Ghaggar-Hakra Sarasvati rivers and tributaries
|Main source||Shivalik Hills, Himachal Pradesh|
Origin and route
The Chautang river is a seasonal river in the state of Haryana, India. It is a remnant of the Drsadvati and joins the Ghaggar-Hakra River east of Suratgarh in Rajasthan. This river was one of the main contributors to the Sarasvati river until the Yamuna changed its course. However, according to recent studies, Yamuna changed its course towards east some 50,000 to 10,000 years ago, and that Chautang is a rain-fed river and the Yamuna had not been pouring any water into it for the last 10,000 years. Hansi Branch of Western Yamuna Canal is palaeochannel of this river.
Identification with Vedic rivers
Several modern scholars identify the old Ghaggar-Hakra River as the Sarasvati river and the Chautang river with the Drishadvati river of Vedic period, on the banks of which Indus-Sarasvati civilisation developed. such scholars include Gregory Possehl, J. M. Kenoyer, Bridget and Raymond Allchin, Michael Witzel, Kenneth Kennedy, Franklin Southworth, and numerous Indian archaeologists.
Gregory Possehl states:
- Western Yamuna Canal, branches off Yamuna river
- Markanda river, a tributary of Sarsuti
- Dangri, a tributary of Sarsuti
- Tangri river, a tributary of Sarsuti, merge if Dangri and Tangri are same
- Sarsuti, a tributary of Ghaggar-Hakra River
- Kaushalya river, a tributary of Ghaggar-Hakra River
- Sutlej, a tributary of Indus
- AmbalaOnline - Rrvers of Ambala
- Chopra, Sanjeev (25 September 2010). "Overflowing Ghaggar, Tangri inundate some villages along Punjab-Haryana border". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- McIntosh, Jane. The Ancient Indus Valley: New perspectives. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Giosan, Liviu; et al. (2012). "Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization". PNAS. 109 (26): E1688–E1694. doi:10.1073/pnas.1112743109. PMC 3387054
. PMID 22645375.
- Possehl, Gregory L. (December 1997), "The Transformation of the Indus Civilization", Journal of World Prehistory, 11 (4): 425–472, doi:10.1007/bf02220556, JSTOR 25801118
- Kenoyer, J. M. (1997), "Early City-states in South Asia: Comparing the Harappan Phase and the Early Historic Period", in D. L. Nichols; T. H. Charlton, The Archaeology of City States: Cross Cultural Approaches, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 52–70, ISBN 1560987227
- Allchin, Bridget; Allchin, Raymond (1982), The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan, Cambridge University Press, p. 160, ISBN 978-0-521-28550-6
- Erdosy 1995, pp. 105, 318.
- Erdosy 1995, p. 44.
- Erdosy 1995, p. 266.
- McIntosh, Jane (2008). The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-907-2.
- Gregory L. Possehl (2002). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Rowman Altamira. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ghaggar-Hakra river.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sarasvati River.|