Close-mid front rounded vowel

Close-mid front rounded vowel
ø
IPA number 310
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø
Unicode (hex) U+00F8
X-SAMPA 2
Kirshenbaum Y
Braille
Listen
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The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a close-mid front-central rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ø, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ʏ or y, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ø, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid front compressed vowel

The close-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ø, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter β̞ as e͡β̞ (simultaneous [e] and labial compression) or eᵝ ([e] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic   ͍ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ø͍ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

For the close-mid front compressed vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ʏ, see near-close front compressed vowel. If the usual symbol is ø, the vowel is listed here.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence

Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3]
Northern[4]Allophone of /e/ before /l/.[4]
Breton[5]eur[øːʁ]'hour'
DanishStandard[6]købe[ˈkʰøːb̥ə]'buy'Also described as near-close [ø̝ː].[7] See Danish phonology
DutchStandard Belgian[8][9]neus [nøːs]'nose'Also described as mid central [ɵ̞ː].[10] In the Standard Northern variety, it is diphthongized to [øʏ̯].[9][11] See Dutch phonology
Many accents[9]Present in many Eastern and Southern varieties.[12] See Dutch phonology
EnglishBroad New Zealand[13][14]bird[bøːd]'bird'Possible realization of /ɵː/. Other speakers use a more open vowel [ø̞ː ~ œː].[13][15] See New Zealand English phonology
Cardiff[16]Lower [ø̞ː ~ œː] in other southern Welsh accents. It corresponds to mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] in other Welsh accents and in RP.[17][18][19]
Port Talbot[20]
Geordie[21][22]Can be mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] instead.[21]
South African[23]Used in General and Broad accents; may be mid [ø̞ː] instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː].[23] See South African English phonology
Estonian[24]köök[køːk]'kitchen'See Estonian phonology
FaroeseStandard[25]høgur[ˈhøːʋʊɹ]'high'May be a diphthong [øœ ~ øə] instead.[26] See Faroese phonology
Suðuroy dialect[27]bygdin[ˈpɪktøn]'bridges'Realization of unstressed /i/ and /u/.[27] See Faroese phonology
French[28][29]peu[pø]'few'See French phonology
GermanStandard[30][31]schön [ʃøːn] 'beautiful'Also described as mid [ø̞ː].[32] See Standard German phonology
Some dialects[33][34]Löwen[ˈl̪øːfɱ̍]'lions'Used by some dialect speakers in cognates of Standard German words.[33][34] The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Southern accents[35]Hölle[ˈhølə]'hell'Common realization of /œ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[35] See Standard German phonology
Hungarian[36]nő[nøː]'woman'See Hungarian phonology
Iaai[37]møøk[møːk]'to close eyes'
LimburgishMost dialects[38][39][40]beuk[bøːk]'books'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
LombardMost dialects[41]nööf / noeuv[nøːf]'new'
Low German[42]sön / zeun[zøːn]'son'May be realized as a narrow closing diphthong in certain dialects.[42]
PortugueseMicaelense[43]boi[bø]'ox'Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[44]dou[d̪øw]'I give'
Ripuarian[45]meusj[møːʃ²]'sparrow'The example word is from the Kerkrade dialect.
Saterland Frisian[46]Göäte[ˈɡøːtə]'gutter'Typically transcribed in IPA with œː. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʏ/ ([ʏ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with øː is actually near-close [ø̝ː].[46]
West FrisianStandard[47]put[pøt]'well'See West Frisian phonology
Hindeloopers[48]beuch[bøːx]Diphthongized to [øy̑] in Standard West Frisian.[48] See West Frisian phonology

Close-mid front protruded vowel

Close-mid front protruded vowel
ø̫
øʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as the Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is øʷ or (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ʏ, see near-close front protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ø, the vowel is listed here.

Acoustically, the sound is in between the more typical compressed close-mid front vowel [ø] and the unrounded close-mid front vowel [e].

Features

  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
NorwegianUrban East[49][50]søt[sø̫ːt]'sweet'One of the possible realizations of /øː/. See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[51]öl [ø̫ːl̪] 'beer'May be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology

See also

References

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. 1 2 Rowley (1990), p. 422.
  5. Ternes (1992), pp. 431, 433.
  6. Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  7. Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48).
  8. Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  9. 1 2 3 Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–134.
  10. Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  11. Gussenhoven (1999), p. 76.
  12. Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–135.
  13. 1 2 Wells (1982), p. 607.
  14. Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  15. Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 591.
  16. Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  17. Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  18. Tench (1990), p. 136.
  19. Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  20. Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  21. 1 2 Wells (1982), p. 375.
  22. Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  23. 1 2 Lass (2002), p. 116.
  24. Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  25. Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  26. Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  27. 1 2 Þráinsson (2004), p. 350.
  28. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  29. Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  30. Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  31. Hall (2003), pp. 95, 107.
  32. Collins & Mees (2013), p. 235.
  33. 1 2 Green (1990), p. 245.
  34. 1 2 Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  35. 1 2 Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  36. Szende (1994), p. 92.
  37. Maddieson & Anderson (1994), p. 164.
  38. Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  39. Peters (2006), p. 119.
  40. Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  41. Loporcaro, Michele (2015). Vowel Length from Latin to Romance. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0-19-965655-4.
  42. 1 2 Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  43. Variação Linguística no Português Europeu: O Caso do Português dos Açores (in Portuguese)
  44. Lista das marcas dialetais e outros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  45. Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  46. 1 2 Peters (2017), p. ?.
  47. Tiersma (1999), p. 11.
  48. 1 2 van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  49. Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  50. While Vanvik (1979) does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Haugen (1974:40) and Popperwell (2010:35)) state explicitly that it is protruded.
  51. Engstrand (1999), pp. 140-141.

Bibliography

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