Close-mid back unrounded vowel

Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA number 315
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ
Unicode (hex) U+0264
X-SAMPA 7
Kirshenbaum o-
Braille
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The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[2] Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ɤ, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ɣ, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[3] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was , sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ⟨⟩, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA.[4] The symbol was ultimately revised to be , "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gamma ɣ.[5] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Chinese Mandarin /hē  [xɤ˥]  'to drink' Usually pronounced as a sequence [ɰɤ̞]. See Standard Chinese phonology
Southern Min /ô [ɤ˧] 'oyster'
English Cape Flats[6] foot [fɤt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[6] See South African English phonology
Indian South African[7] Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[7] See South African English phonology
New Zealand[8][9] treacle [ˈtɹ̝̊e̝kɤ] 'treacle' Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[8][9] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[10] long ago [lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯] 'long ago' Near-back; possible allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants.[10] See English phonology
White South African[11] pill [pʰɤ̟ɫ] 'pill' Near-back; allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[11] Also described as close [ɯ̟].[12] See South African English phonology
Estonian[13] kõrv [kɤrv] 'ear' Can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[13] See Estonian phonology
Gayo[14] kule [kuˈlɤː] 'tiger' One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[14]
Irish Ulster[15] Uladh [ɤ̟l̪ˠu] 'Ulster' Near-back.[16] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[17] [ˈᵐbɤ] 'tail' Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][18]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi [ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ] 'there' See Korean phonology
Mah Meri[19] Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or open-mid back [ʌ] instead.[19]
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄] 'it was squeezed' May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Önge önge [ˈɤŋe] 'man'
Samogitian õlgs [ˈɤˑɫgs] 'long'
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [d̪̊ɤrʲɤv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu [iɤ] 'this'
Thai[20] ธอ/thoe [tʰɤ̟ː] 'you' Near-back[20]
Xumi Upper[21] [Htsɤ] 'crown of a head' Occasional realization of /o/.[21]

See also

References

  1. While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  4. International Phonetic Association (1912). The principles of the International Phonetic Association. Paris, Association Phonétique Internationale. p. 10.
  5. Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine.
  6. 1 2 Finn (2004), p. 970.
  7. 1 2 Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  8. 1 2 "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  9. 1 2 Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  10. 1 2 Gimson (2014), p. 138.
  11. 1 2 Wells (1982), p. 617.
  12. Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  13. 1 2 Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  14. 1 2 Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  15. Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  16. Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  17. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  18. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  19. 1 2 Kruspe & Hajek (2009), p. 245.
  20. 1 2 Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
  21. 1 2 Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.

Bibliography

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X 
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169 
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416 
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 934–984, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685 
  • Kruspe, Nicole; Hajek, John (2009), "Mah Meri", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (2): 241–248, doi:10.1017/S0025100309003946 
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Nowikow, Wieczysław (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpańska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8 
  • Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24–28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
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