Church of the Brethren
|Church of the Brethren|
|Structure||Congregationalist with districts that meet together in an Annual Conference|
|Distinct fellowships||The Church of the Brethren, Inc. (ministry and administration), Bethany Theological Seminary, Brethren Benefit Trust (retirement fund), On Earth Peace (peace initiative)|
|Associations||Brethren World Assembly, Christian Churches Together, Christian Peacemaker Teams, Church World Service, Historic Peace Churches, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, National Council of Churches, World Council of Churches|
|Region||United States (headquarters) and Puerto Rico, with groups in Brazil; the Dominican Republic; Haiti; Nigeria and Oku, Cameroon; Spain; and South Sudan; also present in Ecuador (United Andean Indian Mission) and India (Church of North India)|
|Founder||Alexander Mack and the Schwarzenau Brethren|
|Separations||Dunkard Brethren (1926)|
|Congregations||1,047 (2010, United States and Puerto Rico)|
|Members||122,810 (2010, United States)|
|Nursing homes||21 (Fellowship of Brethren Homes)|
|Aid organization||Brethren Disaster Ministries, Brethren Service Center, Brethren Volunteer Service, Children's Disaster Services, Heifer International, SERRV International|
|Tertiary institutions||Six colleges and universities (Bridgewater College, Elizabethtown College, Juniata College, Manchester College, McPherson College, and University of La Verne), one seminary (Bethany Theological Seminary), see also Brethren Colleges Abroad|
|Part of a series on the|
|Schwarzenau Brethren |
(the German Baptists or Dunkers)
|Christianity · Protestantism · Anabaptism · Radical Pietism · Radical Reformation|
|Non-creedalism · Trine baptism · Love feast · Feet washing · Holy kiss · Free church · Anointing with oil · Non-resistance · Pacifism · The Brethren Card|
|Alexander Mack · Louis Bauman · Conrad Beissel · Donald F. Durnbaugh · Vernard Eller · Samuel Kinsey · John Kline · Peter Nead · Christoph Sauer|
|Brethren Church · Church of the Brethren · Conservative Grace Brethren · Dunkard Brethren · Grace Brethren · Old Brethren · Old Brethren German Baptist · Old German Baptist Brethren · Old German Baptist Brethren, New Conference · Old Order German Baptist Brethren ·|
|Amish · Bruderhof · Community of True Inspiration · Hutterites · Mennonites · River Brethren · Quakers|
The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren (German: Schwarzenauer Neutäufer "Schwarzenau New Baptists") that was organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany as a melding of the Radical Pietist and Anabaptist movements. The denomination holds the New Testament as its only creed. Historically, the church has taken a strong stance for nonresistance or pacifism—it is one of the three historic peace churches, alongside the Mennonites and Quakers. Distinctive practices include believers baptism by trine immersion; a threefold love feast consisting of feet washing, a fellowship meal, and communion; anointing for healing; and the holy kiss.
The first Brethren congregation was established in the United States in 1723. These church bodies became commonly known as "Dunkards" or "Dunkers", and more formally as German Baptist Brethren. The Church of the Brethren represents the largest denomination descending from the Schwarzenau Brethren, and adopted this name in 1908. The denomination had 122,810 members as of June 2010 and 1,047 congregations in the United States and Puerto Rico as of August 2010.
The history of the Brethren began in 1708 when a group of eight Christians organized themselves under the leadership of Alexander Mack (1679–1735) into a church and baptized one another in Schwarzenau, Germany, now part of Bad Berleburg in North Rhine-Westphalia. Five men and three women gathered at the Eder, a small river that flows through Schwarzenau, to perform baptism as an outward symbol of their new faith. One of the members of the group first baptized Mack, who then, in turn, baptized the other seven.
They believed that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the "true" Christianity revealed in the New Testament, so they rejected established liturgy, including infant baptism and existing Eucharistic practices. The founding Brethren were broadly influenced by Radical Pietist understandings of an invisible, nondenominational church of awakened Christians who would fellowship together in purity and love, awaiting Christ's return. These eight Christians referred to themselves as the New Baptists (German: Neue Täufer). The name alluded to the use of the name Täufer (Baptists) by the Mennonites.
The denomination reorganized in America and founded its first American congregation on Christmas Day 1723 in Germantown, Pennsylvania, then a village outside Philadelphia. They became known as German Baptists (although this name was not officially recognized until 1836, when the Annual Meeting called itself "The Fraternity of German Baptists"). In 1871, the denomination adopted the name, "The German Baptist Brethren Church". Until the early 20th century, Brethren were colloquially called Tunkers or Dunkers (from the German for immersionists).
In 1728, Conrad Beissel, a Brethren minister at Conestoga (Lancaster County, PA) renounced his association with the Brethren and formed his own group in Ephrata, Pennsylvania. They came to be known as the Ephrata Cloister. Beissel practiced a mystical form of Christianity. He encouraged celibacy and a vegetarian diet.
The Great Schism
After the Beissel split, the Brethren split several times because of doctrinal differences. The most conservative members emphasized consistency, obedience, and the order of the Brethren. They opposed the use of musical instruments, Sunday schools, and worldly amusements. They promoted plain dress, simple living, and church discipline. The progressives in the church focused on grace and acceptance. They promoted higher education, salaried ministers, Sunday schools, and revivalism. The majority of Brethren held a position between the two extremes.
In 1869 and 1880, a group of Brethren in the Miami Valley of Ohio submitted a petition to Annual Conference to stop liberalization and return to traditional Brethren values. On both occasions, a more moderate petition was submitted to the delegates. Both times, the Miami Valley group found the rewording unacceptable.
In 1881, they resubmitted their petition to Annual Conference, and it was rejected for violating technical procedure. In November 1881, conservative Brethren led by the Miami Valley group met and formally split from the Church of the Brethren to form the Old German Baptist Brethren. They held their first annual meeting in 1882.
At the same time, Henry Holsinger, a leader of the progressives in the church, published writings that some Brethren considered slanderous and schismatic. As a result, he was disfellowshipped from the 1882 annual meeting of the Brethren. He met with other progressives on June 6 and 7, 1883, and together they formed the Brethren Church.
The remaining middle group—called "conservatives"—retained the name German Baptist Brethren. At the Annual Conference of 1908 at Des Moines, Iowa, the name was officially changed to the Church of the Brethren. The Annual Conference justified the name change by citing the predominant use of English in the church, the fact that the name "German Baptist" frustrated mission work, and that it would disassociate the denomination from the Old German Baptist Brethren.
Early 20th century
During the early 20th century, the Church of the Brethren invested heavily in foreign missions in India, China, and other nations. They also embraced the American temperance movement, which they had once dismissed as a manifestation of "popular Christianity".
Discipline for violating church teachings gradually subsided as the earlier emphasis upon unity of practice (the "order of the Brethren") gave way during the 1920s and 1930s to an emphasis upon individual moral autonomy. Martin Grove Brumbaugh—a Brethren minister and historian who became Governor of Pennsylvania in 1915—played a leading role in disseminating a more progressive vision of Brethren history. His claim that "no force in religion" had been a Brethren teaching since their founding reinforced his calls to relax church discipline.
During the 1940s and 1950s, acts of global Christian service energized the denomination. Many Brethren joined the Brethren Volunteer Service and Heifers for Relief, which incorporated independently in 1953 and became Heifer International. The Brethren helped establish the Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP), which was originally housed at Bethany Biblical Seminary, the Brethren Seminary in Oak Brook, Illinois. Well-known leaders of the Brethren Service initiatives included Dan West and M. R. (Michael Robert) Zigler.
Developments since the mid-20th century
From the end of the Second World War to the present, Brethren individuals, churches, and districts have disagreed about Biblical authority, ordination of women, homosexuality, climate change, and ecumenism.
The 1958 Annual Conference in Des Moines, Iowa, decided that trine immersion would not be required of all members, allowed ordination of women, opened love feast to members of any church, and permitted bread and cup communion outside of love feast. At the annual conference in Ocean Grove, New Jersey, the next year, a group of conservative Brethren responded by forming the Brethren Revival Fellowship (BRF). The BRF describes itself as a loyal concern movement within the Church of the Brethren. The BRF advocates simple dress, Biblical inerrancy, church discipline, and an evangelical understanding of faith. It is critical of the COB's involvement in political and social causes, as well as the denomination's association with the World Council of Churches and the National Council of Churches.
Groups including the Womaen's Caucus, Voices for an Open Spirit, Open Table Cooperative, and Brethren-Mennonite Council on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Interests advocate progressive changes to church doctrine and practice. Proposed changes include giving the denomination a gender-neutral name, allowing gay Brethren to be ordained as ministers and get married, and increasing the political and social mission of the church.
Although a divide exists within the church on these issues, the official position of the church is that the Bible is the Word of God, and that covenant-relationships between homosexuals are unacceptable. However, the church also affirms "unity in diversity”, which generally allows for church districts and congregations to set doctrine.
The Brethren state that they have "no creed but the New Testament". If a single part of the New Testament is most pointed to as a guide for members' lives, it is the Sermon on the Mount. The early Brethren were very meticulous in applying the New Testament to every situation. For example, they baptize in a forward direction because "we are baptized into his death", and at the moment of his death, Jesus' head fell forward.
When disagreements arise regarding the correct interpretation of New Testament passages or general congregation issues, local congregations go to their regional district conference for resolution. If necessary, the final authority for settling such disputes is the Annual Conference. The minutes of Annual Conference give a clear picture of what matters have been in dispute and how Brethren interpret the New Testament. However, some congregations accept or even encourage individual interpretation of the Bible and their faith.
In keeping with egalitarianism and respect for the individual, evangelism in the Church of the Brethren is practiced by personal demonstration of good works in the world community, and by nonconfrontational witnessing. An example of this is a recent statement in an official church publication: "Share the story of Annual Conference with someone else as a way to 'extend Jesus' table,' even inviting those people into the fellowship of the Church of the Brethren."
Brethren espouse the basic beliefs of Christianity, such as the divinity of Christ. They emphasize peace, simplicity, the equality of believers, and consistent obedience to Christ. Community, both within and without the church, is promoted, and Brethren often describe themselves in terms of what they do, rather than what they believe. Brethren also affirm that "faith without works is dead", and are heavily involved in disaster relief and other charitable works.
The Church of the Brethren is one of three historic peace churches, which includes the Quakers and the Mennonites. This is because two of the Brethren's fundamental beliefs are nonviolent resolution of conflict and pacifism, which they combine with antiwar and peace efforts around the world. The church's commitment to nonviolence is summarized in its phrase, "all war is sin" (Annual Conference, 1935), and the fact that many Brethren refuse to engage in voluntary or compulsory military service. However, some Brethren have been imprisoned for their ideals, while others have avoided the legal reprocussions of their refusal by agreeing to serve in the military as chaplains or medical personnel.
During the American Revolution and the American Civil War, Brethren required their members to abstain from military service, believing that obedience to Christ precluded such involvements. Until the early 20th century, Brethren baptismal applicants were required to promise to follow the church's teachings regarding "being defenseless". During the Second World War, Brethren worked with the government to create a system of alternative service, which would allow conscientious objectors to serve their nation and humanity through nonviolent service. Civilian Public Service was a result of the three historic peace churches collaborating with the U.S. government. While the government provided tools and materials and their work was managed by agencies such as the Soil Conservation or Forest Service, "the historic peace churches funded all the expenses for the men, including food, administrative costs, and a tiny monthly stipend of $2.50" (equivalent to $42 in 2017). Alternative service has evolved into Brethren Volunteer Service, a church agency that places many young people and some older persons in volunteer human-service jobs, usually for a one-year term.
Despite the church's official stance, some members of the Church of the Brethren do not entirely practice pacifism. This was made particularly evident when, during the Second World War, 80% of the men in the Church of the Brethren entered active duty in the military. Another 10% served as noncombatants in the military, with only 10% taking conscientious objector status. Recent national surveys of the Brethren suggest that only a minority of the current membership views military service as wrong.
Priesthood of all believers
Brethren follow a nonhierarchical pattern of church life. In the past, most congregations were served by multiple "free" ministers, who supported themselves through other occupations. Today, most congregations have paid pastors, but their function is still somewhat limited, with the laity still taking a very active role in ministerial work.
Brethren have been urged (and in earlier times compelled) to live a relatively simple lifestyle. At various points in their history, Brethren have been discouraged from attending fairs and carnivals, swearing oaths, driving motorized vehicles, attending secular colleges, joining secret societies, filing lawsuits, gambling, and using tobacco or alcoholic beverages.
Simplicity, or nonconformity as it was called until the early 20th century, was once very noticeable in Brethren dress and grooming. Men wore black coats with no collar, and hooks instead of buttons (often referred to as a Brethren suit). They would wear beards, but no mustaches. The mustache was seen as a sign of belonging to the military. Also, the beards were cut in a manner to avoid interference with the kiss of peace.
In addition, they wore broad-brimmed black hats. Women wore long dresses in dull colors, and a "prayer covering". Today, the Brethren suit still is worn in the most conservative congregations, although some men dress in a simple style by wearing a collared shirt in a single color without a tie, while women in these congregations may continue to practice the use of a prayer covering. The traditional Brethren plain dress is very similar to the clothing of the present-day Amish.
Most Brethren were well-acculturated by the second half of the 20th century. Today, many members of the church take simplicity to mean living a more ecologically friendly lifestyle by consuming less and being aware of the effect of their choices on the earth and other people (see simple living).
Like many mainline denominations, the Church of the Brethren has been debating issues related to human sexuality. In 2002, the Michigan District licensed and ordained an openly gay pastor, making it the first district to do so in the denomination. However, in 2003, the annual conference voted to reject the ordination of openly gay and lesbian pastors and thus, the first openly gay pastor, the Rev. Matthew Smucker, transferred to the United Church of Christ. Since then, however, several congregations within the denomination have publicly announced their support for same-sex marriage and openly LGBT clergy. In 2012, the Church of the Brethren adopted a resolution opposing same-sex marriage, and, in reaction to that resolution, some congregations, including La Verne Church of the Brethren, protested the resolution. Some congregations voted to begin performing same-gender marriages diverging from the national denomination.
The Brethren avoid the use of the term "sacraments", preferring the term "ordinances". This refers to the symbolic actions ordered by Jesus Christ and practiced by the early church. The Brethren ordinances are:
Anointing for healing
A supplicant is administered a small amount of oil on his forehead. This is followed by the laying on of hands and a prayer for wholeness. This is not to be confused with extreme unction (last rites), since healing is prayed for and expected. Healing is explicitly stated to include emotional and spiritual, as well as physical healing.
Anointing and laying on of hands have also been used for other purposes, such as consecrating someone for missions or other special service.
The Brethren believe that baptism is an outward sign of an inward experience of salvation. Hence, baptism is not performed until one is able to understand and accept the message of the gospel, typically at about age 13. In the early years of the denomination, the age at baptism was generally older. The mode of baptism is trine (three times) immersion in a forward direction in the Name of the Father, and in the name of the Son, and in the name of the Holy Spirit. This is followed by laying on of hands for the impartation of the Holy Spirit.
In the early years of the church, people coming into the Church of the Brethren from other denominations were expected to be rebaptized. Today, most congregations will receive members by reaffirmation of faith or by letter of transfer from another congregation or denomination.
The Brethren love feast is a conscious imitation of Jesus' last supper with his disciples. It begins with foot washing symbolizing humility and service. They then share a meal, symbolizing fellowship. Finally, they share the bread and cup communion (using unfermented red grape juice), symbolizing participation in Christ's suffering and death. There may also be hymns and a sermon, as well as a preliminary time of self-examination. Usually women and men sit at different tables, but in most congregations, no onus exists on sitting together—by family, child with parent, to avoid crowding a table, so forth.
Congregations typically hold love feast on Maundy Thursday and again about six months later. Some congregations also have bread-and-cup communion periodically during regular worship services.
Membership today and international presence
In 2008, the Church of the Brethren had 124,408 members and 999 churches in the United States. Membership increased in the first part of the 20th century and peaked in the early 1960s at about 200,000. Pennsylvania remains the hub of the denomination with over 200 congregations and over 50,000 members. Other than Pennsylvania, the states with the highest membership rates are West Virginia, Virginia, Indiana, and Maryland.
The Church of the Brethren—like many other mainline churches—has experienced a steady decline in membership since the middle of the 20th century. Among possible reasons for the decline is that the Church of Brethren is not evangelistic and often does not actively seek out new members. Despite the overall decline, noteworthy growth has occurred in the church in Puerto Rico (where it is called "Iglesia de los Hermanos"), since the late 1970s. It has also spread into other countries including the Dominican Republic and Haiti (as "Eglise des Frères Haitiens".)
In Nigeria, the Church of the Brethren is literally known as Church of the Children of the Same Mother (Hausa: Ekklesiyar Yan'uwa a Nigeria, or EYN.) Mission work began in Nigeria in 1923 and the membership of EYN, which must be renewed annually, reached 148,000 members in 2002, surpassing the membership of the US-based church. In 1965, the Brethren missionaries working in Ecuador since 1945, merged the churches they planted with those of the United Andean Indian Mission, to form the United Evangelical Church, now United Evangelical Methodist Church of Ecuador. In a similar way, in 1970, the mission in India merged with the Anglicans, Baptists, Disciples of Christ and Presbyterians to form the Church of North India, though some congregations have seceded since the merger. In the United States, three churches are joint Brethren and Mennonite.
The Brethren practice the "priesthood of all believers", and their structure is egalitarian. Some members still address each other as "Brother Smith" or "Sister Jones", for example. The practice is more common in the Eastern United States. Even the moderator of Annual Conference, the highest elected office in the church, is addressed as "Brother (or Sister) Moderator".
The term "minister" is understood as a functional role rather than an hierarchical position of authority. In the early days, most congregations had several ministers chosen ("called" or "elected") by the members of the congregation. The concept of a professional pastor (first explicitly permitted in 1911) has slowly become the predominant model, although many congregations still have "free" (nonsalaried) ministers and plural ministry.
There have been three degrees of ministry in the Church of the Brethren:
- The first degree (now known as licensed minister) is bestowed on those who are considering serving as ministers. The first degree is a time for education and self-examination, after which the individual either advances to the second degree or returns to lay status.
- The second degree minister or ordained minister is one who intends to continue serving in a ministerial role, usually as a professional pastor, teacher, counselor, or administrator.
- The third degree of minister, also known as an elder, serves as a head minister and supervises other ministers in a congregation. Some elders were perceived as being arrogant regarding their position, and the Annual Conference of 1967 decided that no elders would be elected after that time. Some congregations in the Southern Pennsylvania and Atlantic Northeast Districts still elect elders.
The Brethren also select deacons in most congregations. They assist in ministerial functions, particularly by tending to the physical and spiritual needs of individual members. Often, a husband and wife serve together as deacons.
The leading officers in the Church of the Brethren for business purposes are called moderators. Their principal function is to chair business meetings. There are congregational moderators, district moderators, and an annual conference (denominational) moderator. In recent years, the annual conference moderator has been elected a year in advance, and in the interim serves as "moderator elect".
The church is in the United States, divided into congregations that once had clear geographical boundaries. Since the 1930s, however, the boundaries have been indistinct and overlapping. Since 1856, congregations are collected into districts (23 as of 2010), whose boundaries are clear and usually correspond with state borders or county lines. The vast majority of present congregations are located east of the Mississippi. Fifty percent of the membership is located in just two states: Pennsylvania and Virginia.
Each congregation also selects delegates to serve at an Annual Conference (sometimes called annual meeting), which is the final human authority in questions of faith and practice. Issues that cannot be resolved on a local level, or which have implications for the church as a whole are framed as "queries", which are submitted by a congregation to the district (since 1866), and then, if necessary, are passed on to Annual Conference. Typically, a committee is formed to study the matter, and an answer is reported and adopted by a vote of the delegates at a subsequent Annual Conference.
Boards, committees, and agencies
The Brethren have numerous boards and committees (sometimes called "teams") that can be either temporary or permanent and either highly focused on one issue (e.g. evangelism) or general in scope. Also, several agencies of the church institutions are given charge of carrying out the ministries of the church.
At the 2008 Annual Conference of the Church of the Brethren, two of these agencies, the Church of the Brethren General Board and the Association of Brethren Caregivers, were combined into a single entity, the Church of the Brethren, Inc., the ministry arm of which is now known as the Mission and Ministry Board.
Other Annual Conference agencies include Bethany Theological Seminary, Brethren Benefit Trust, and On Earth Peace.
Liberal arts colleges related to the Church of the Brethren
- "Church directory". Church of the Brethren. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Daily News: May 28, 2008". Brethren.org. May 28, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "19th Century Acculturation of the Brethren". Cob-net.org. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Brethren Church National Office. "Brethren Church Website". Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "1979 Biblical Inspiration Authority". Brethren.org. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "1983 Human Sexuality". Brethren.org. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "A Resolution Urging Forbearance" (PDF). Brethren.org. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Church of the Brethren, Tapestry [newsletter], Office of Interpretation, Elgin IL, April 2011, Vol. 9, Issue 3, p.6
- Donald B. Kraybill (May 28, 2003). "The Amish and the State". Books.google.com. p. 43. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Durnbaugh, Donald F. (1997), Fruit of the Vine: A History of the Brethren: 1708–1995, Elgin, IL: Brethren Press, p. 474. Also see Bowman, Carl, Brethren Society, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 467.
- Bowman, Carl (1987). A Profile of the Church of the Brethren. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press. See also Bowman, Carl (2008), Portrait of a People: The Church of the Brethren at 300. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press.
- "RNS Gay Brethren". archives.religionnews.com. Religion News Service. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Rev. Matthew Smucker". lgbtran.org. Religious Archives Network. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Current Members of Supportive Communities Network". bmclgbt.org. Brethren Mennonite Council. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Barr, Cameron; Campbell, Kristen. "Reconciling Narrow Minds with Open Hearts". laverne.edu. La Verne Magazine. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "About Highland Avenue | Highland Avenue Church of the Brethren". www.hacob.org. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- email@example.com, SHERRY VAN ARSDALL. "Goshen church votes Sunday to allow same-sex marriages". Goshen News. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- "Forms | Church of the Brethren". Church of the Brethren. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- "Partners in Ministry". Northview Church of the Brethren. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- "1984 Abortion". www.brethren.org. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- "Historic Archive CD and Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches". The National Council of Churches. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- "2000 Religious Congregations and Membership Study". Glenmary Research Center. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- "Nigeria | Church of the Brethren". Brethren.org. November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Preheim, Rich (November 11, 2015). "Anabaptist Siblings: Brethren Renew Historic Connections with Mennonites". Mennonite World Review.
- Bowman, Carl Desportes (2008). Portrait of a People: The Church of the Brethren at 300. Brethren Press, Elgin. ISBN 978-0-87178-085-0.
- Background and Development of Brethren Doctrines, 1650–1987, Dale R. Stoffer (1989) Brethren Press ISBN 978-0936693224
- Beliefs of the Early Brethren: 1706–1735, William G. Willoughby (1999) Brethren Press ISBN 978-0936693514
- Brethren Society: The Cultural Transformation of a Peculiar People, Carl F. Bowman (1995) Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978-0801849053
- Brethren Encyclopedia, Vol. I–III, Donald F. Durnbaugh, editor (1983) The Brethren Encyclopedia Inc.
- Brethren Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, Donald F. Durnbaugh and Dale V. Ulrich, editors, Carl Bowman, contributing editor (2006) The Brethren Encyclopedia Inc.
- The Brethren in Industrial America: A Source Book on the Development of the Church of the Brethren, 1865–1915, Roger Sappington (ed.), (1985), Brethren Press ISBN 978-0871781116
- Church of the Brethren Yesterday and Today Donald F. Durnbaugh and Carl Desportes Bowman (1986), Brethren Press ISBN 978-0871781512
- Encyclopedia of American Religions, J. Gordon Melton, editor
- Fruit of the Vine, A History of the Brethren 1708–1995, Donald F. Durnbaugh (1996) Brethren Press ISBN 978-0871780034
- Handbook of Denominations, by Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill, and Craig D. Atwood
- Portrait of a People: The Church of the Brethren at 300, Carl Desportes Bowman (2008) Brethren Press ISBN 978-0871780850
- Profiles in Belief: the Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada, by Arthur Carl Piepkorn
- Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States (2000), Glenmary Research Center
- The Believers' Church: The History and Character of Radical Protestantism, Donald F. Durnbaugh (1968) The Macmillan Company ISBN