|Region of British India|
|•||Merged into the British Province(British India)||1862|
The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of small states in Punjab region in the 19th century, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. These states were under the suzerainty of the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire. Small Punjabi kingdoms of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas, until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British.
During the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to British General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the war, the frontier of British India was extended to the Yamuna. And an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought the states under formal British protection. The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla and Faridkot. Before 1846 the greater part of this territory was relatively independent, the chiefs being subject to supervision from a political officer stationed at Umballa, and styled the agent of the British Governor-General of India for the Cis-Sutlej states.
In 1849 the Punjab was annexed to British India, when the Cis-Sutlej states commissionership, comprising the districts of Ambala, Ferozepore, Ludhiana, Thanesar and Simla, was incorporated with the new Punjab Province.
The name continued to be applied to this division until 1862, when — owing to Ferozepore having been transferred to Lahore Division and a part of Thanesar to Delhi Division — it ceased to be appropriate. The remaining tract became known as the Ambala Division. The princely states of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha were appointed a separate political agency in 1901. Excluding Bahawalpur (for which there was no political agent) and Chamba, the other states were grouped under the commissioners of Jullunder and Delhi, and the superintendent of the Simla Hill States. All native states, except Kaithal, would join PEPSU after India's independence.
Districts and states
Present districts and divisions
- A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid Eighteenth Century, Farooqui Salma Ahmed, Salma Ahmed Farooqui, Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- History of the Marathas - R.S. Chaurasia - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cis-Sutlej States". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 693.