasks had been transferred to the EU, was dissolved. In 2016 a new security strategy was introduced, which along with the Russian annexation of Crimea, the scheduled British withdrawal from the EU and the election of Trump as US President have given the CSDP a new impetus.

Deployments

In the EU terminology, civilian CSDP interventions are called ‘missions’, regardless of whether they have an executive mandate such as EULEX Kosovo or a non-executive mandate (all others). Military interventions, however, can either have an executive mandate such as for example Operation Atalanta in which case they are referred to as ‘operations’ and are commanded at two-star level; or non-executive mandate (e.g. EUTM Somalia) in which case they are called ‘missions’ and are commanded at one-star level.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in the Republic of Macedonia. Operation Concordia used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as the Republic of Macedonia, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of Operation Althea.[9]

Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during "Operation Artemis" under a mandate given by UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the Ituri Conflict and put the DRC's peace process back on track. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the UN mission there during the country's elections.

Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in Georgia, Indonesia, Sudan, Palestine, and UkraineMoldova. There is also a judicial mission in Iraq (EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, EUFOR Tchad/RCA.[10] The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern Chad and the north-eastern Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009.[11]

The EU launched its first maritime CSDP operation on 12 December 2008 (Operation Atalanta). The concept of the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) was created on the back of this operation, which is still successfully combatting piracy off the coast of Somalia almost a decade later. A second such intervention was launched in 2015 to tackle migration problems in the southern Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR Med), working under the name Operation SOPHIA.

Most of the CSDP missions deployed so far are mandated to support Security Sector Reforms (SSR) in host-states. One of the core principles of CSDP support to SSR is local ownership. The EU Council defines ownership as "the appropriation by the local authorities of the commonly agreed objectives and principles".[12] Despite EU's strong rhetorical attachment to the local ownership principle, research shows that CSDP missions continue to be an externally driven, top-down and supply-driven endeavour, resulting often in the low degree of local participation.[13]

Structure

The CSDP is a part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), based on articles 42–46 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU)[14][15]. Article 42.2 of TEU states that the CSDP includes the 'progressive framing' of a common Union defence policy, and will lead to a common defence, when the European Council of national heads of state or government, acting unanimously, so decides.

Location of decentralised CSDP agencies in addition to the Brussels-based External Action Service (EEAS), Defence Agency (EDA) and Council

Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[2] The CSDP command structure involving the High Representative, the Military Staff and Military Committee as of 1 November 2017:[16] Colour key:
     High Representative (a Vice-President of the Commission)
     Military Committee (a Council body)
     Military Staff (a Directorate-General of the External Action Service)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
High Representative
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Military Committee
Chairman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working Group
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working Group/Headline Goal Task Force
 
 
 
 
Military Staff
Director General
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Legal advisor
 
Deputy Director General
Horizontal Coordination
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assistant Chief of Staff for SynchronisationEU cell at SHAPE
 
 
EU Liaison at the UN in NYAssistant Chief of Staff for External Relations
 
NATO Permanent Liaison Team
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Directorate A:
Concepts & Capabilities
 
Directorate B:
Intelligence
 
Directorate C:
Operations
 
Directorate D:
Logistics
 
Directorate E:
Communications & Information Systems
Military Planning and
Conduct Capability

Chief of Staff
Working Group
Current Operations

High Representative

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, commonly referred to as the High Representative (HR/VP), is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the CSDP. The position is currently held by Federica Mogherini.

Where foreign matters is agreed between EU member states, the High Representative can speak for the EU in that area, such as negotiating on behalf of the member states.

Beside representing the EU at international fora and co-ordinating the CFSP and the CSDP, the HR/VP is:

External Action Service

The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and foreign and defence ministry of the EU. The EEAS is led by the HR/VP and seated in Brussels.

The EEAS does not propose or implement policy in its own name, but prepares acts to be adopted by the HR/VP, the European Commission or the Council.[17] The EEAS is also in charge of EU diplomatic missions (delegations)[18] and intelligence and crisis management structures.[19][20][21]

The following EEAS bodies take part in managing the CSDP:

Council preparatory bodies

The Council of the European Union has the following, Brussels-based preparatory bodies in the field of CSDP:

Mission/operational headquarters

Location of available mission/operational headquarters (EU headquarters, NATO headquarters and national parent headquarters are shown with red, blue and yellow marks, respectively)

The Council nominates headquarters for each mission, referred to as mission headquarters. Military CSDP missions with elements of combat are also referred to as operations, in which case the headquarters are referred to as operational headquarters (OHQs). The selected OHQ runs the operation at the strategic level and directs the force headquarters (FHQ), which carries out the operation on the ground.

List of headquarters that may serve as mission/operational headquarters
Type Name Abbreviation Location
Permanent headquarters within the External Action Service's Military Staff (EUMS) Directorate-General  Military Planning and Conduct Capability MPCC Brussels, Belgium
Headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO), made available by NATO  Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe[32]SHAPEMons, Belgium
National parent headquarters made available by member states  Centre de Planification et de Conduite des OpérationsCPCOParis, France
 Armed Forces Operational CommandEinsFüKdoBwPotsdam, Germany
 Hellenic European Union Operational HeadquartersEL EU OHQLarissa, Greece
 Italian Joint Force Headquarters[33]ITA-JFHQCentocelle, Rome, Italy
 Multinational HeadquartersMNHQNorthwood Headquarters, London, United Kingdom
 Naval Station Rota[34]NAVSTA RotaRota, Spain

Additionally, Local Mission Headquarters may be established in the country in which a training mission (EUTM) takes place. Examples: EUTMs in Somalia and Mali have local Mission Headquarters situated in Mogadishu, Somalia and Bamako, Mali, respectively.

Between 2012 and 2016 another mechanism was employed, with which an Operations Centre (EU OPCEN) would be established to plan and conduct military operations. This was a non-standing, ad-hoc headquarters that would be operational five days following a decision by the Council, and would reach its full capability to command the operation after twenty days, at the latest. Such EU OPCENs has no command responsibility, and was separate from established chains of command.[35]

Agencies

The following agencies relate to the CSDP:

  • The Defence Agency (EDA), based in Brussels, facilitates the improvement of national military capabilities and integration. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects.
  • The Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), based in Warsaw, Poland, leads the European coast guard that controls the borders of the Schengen Area.
  • The Institute for Security Studies (ISS), based in Paris, is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the institute convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.
  • The Satellite Centre (SatCen), located in Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain, supports the decision-making by providing products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services.

Permanent structured cooperation

The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is the framework in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. Based on Article 42.6 and Protocol 10 of the Treaty on European Union, introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, PESCO was first initiated in 2017.[36] The initial integration within the PESCO format is a number of projects planned to launch in 2018.[37]

PESCO is similar to enhanced co-operation in other policy areas, in the sense that integration does not require that all EU member states participate.

Strategy

The European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) is the updated doctrine of the EU to improve the effectiveness of the CSDP, including the defence and security of the members states, the protection of civilians, cooperation between the member states' armed forces, management of immigration, crises etc. Adopted on 28 June 2016[38], it replaces the European Security Strategy of 2003. The EUGS is complemented by a document titled "Implementation Plan on Security and Defense" (IPSD)[39].

Forces

National

National armed forces' personnel combined (2016)[40]

The CSDP is implemented using civilian and military contributions from member states' armed forces, which also are obliged to collective self-defence based on Treaty on European Union (TEU).

Six EU states host nuclear weapons: France and the United Kingdom each have their own nuclear programmes, while Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands host US nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy. Combined, the EU possesses 525 warheads, and hosts between 90 and 130 US warheads. Italy hosts 70-90 B61 nuclear bombs, while Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands 10-20 each one. [41] The EU has the third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons, after the United States and Russia.

Expenditure and personnel

The following table presents the military expenditures of the members of the European Union in euros (€). The combined military expenditure of the member states amounts to just over is €192.5 billion.[2] This represents 1.55% of European Union GDP and is second only to the €503 billion military expenditure of the United States. The US figure represents 4.66% of United States GDP.[42] European military expenditure includes spending on joint projects such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and joint procurement of equipment. The European Union's combined active military forces in 2011 totaled 1,551,038 personnel. According to the European Defence Agency, the European Union had an average of 53,744 land force personnel deployed around the world (or 3.5% of the total military personnel). In a major operation the EU could readily deploy up-to 425,824 land force personnel and sustain 110,814 of those during an enduring operation.[42] In comparison, the US had on average 177,700 troops deployed in 2011. This represents 12.5% of US military personnel.[42]

In a speech in 2012, Swedish General Håkan Syrén criticised the spending levels of European Union countries, saying that in the future those countries' military capability will decrease, creating "critical shortfalls".[43]

Guide to table:

  • All figure entries in the table below are provided by the European Defence Agency for the year 2012. Figures from other sources are not included.
  • The "operations & maintenance expenditure" category may in some circumstances also include finances on-top of the nations defence budget.
  • The categories "troops prepared for deployed operations" and "troops prepared for deployed and sustained operation" only include land force personnel.
Member state Expenditure (€ mn.) Per capita (€) % of GDP Operations & maintenance expenditure (€ mn.) Active military personnel Land troops prepared for deployed and sustained operations
Austria[2]2,4532910.8250727,110
Belgium[2]3,9863631.0865131,8941,897
Bulgaria[2]545731.4211128,767900
Croatia[2]6101461.4118,000
Cyprus[2]3454001.925012,392
Czech Republic[2]1,8201731.1750122,1291,350
Denmark[2]3,0205351.1624,509
Estonia[2]3402542.001013,190188
Finland[2]2,6544931.407058,844
France[2]39,1055971.937,613218,20029,444
Germany[2]32,4903971.23191,721
Greece[2]3,2722901.69738109,0702,552
Hungary[2]1,0001001.0032918,0881,057
Ireland[2]8811960.55899,450850
Italy[2]20,6003381.322,087184,318
Latvia[2]2101021.04454,832212
Lithuania[2]462831.115515,800413
Luxembourg[2]2013860.4721105744
Malta[2]40960.6261,69830
Netherlands[2]8,1564891.352,12844,6555,050
Poland[2]6,7541751.951,331120,0004,946
Portugal[2]2,6692511.5625335,2542,254
Romania[2]1,713801.2618968,3402,953
Slovakia[2]7631401.1016813,501722
Slovenia[2]4782331.32817,107454
Spain[2]10,0592180.951,742124,5617,850
Sweden[2]4,3314591.121,84713,9491,966
UK[2]43,6966912.3017,052205,81019,000
EU[2]192,5353871.5545,2191,551,038110,814

The combined component strength of the naval forces of member states is some 564 commissioned warships. Of those in service, 5 are fleet carriers, the largest of which is the 70,600 tonne Queen Elizabeth-class. The EU also has 5 amphibious assault ships and 25 amphibious support ships in service. Of the EU's 60 submarines, 21 are nuclear-powered submarines (11 British and 10 French) while 39 are conventional attack submarines.

Operation Atalanta (formally European Union Naval Force Somalia) is the first ever (and still ongoing) naval operation of the European Union. It is part of a larger global action by the EU in the Horn of Africa to deal with the Somali crisis. As of January 2011 twenty-three EU nations participate in the operation.

France, Italy and United Kingdom have blue-water navies.[44]

Guide to table:

  • Ceremonial vessels, research vessels, supply vessels, training vessels, and icebreakers are not included.
  • The table only counts warships that are commissioned (or equivalent) and active.
  • Surface vessels displacing less than 200 tonnes are not included, regardless of other characteristics.
  • The "amphibious support ship" category includes amphibious transport docks and dock landing ships, and tank landing ships.
  • Frigates over 6,000 tonnes are classified as destroyers.
  • The "patrol vessel" category includes missile boats.
  • The "anti-mine ship" category includes mine countermeasures vessels, minesweepers and minehunters.
  • Generally, total tonnage of ships is more important than total number of ships, as it gives a better indication of capability.
Member state Fleet carrier Amphibious assault ship Amphibious support ship Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol vessel Antimine ship Missile sub. Attack sub. Total Tonnage
Austria00
Belgium[45]225910,009
Bulgaria1431101815,160
Croatia5272,869
Cyprus0 0
Czech Republic0 0
Denmark[46]5491851,235
Estonia332,000
Finland4412205,429
France[47]13241820184676319,195
Germany[48]37581544482,790
Greece[49]513264851137,205
Hungary00
Ireland[50]8811,219
Italy[51]2341451110857303,411
Latvia553,025
Lithuania[52]4485,678
Luxembourg00
Malta[53]22400
Netherlands[54]24246422116,308
Poland[55]52131952819,724
Portugal[56]57722334,686
Romania[57]37652123,090
Slovakia00
Slovenia[58]22900
Spain[59]1256187342148,607
Sweden[60]61152214,256
UK[61]2156134154757367,850
EU5525319348123152852 ~564 ~1,500,000

Land forces

Combined, the member states of the European Union maintain large numbers of various land-based military vehicles and weaponry.

Guide to table:

  • The table is not exhaustive and primarily includes vehicles and EU-NATO member countries under the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE treaty). Unless otherwise specified.
  • The CFE treaty only includes vehicles stationed within Europe, vehicles overseas on operations are not counted.
  • The "main battle tank" category also includes tank destroyers (such as the Italian B1 Centauro) or any self-propelled armoured fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "armoured fighting vehicle" category includes any armoured vehicle primarily designed to transport infantry and equipped with an automatic cannon of at least 20 mm calibre. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "artillery" category includes self-propelled or towed howitzers and mortars of 100 mm calibre and above. Other types of artillery are not included regardless of characteristics. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "attack helicopter" category includes any rotary wing aircraft armed and equipped to engage targets or equipped to perform other military functions (such as the Apache or the Wildcat). According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "military logistics vehicle" category includes logistics trucks of 4-tonne, 8-tonne, 14-tonne or larger, purposely designed for military tasking. Not under CFE treaty.
Member state Main battle tank Armoured fighting vehicle Artillery Attack helicopter Military logistics vehicle
Austria5436473
Belgium[62]022613327
Bulgaria[62]3626811,03512
Croatia[63]7528312710
Cyprus
Czech Republic[62]12350118224
Denmark[62]462295612
Estonia[64]74
Finland1281,08065625
France[62]5252,876638237
Germany[62]8151,774401158
Greece[62]1,6222,1871,92029
Hungary[62]15559730023
Ireland[65]10736
Italy[62]1,1763,1451,446107
Latvia
Lithuania[66]96
Luxembourg
Malta
Netherlands[62]1663413521
Poland[67]1,6753,1101,58083
Portugal[62]220425377
Romania[62]8571,2721,27323
Slovakia[62]3032768
Slovenia54
Spain[62]4841,00781127
Sweden
UK[62]2961,36830519010,004
EU[62]7,69518,8199,817963

Air forces

The air forces of EU member states operate a wide range of military systems and hardware. This is primarily due to the independent requirements of each member state and also the national defence industries of some member states. However such programmes like the Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger have seen many European nations design, build and operate a single weapons platform. 60% of overall combat fleet was developed and manufactured by member states, 32% are US-origin, but some of these were assembled in Europe, while remaining 8% are soviet-made aircraft. As of 2014, it is estimated that the European Union had around 2,000 serviceable combat aircraft (fighter aircraft and ground-attack aircraft).[68]

The EUs air-lift capabilities are evolving with the future introduction of the Airbus A400M (another example of EU defence cooperation). The A400M is a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.[69] Around 140 are initially expected to be operated by 6 member states (UK, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Spain and Belgium).

Guide to tables:

  • The tables are sourced from figures provided by Flight International for the year 2014.
  • Aircraft are grouped into three main types (indicated by colours): red for combat aircraft, green for aerial refueling aircraft, and grey for strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
  • The two "other" columns include additional aircraft according to their type sorted by colour (i.e. the "other" category in red includes combat aircraft, while the "other" category in grey includes both aerial refueling and transport aircraft). This was done because it was not feasible allocate every aircraft type its own column.
  • Other aircraft such as trainers, helicopters, UAVs and reconnaissance or surveillance aircraft are not included in the below tables or figures.
Fighter and ground-attack
Member state Typhoon Rafale Mirage 2000 Gripen F-16 F/A-18 F-35 Tornado Harrier II MiG-29 Other Total
Austria[68]1515
Belgium[68]5959
Bulgaria[68]1515
Croatia[68]12 MiG-2112
Cyprus[68]
Czech Republic[68]1419 L-15933
Denmark[68]6060
Estonia[68]
Finland[68]6262
France[68]1319417 Super Étendard242
Germany[68]117116233
Greece[68]4316646 F-4255
Hungary[68]1414
Ireland[68]
Italy[68]909751655 AMX245
Latvia[68]
Lithuania[68]1 L-391
Luxembourg[68]
Malta[68]
Netherlands[68]87289
Poland[68]483136 Su-22115
Portugal[68]3131
Romania[68]1236 MiG-2148
Slovakia[68]127 L-3919
Slovenia[68]
Spain[68]458617148
Sweden[68]9595
UK[68]160487251
EU[68]4271311371234631481527833582292,042
Aerial refueling and transport
Member state A330 MRTT A310 MRTT KC-135/707 C-17 C-130 C-160 C-27J CN-235/C-295 An-26 A400M Other Total
Austria[68]55
Belgium[68]111 A32112
Bulgaria[68]221 A3195
Croatia[68]42 An-32B6
Cyprus[68]
Czech Republic[68]462 A31912
Denmark[68]44
Estonia[68]
Finland[68]21 F273
France[68]1414362763 A310
3 A340
99
Germany[68]47111 A310
2 A319
76
Greece[68]13821
Hungary[68]44
Ireland[68]21 BNT-2 CC2/B3
Italy[68]16124 KC-767
3 KC-130J
3 A319
38
Latvia[68]
Lithuania[68]33
Luxembourg[68]
Malta[68]2 BNT-2 CC2/B
2 King Air 200
4
Netherlands[68]42 (K)DC-106
Poland[68]51620
Portugal[68]6713
Romania[68]27211
Slovakia[68]22
Slovenia[68]
Spain[68]27215 KC-130H
2 A310
37
Sweden[68]71 KC-130H8
UK[68]1182444 BAe 146
3 BNT-2 CC2/B
54
EU[68]1141681071073081161148435

Multinational

Established at Union level

The Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue is a listing of rapid reaction forces composed of 60,000 troops managed by the European Union, but under control of the countries who deliver troops for it.

Forces introduced at Union level include:

  • The battle groups (BG) adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[70][71] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the Council of the European Union. The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[72] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new "standing army" for Europe.[71] The troops and equipment are drawn from the EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[73]
  • The Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of EU missions, formed as part of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).[74] The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.[37]
  • The Force Crisis Response Operation Core (EUFOR CROC) is a flagship defence project under development as part of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). EURFOR CROC will contribute to the creation of a "full spectrum force package" to speed up provision of military forces and the EU's crisis management capabilities.[75] Rather than creating a standing force, the project involves creating a concrete catalogue of military force elements that would speed up the establishment of a force when the EU decides to launch an operation. It is land-focused and aims to generate a force of 60,000 troops from the contributing states alone. While it does not establish any form of "European army", it foresees an deployable, interoperable force under a single command.[76] Germany is the lead country for the project, but the French are heavily involved and it is tied to President Emmanuel Macron's proposal to create a standing intervention force. The French see it as an example of what PESCO is about.[77]

Provided through Article 42.3 TEU

This section presents an incomplete list of forces and bodies established intergovernmentally amongst a subset of member states. These organisations will deploy forces based on the collective agreement of their member states. They are typically technically listed as being able to be deployed under the auspices of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union (EU) through Article 42.3 of TEU, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or any other international entity.

However, with the exception of the Eurocorps, very few have actually been deployed for any real military operation, and none under the CSDP at any point in its history.

Land Forces:

Aerial:

  • The European Air Transport Command exercises operational control of the majority of the aerial refueling capabilities and military transport fleets of its participating nations. Located at Eindhoven Airbase in the Netherlands, the command also bears a limited responsibility for exercises, aircrew training and the harmonisation of relevant national air transport regulations.[79][80] The command was established in 2010 to provide a more efficient management of the participating nations' assets and resources in this field.

Naval:

Equipment

EU-developed infrastructure for military use includes:

Defence fund

The European Defence Fund is an EU-managed fund for coordinating and increasing national investment in defence research and improve interoperability between national forces. It was proposed in 2016 by President Jean-Claude Juncker and established in 2017 to a value of €5.5 billion per year. The fund has two stands; research (€90 million until the end of 2019 and €500 million per year after 2020) and development & acquisition (€500 million in total for 2019–20 then €1 billion per year after 2020).[84]

Together with the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence and Permanent Structured Cooperation it forms a new comprehensive defence package for the EU.[85]

Participation, relationship with NATO

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants—Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. Two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact.

  Non-European countries
Membership of the principal European and Western defence arrangements
 
European Union
 
Common Security and Defence Policy
 
European Defence Agency
 
Permanent Structured Cooperation
 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation
 Austria Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
 Belgium Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Bulgaria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Canada No No No No Yes No
 Cyprus Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
 Croatia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Czech Republic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Denmark Yes No No No Yes No
 Estonia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Finland Yes Yes Yes Yes No Partial
 France Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Germany Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Greece Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Hungary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
 Italy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Latvia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Lithuania Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial
 Luxembourg Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial
 Malta Yes Yes Yes No No No
 Netherlands Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial
 Norway No Partial (non-voting) Partial (non-voting) No Yes No
 Poland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial
 Portugal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Romania Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Serbia No No Partial (non-voting) No No No
 Slovakia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Slovenia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Spain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes No Partial
 Switzerland No No Partial (non-voting) No No No
 Turkey No No No No Yes Partial
 Ukraine No No Partial (non-voting) No No No
 United Kingdom Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
 United States No No No No Yes No

The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December 2002.[86] These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's 1999 Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism,[87] and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's military assets in its own peacekeeping operations.

See also

Other defence-related EU initiatives:

Other Pan-European defence organisations (intergovernmental):

Regional, integorvernmental defence organisations in Europe:

Atlanticist intergovernmental defence organisations:

Notes

  1. The United Kingdom does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  2. The Edinburgh Agreement of 1992 included a guarantee to Denmark that they would not be obliged to join the Western European Union, which was responsible for defence. Additionally, the agreement stipulated that Denmark would not take part in discussions or be bound by decisions of the EU with defence implications. The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997 included a protocol which formalised this opt-out from the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). As a consequence, Denmark is excluded from foreign policy discussions with defence implications and does not participate in foreign missions with a defence component.[1] Denmark does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation. See Opt-outs_in_the_European_Union#Defence_–_Denmark.
  3. Malta does not participate in the Permanent Structured Cooperation.
  4. The responsibility of collective selv-defence within the CSDP is based on Article 42.7 of TEU, which states that this responsibility does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, referring to policies of nautrality. See Neutral country§European Union for discussion on this subject.According to the Article 42.7 "If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States." Article 42.2 furthermore specifies that NATO shall be the main forum for the implementation of collective self-defence for EU member states that are also NATO members.
  5. Akin to the EU’s banking union, economic and monetary union and customs union.

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Further reading

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