Chapssal-tteok

Chapssal-tteok
Alternative names Chaltteok, glutinous rice cake
Type Tteok
Place of origin Korea
Associated national cuisine Korean cuisine
Main ingredients Glutinous rice
Similar dishes Mochi
Cookbook: Chapssal-tteok  Media: Chapssal-tteok
Korean name
Hangul 찹쌀떡
Revised Romanization chapssal-tteok
McCune–Reischauer ch'apssal-ttŏk
IPA [tɕʰap̚.s͈al.t͈ʌk̚]
Hangul 찰떡
Revised Romanization chaltteok
McCune–Reischauer ch'alttŏk
IPA [tɕʰal.t͈ʌk̚]

Chapssal-tteok (찹쌀떡; [tɕʰap̚.s͈al.t͈ʌk̚]), also called chaltteok (찰떡, [tɕʰal.t͈ʌk̚]), is a tteok, or Korean rice cake, made of glutinous rice.[1]

Etymology

Chapssal-tteok is a compound noun consisting of chapssal (찹쌀), meaning "glutinous rice," and tteok (), meaning "rice cake."

The word chapssal is derived from the Middle Korean chɑl (), meaning "glutinous," and psɑl (), meaning "rice."[2] Chɑlpsɑl () appears in Gugeup ganibang, a 1489 book on medicine.[3] The word became chɑppsɑl () with consonant cluster reduction and then became chɑpsɑl () with degemination.[2] Due to the loss of the vowel ɑ () as well as syllable-initial consonant clusters, the word became chapssal with the syllable boundary between coda p and onset ss. Tteok is derived from the Middle Korean sdeok (), which appears in Worin seokbo, a 1459 biography and eulogy of the Buddha.[4][5]

The word chaltteok is a compound consisting of the attributive adjective chal (), meaning "glutinous," and tteok.[6] Chal is derived from the Middle Korean chɑl (), and the word chɑlsdeok () appears in Geumganggyeong Samga hae, a 1482 book on the Diamond Sūtra.[7]

Accordingly, chaltteok can mean tteok made of glutinous grains other than rice, such as glutinous sorghum, but chapssal-tteok can only refer to tteok that is made of glutinous rice.[1][2] In most cases, however, the words are used interchangeably, as tteok is most often made with glutinous or non-glutinous rice.

Preparation and varieties

Chapssal-tteok can be prepared in several ways. Glutinous rice is soaked, ground into flour, and then steamed in a siru (rice cake steamer).[8] The rice may or may not then be pounded. Sometimes, the rice is ground after being steamed instead of before.

Chapssal-tteok can be coated with gomul (powdered sesame or beans) and steamed, or it may be boiled and then coated. Chapssal-tteok can also be made round and filled with various so (fillings) such as red bean paste.[9][10]

Chapssal-tteok ice cream is popular in modern South Korea.[11]

Chapssal-tteok is featured in some fusion Korean dishes.[12]

Similar food

Some Japanese mochi varieties are very similar to certain chapssal-tteok varieties. Both may be made by steaming and pounding soaked glutinous rice.

See also

References

  1. 1 2 "chapssal-tteok" 찹쌀떡. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 "chapssal" 찹쌀. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  3. Yun, Ho; Im, Wonjun; Heo, Jong (1489). Gugeup ganibang 구급간이방(救急簡易方) [Prescriptions for Emergency Treatment] (in Middle Korean). Joseon Korea. Lay summary Digital Hangeul Museum.
  4. "tteok" . Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  5. Sejo (1459). Worin seokbo 월인석보(月印釋譜) [Songs of the Moon's Reflection on a Thousand Rivers and the Life History of Śākyamuni Combined] (in Middle Korean). Joseon Korea. Lay summary Digital Hangeul Museum.
  6. "chaltteok" 찰떡. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  7. Hakjo (1482). Geumganggyeong Samga hae 금강경삼가해(金剛經三家解) [Interpretations of Three Commentators on the Diamond Sūtra] (in Middle Korean). Joseon Korea. Lay summary Digital Hangeul Museum.
  8. Ro, Hyo-sun (20 October 2016). "Yeongyang chaltteok (Healthy sweet rice cake)". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  9. Neff, Robert (6 January 2016). "Snack peddlers popular to Westerners in 19th century". The Korea Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  10. Won, Ho-jung (27 April 2015). "Big Bang kicks off world tour with a nod to Seoul fans". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  11. Lee, Hyo-won (31 December 2010). "2011 Year of the Rabbit". The Korea Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  12. Oum, Channaly (27 November 2013). "Exploring Korean Cuisine's Earthy Flavors". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
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