Close back unrounded vowel

Close back unrounded vowel
ɯ
IPA number 316
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɯ
Unicode (hex) U+026F
X-SAMPA M
Kirshenbaum u-
Braille
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The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close back-central unrounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɯ. Typographically a turned letter m, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter u it can be considered a u with an extra "bowl". It is not to be confused with , a sequence of the symbols u and ɪ (which represent the close back rounded vowel and the near-close near-front unrounded vowel, respectively), nor with ω, which is an unofficial symbol for the near-close near-back unrounded vowel.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Acehnese[3]eu[ɯ]'see'Also described as closer to [ɨ].[4][5]
Alekanohanuva[hɑnɯβɑ]'nothing'
Bashkirҡыҙ[qɯð]'girl'
ChineseHokkien Amoy dialects[tɯ]'pig'
Some Wu dialects[vɯ]'father'
Xiang[xɯ]'fire'
Crimean Tatarcanım[dʒanɯm]'please'
EnglishCalifornia[6]goose[ɡɯ̟ˑs]'goose'Near-back;[6] corresponds to [] in other dialects.
New Zealand[7][8]treacle[ˈtɹ̝̊e̝kɯ]'treacle'Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[7][8] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
South African[9]pill[pʰɯ̟ɫ]'pill'Near-back; possible allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[9] Also described as close-mid [ɤ̟].[10] See South African English phonology
Estonian[11]kõrv[kɯrv]'ear'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɤ; can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead, depending on the speaker.[11] See Estonian phonology
Garifunagürûgua[ɡɯˈɹɯɡwə]'bite'
IrishUlstercaol[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]'narrow'See Irish phonology
Kensiu[12][häjɯ̟p]'to know'Near-back.[12]
Korean[13]음식/飮食 eumsik[ɯːmɕik̚]'food'See Korean phonology
Kyrgyzкыз[qɯz]'girl'See Kyrgyz phonology
Ongota[kuˈbuːɯ]'dry'
Scottish Gaeliccaol[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]'thin'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Shipibo[14]kuni [ˈkɯ̟ni̞]'whisker'Near-back.[14]
Sundanesemeunang[mɯnaŋ]'get'
Thai[15]ขึ้น[16][kʰɯ̟n˥˩]'to go up'Near-back.[17]
Turkish[18][19]sığ[sɯ̟ː]'shallow'Near-back.[18] See Turkish phonology
Turkmenýaşyl[jäːˈʃɯl]'green'
TuvanКызыл[kɯˈzɯl]'Kyzyl'
Uyghurتىلىم[tɯlɯm]'my language'In complementary distribution with /ɪ/. See Uyghur phonology
Vietnamesetư[tɯ]'fourth'See Vietnamese phonology
XumiUpper[20][Hkɯ]'to bake'Allophone of /ʉ/ after velar consonants.[20]
Yakutтыл[tɯl]'tongue'

The symbol ɯ is sometimes used for Japanese /u/, but that sound is rounded, albeit with labial compression rather than protrusion. It is more accurately described as an exolabial close back vowel.

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009). "Estonian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 367–372. doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x. 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Bishop, Nancy (1996). "A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology" (PDF). Mon–Khmer Studies Journal. 25. 
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013). "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 43 (3): 381–396. doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169. 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1999), "American English", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 41–44 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association:A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–123, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993). "Thai". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 23 (1): 24–26. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746. 
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001). "Shipibo". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 31 (2): 281–285. doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109. 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
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