Close central unrounded vowel

Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
ɯ̈
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
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The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i.

Occasionally, this vowel is transcribed ï (centralized i) or ɯ̈ (centralized ɯ).[2]

The close central unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the rare post-palatal approximant [j̈].[3]

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, occurring most commonly as an allophone in some Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (such as Proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although that is not a defining feature of the entire area).

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Acehnesetupeue[tupɨə]'to know'Asyik[4] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[5] describe this sound as such while Durie[6] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
AngamiKhonoma[7]prü[pɻɨ²]'hail stone'The height varies between close [ɨ] and mid [ə].[7] Typically transcribed in IPA with ə.
Arhuaco ikʉ ɪk'ɨ 'arhuaco language'
Mandarin[8]chi ()[tʂʰɨ]'to eat'
EnglishSoutheastern English[9]rude[ɹɨːd]'rude'May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní[10]yvy[ɨʋɨ]'earth'
Hausa[11]Allophone of /i/.[11]
IrishMunster[12]caora[kɨ̟ːɾˠə]'sheep'Somewhat fronted; allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[12] See Irish phonology
Kalagan[13][pɨˈnɨt̪]'beard'
Kashmiri[14]teer[ˈt̪ɨːr]'cold'
Kera[15][ɡɨ̀ɡɨ̀r]'knee'
Latgalian[16]dyžan[ˈd̪ɨʒän̪]'very much'See Latgalian phonology
Mongolian[17]хүчир[xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆]'difficult'
Mono[18]dɨ[dɨ]'count'
Paicî[19]May be transcribed in IPA with ɯ.
Romanian[20]înot[ɨˈn̪o̞t̪]'I swim'See Romanian phonology
Russian[21]ты [t̪ɨ]'you' (singular)Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[22][kʼsɨt]'cold'Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sema[23]sü[ʃɨ̀]'to hurt'Also described as near-close [ɨ̞].[24]
Shipibo[25]tenaitianronki[ˈt̪ɨnɐi̞ti̞ɐ̃ɽõ̞ɣi̞]Possible realization of /ɯ/ after coronal consonants.[25]
Sirionó[26][eˈsɨ]'dry wood'
SwedishBohuslän[27]bli[blɨᶻː]'to stay'A fricated vowel that corresponds to [] in Central Standard Swedish.[27] See Swedish phonology
Närke[27]
TajikBukharan[28]ғижғиж[ʁɨʑʁɨʑ]'the sound of
wood sawing'
Allophone of /i/ in the environment of uvular consonants.[28]
Tamil[29]வால்[väːlɨ]'tail'Epenthetic vowel inserted in colloquial speech after word-final liquids; can be rounded [ʉ] instead.[29] See Tamil phonology
Tera[30]zu[zɨ]'said'
TurkishEastern AnatoliaCorresponds to /ɯ/ in standard Turkish.
Balkans[31]Word-final merger of standard Turkish sounds /i/ and /ɯ/, shift of /y/ and /u/ into single phoneme due to interactions caused by Balkan sprachbund. Dombrowski[31] transcribes this phoneme as /i/.
Udmurt[32]ургетэ, ыргетэ[33][ɨrgete]'it growls'
WelshNorthern dialects[34]llun[ɬɨːn]'picture'See Welsh phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[35]nɨ[nɨ]'be sour'

The sound of Polish y is often represented as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[36] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed e, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel,[37] more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded)

See also

References

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. See e.g. Gimson (2014:133), who transcribes the unrounded central realization of the English GOOSE vowel /uː/ with the symbol [ɯ̈ː].
  3. Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar".
  4. Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies, 11: 1–33, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2013, retrieved 9 November 2012
  5. Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities, 15: 9–21
  6. Mid-vowels in Acehnese Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. 1 2 Blankenship et al. (1993), p. 129.
  8. "Chinese Vowels".
  9. Lodge (2009), p. 174.
  10. "Phonological inventory of Paraguayan Guarani". South American Phonological Inventory Database. Berkeley: University of California. 2015.
  11. 1 2 Schuh & Yalwa (1999), p. 90.
  12. 1 2 Ó Sé (2000), p. ?.
  13. Wendel & Wendel (1978), p. 198.
  14. "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  15. Pearce (2011), p. 251.
  16. Nau (2011), pp. 9–10.
  17. Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  18. Olson (2004), p. 235.
  19. Gordon & Maddieson (1996), p. 118.
  20. Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  21. Jones & Ward (1969), p. 33.
  22. Hargus & Beavert (2002).
  23. Teo (2014), p. 28.
  24. Teo (2012), p. 368.
  25. 1 2 Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 283.
  26. Firestone (1965), p. ?.
  27. 1 2 3 Riad (2014), p. 21.
  28. 1 2 Ido (2014), p. 91.
  29. 1 2 Keane (2004), p. 114.
  30. Tench (2007), p. 230.
  31. 1 2 Dombrowski, Andrew. "Vowel Harmony Loss in West Rumelian Turkish".
  32. Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 64, 68.
  33. ургетыны [Udmurt-Russian dictionary] (in Russian)
  34. Ball (1984), p. ?.
  35. Merrill (2008), p. 109.
  36. Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  37. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.

Bibliography

  • Blankenship, Barbara; Ladefoged, Peter; Bhaskararao, Peri; Chase, Nichumeno (1993), "Phonetic structures of Khonoma Angami", in Maddieson, Ian, Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 127–141 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-0861-9 
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language, 62 (3): 530–570, doi:10.2307/415477, JSTOR 415477 
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Gordon, Matthew J.; Maddieson, Ian (1996), "The phonetics of Paici", in Maddieson, Ian, UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages IV, 93, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 111–124 
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics, 68 (3): 316–340, doi:10.1086/466492 
  • Ido, Shinji (2014), "Bukharan Tajik", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 44 (1): 87–102, doi:10.1017/S002510031300011X 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Nau, Nicole (2011), A short grammar of Latgalian, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-86288-055-3 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
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  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5 
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952 
  • Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (03): 365–373, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000254 
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