Centre-right coalition

Centre-right coalition
Coalizione di centro-destra
Leader Matteo Salvini
Founder Silvio Berlusconi
Founded 18 January 1994
Political position Centre-right[1][2]
Colours Blue
Chamber of Deputies
263 / 630
Senate
135 / 315
European Parliament
22 / 73
Regional Government
7 / 20

The centre-right coalition (Italian: coalizione di centro-destra) is a political alliance of political parties in Italy, active—under several forms and names—since 1994, when Silvio Berlusconi entered politics and formed his Forza Italia party.

In the 1994 general election, under the leadership of Berlusconi, the centre-right ran with two coalitions, the Pole of Freedoms in northern Italy and Tuscany (mainly Forza Italia and the Northern League) and the Pole of Good Government (mainly Forza Italia and National Alliance) in central and southern Italy.[3][4] In the 1996 general election, after the Northern League had left in late 1994, the centre-right coalition took the name of Pole for Freedoms. The Northern League returned in 2000, and the coalition was re-formed as the House of Freedoms; this lasted until 2008.[5]

Since 2008, when Forza Italia and National Alliance merged into The People of Freedom, the coalition has not had official names. The new Forza Italia was formed in late 2013; for the 2018 general election it joined forces with the Northern League, the Brothers of Italy and a collection of mainly centrist forces named Us with ItalyUnion of the Centre.

1994 general election

In the 1994 general election the Pole of Freedoms ran only in northern Italy and Tuscany. It was composed of four parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Christian Democratic Centre (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Union of the Centre (UdC) Liberalism Raffaele Costa

The Pole of Good Government ran only in central Italy (except Tuscany) and southern Italy. It was composed of six parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) National conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Christian Democratic Centre (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Union of the Centre (UdC) Liberalism Raffaele Costa
Liberal Democratic Pole (PLD) Liberalism Adriano Teso
Pannella List (LP) Liberalism Marco Pannella

1996 general election

In the 1996 general election the Pole for Freedoms was composed of four parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia[lower-alpha 1] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) National conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Christian Democratic Centre[lower-alpha 2] (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
United Christian Democrats[lower-alpha 2] (CDU) Christian democracy Rocco Buttiglione
Federalist Italian League (LIF)[6] Federalism Luigi Negri
Federalist Party Federalism Gianfranco Miglio
  1. Including also the List for Trieste (see below) and the Union of the Centre.
  2. 1 2 The two parties contested the election in a joint list.

The coalition also had an electoral agreement with:

Party Ideology Leader
Pannella–Sgarbi List (LPS) Liberalism Marco Pannella


The coalition had one regional partner:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Friuli-Venezia Giulia List for Trieste (LpT) Social liberalism Roberto Antonione

2001 general election

In the 2001 general election the House of Freedoms was composed of seven parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia[lower-alpha 1] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Northern League[lower-alpha 2] (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Christian Democratic Centre[lower-alpha 3] (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
United Christian Democrats[lower-alpha 3] (CDU) Christian democracy Rocco Buttiglione
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) Social democracy Gianni De Michelis
Italian Republican Party[lower-alpha 4] (PRI) Liberalism Giorgio La Malfa
Scorporo Abolition[lower-alpha 5] (AS) Single-issue politics
  1. Including also the Christian Democratic Party, List for Trieste and The Liberals–Sgarbi.[7]
  2. Including also the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party and the Lega Sud Ausonia (see below).
  3. 1 2 The two parties contested the election in a joint list.
  4. The party was included in Forza Italia's lists.
  5. Scorporo Abolition was a lista civetta.

The coalition had five regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Trentino Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT) Regionalism Giacomo Bezzi
Friuli-Venezia Giulia List for Trieste (LpT) Social liberalism Roberto Antonione
Campania Lega Sud Ausonia (LSA) Regionalism Gianfranco Vestuto
Sicily New Sicily (NS) Regionalism Bartolo Pellegrino
Sardinia Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Massimo Fantola

    The coalition also had an electoral agreement with:

    Party Ideology Leader
    Tricolour Flame (FT) Neo-fascism Pino Rauti

    2006 general election

    In the 2006 general election the House of Freedoms was composed of seventeen parties:

    Party Ideology Leader
    Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
    National Alliance (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
    Union of Christian and Centre Democrats[lower-alpha 1] (UDC) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
    Northern League[lower-alpha 2] (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
    Movement for Autonomy[lower-alpha 2] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
    Christian Democracy for the Autonomies[lower-alpha 3] (DCA) Christian democracy Gianfranco Rotondi
    New Italian Socialist Party[lower-alpha 3] (NPSI) Social democracy Gianni De Michelis
    Social Alternative[lower-alpha 4] (AS) Neo-fascism Alessandra Mussolini
    Tricolour Flame (FT) Neo-fascism Luca Romagnoli
    United Pensioners (PU) Pensioners' interests Filippo De Jorio
    Italian Republican Party[lower-alpha 5] (PRI) Liberalism Francesco Nucara
    No Euro Movement (MNE) Euroscepticism Renzo Rabellino
    Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Liberalism Stefano De Luca
    Extended Christian Pact (PACE) Christian democracy Gilberto Perri
    Liberal Reformers[lower-alpha 5] (RL) Liberalism Benedetto Della Vedova
    S.O.S. Italy (SOS) Consumer protection Diego Volpe Pasini
    Federalist Greens[lower-alpha 6] (VF) Green liberalism Laura Scalabrini
    1. The list included also the Sardinian Reformers (see below).
    2. 1 2 The two parties formed a joint list. The list included also the Sardinian Action Party (see below).
    3. 1 2 The two parties contested the election in a joint list.
    4. Including Social Action, New Force and the National Front.
    5. 1 2 The two parties were included in Forza Italia's lists.
    6. Including Greens Greens (see below).

    The coalition had five regional partners:

    Region Party Ideology Leader
    Piedmont Greens Greens (VV) Green liberalism Maurizio Lupi
    Sicily New Sicily (NS) Social democracy Bartolo Pellegrino
    Pact for Sicily (PpS) Christian democracy Nicolò Nicolosi
    Sardinia Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) Sardinian nationalism Giacomo Sanna
    Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Massimo Fantola

    The coalition had one regional partner in foreign constituencies:

    Region Party Ideology Leader
    Italians abroad For Italy in the World with Tremaglia (RS) Conservatism Mirko Tremaglia

    Berlusconi launched The People of Freedom in late 2007; this was joined by FI, AN and minor parties,[8] and continued its alliance with the LN.[9]

    2008 general election

    In the 2008 general election the coalition was composed of three parties:

    Party Ideology Leader
    The People of Freedom[lower-alpha 1] (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
    Northern League (LN)[lower-alpha 2] Regionalism Umberto Bossi
    Movement for Autonomy[lower-alpha 3] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
    1. The list, which would be transformed into a party in 2009, included Forza Italia, National Alliance, the Liberal Populars, the Christian Democracy for the Autonomies, the New Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party, the Liberal Reformers, the Pensioners' Party, the Liberal Democrats, Federation of Christian Populars,[10]. Decide!, Italians in the World, Social Action (formerly part of Social Alternative), the Libertarian Right, the Reformist Socialists and Fortza Paris (see below), the Sardinian Reformers tried to form an alliance, but talks failed and was supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party in Lombardy. Not all of these parties would be officially merged into the joint party in 2009.
    2. Including also the Federalist Alliance.
    3. The party was based in Sicily, but ran in several regions and run with Italy of the Centre[11] and the Southern Action League and was supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party in Sicily.

    The coalition had two regional partners:

    Region Party Ideology Leader
    Piedmont Greens Greens (VV) Green liberalism Maurizio Lupi
    Sardinia Fortza Paris (FP) Sardinian nationalism Silvestro Ladu

    2013 general election

    In the 2013 general election[12] the coalition was composed of nine parties.

    Party Ideology Leader
    The People of Freedom[lower-alpha 1] (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
    Northern League[lower-alpha 2] (LN) Regionalism Roberto Maroni
    Brothers of Italy (FdI) National conservatism Giorgia Meloni
    The Right (LD) National conservatism Francesco Storace
    Great SouthMpA[lower-alpha 3][lower-alpha 4] (GS–MpA) Regionalism Gianfranco Micciché
    Moderates in Revolution (MIR) Liberal conservatism Gianpiero Samorì
    Pensioners' Party (PP) Pensioners' interests Carlo Fatuzzo
    People's Agreement (IP) Christian democracy Giampiero Catone
    Stop Taxes (BT)[17][18] Anti-tax Luciano Garatti
    1. The list was supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and included the Union of Democrats for Europe[13][14], the New Italian Socialist Party, the Christian Democracy, the Popular Construction, the Movement for the Autonomies, Fortza Paris (see below) and the Federation of Christian Populars.[15]
    2. The list included the Labour and Freedom List and was supported by Fassa Association[16].
    3. Both parties were based in Sicily, but ran in several regions.
    4. Including Force of the South, I the South and We the South

    The coalition had four regional partners:

    Region Party Ideology Leader
    Sicily Popular Construction (CP) Regionalism Francesco Saverio Romano
    Party of Sicilians (PdS) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
    Sardinia Fortza Paris (FP) Sardinian nationalism Silvestro Ladu
    Campania Free for a Fair Italy (LIE)[19][20] Angelo Pisani

    Negotiations with Alto Adige in the Heart failed.[21]

    2018 general election

    In the 2018 general election the coalition was composed of five parties:

    Party Ideology Leader
    Forza Italia[lower-alpha 1] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
    League[lower-alpha 2] (L) Populism Matteo Salvini
    Brothers of Italy[lower-alpha 3] (FdI) National conservatism Giorgia Meloni
    Us with Italy[lower-alpha 4][lower-alpha 5] (NcI) Liberal conservatism Raffaele Fitto
    Union of the Centre[lower-alpha 5] (UdC) Christian democracy Lorenzo Cesa
    1. Including Energies for Italy, The Liberals, Christian Revolution, the Pensioners' Party, the Animalist Movement, Renaissance, the Moderates in Revolution, the Union of Democrats for Europe, the New Italian Socialist Party, Veneto for Autonomy (see below)[22], Fassa Association (see below)[23], dissidents of the Italian Republican Party and supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party.
    2. Running as "League – Salvini Premier" and including the National Movement for Sovereignty, the Italian Liberal Party, Us with Salvini and the Sardinian Action Party (see below) and was supported by Citizens' Union for South Tyrol.[24][25]
    3. Including also Alto Adige in the Heart (see below),[26] Social Right and She Will Become Most Beautiful.
    4. Including Direction Italy (including Responsible Autonomy and the Sardinian Reformers, see below), Civic Choice, Act!, the Popular Construction (see below), the Movement for the Autonomies (see below), splinters from Popular Alternative, the Union of the Centre, Identity and Action and the New United Christian Democrats and was supported by the Autonomist People's Union[27] and New CDU[28].
    5. 1 2 The two parties contested the election in a joint list.

    The coalition had ten regional partners:

    Region Party Ideology Leader
    Aosta Valley Movement New Aosta Valley (MNVdA) Regionalism Roberto Di Francesco
    South Tyrol Alto Adige in the Heart (AAC) Conservatism Alessandro Urzì
    Trentino Fassa Association (AF) Christian democracy Elena Testor
    Veneto Veneto for Autonomy (VpA) Regionalism Maurizio Conte
    Friuli-Venezia Giulia Responsible Autonomy (AR) Centrism Renzo Tondo
    Sicily Popular Construction[lower-alpha 1] (CP) Regionalism Francesco Saverio Romano
    Movement for the Autonomies[lower-alpha 1] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
    She Will Become Most Beautiful (DB) Regionalism Nello Musumeci
    Sardinia Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Michele Cossa
    Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) Sardinian nationalism Christian Solinas
    1. 1 2 Both parties were formerly active nationally, but now only in Sicily.

    Electoral results

    Italian Parliament

    Chamber of Deputies
    Election year # of
    overall votes
    % of
    overall vote
    # of
    overall seats won
    +/– Leader
    1994 18,200,270 (#1) 46.1
    366 / 630
    Silvio Berlusconi
    1996 15,095,436 (#2) 43.2
    246 / 630
    120
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2001 18,542,209 (#1) 49.9
    368 / 630
    122
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2006 18,995,697 (#2) 49.7
    281 / 630
    87
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2008 17,064,506 (#1) 46.8
    344 / 630
    43
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2013 9,923,109 (#2) 29.2
    125 / 630
    219
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2018 12,152,345 (#1) 37.0
    265 / 630
    140
    Matteo Salvini[lower-alpha 1]
    Senate of the Republic
    Election year # of
    overall votes
    % of
    overall vote
    # of
    overall seats won
    +/– Leader
    1994 14,110,705 (#1) 42.5
    156 / 315
    Silvio Berlusconi
    1996 12,185,020 (#2) 37.4
    116 / 315
    40
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2001 17,255,734 (#1) 50.4
    176 / 315
    60
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2006 17,359,754 (#1) 49.8
    156 / 315
    20
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2008 15,508,899 (#1) 47.3
    174 / 315
    18
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2013 9,405,679 (#2) 30.7
    117 / 315
    57
    Silvio Berlusconi
    2018 11,327,549 (#1) 37.5
    135 / 315
    18
    Matteo Salvini[lower-alpha 1]
    1. 1 2 Salvini became leader of the centre-right coalition after the results of 2018 general election, as head of the leading party in the coalition.

    Regional Councils

    Region Latest election # of
    overall votes
    % of
    overall vote
    # of
    overall seats won
    +/–
    Aosta Valley[lower-alpha 1] 2018 31,791 49.9
    18 / 35
    Piedmont[lower-alpha 1] 2014 613,800 27.3
    9 / 50
    27
    Lombardy 2018 2,686,610 (#1) 51.3
    49 / 80
    South Tyrol[lower-alpha 1] 2013 19,660 6.9
    2 / 35
    3
    Trentino[lower-alpha 1] 2013 75,239 30.2
    10 / 35
    3
    Veneto 2015 965,994 (#1) 52.2
    29 / 51
    8
    Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2018 264,769 (#1) 62.7
    29 / 49
    12
    Emilia-Romagna 2014 356,969 (#2) 29.7
    12 / 50
    3
    Liguria 2015 203.326 (#1) 37.7
    16 / 31
    1
    Tuscany[lower-alpha 1] 2015 386,236 29.1
    9 / 41
    10
    Marche[lower-alpha 1] 2015 178,924 33.7
    9 / 31
    6
    Umbria 2015 125,594 (#2) 38.6
    6 / 20
    4
    Lazio 2018 922,664 (#1) 36.4
    15 / 50
    1
    Abruzzo 2014 197,264 (#2) 29.3
    7 / 31
    20
    Molise 2018 71,677 (#1) 49.3
    13 / 21
    7
    Campania 2015 904,881 (#2) 39.7
    13 / 51
    25
    Apulia[lower-alpha 1] 2015 528.292 31.4
    13 / 51
    14
    Basilicata 2013 50,904 (#2) 21.5
    5 / 21
    5
    Calabria 2014 182,608 (#2) 23.3
    8 / 30
    22
    Sicily 2017 809,121 (#1) 42.0
    36 / 70
    15
    Sardinia 2014 299,349 (#1) 43.9
    24 / 60
    19
    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In Aosta Valley, Piedmont, South Tyrol, Trentino, Tuscany, Marche and Apulia the centre-right coalition ran divided.

    See also

    References

    1. Squires, Nick (6 November 2017). "Berlusconi is back after centre-Right sweeps to victory in Sicily elections". The Telegraph.
    2. "Italy's 5-Star seeks talks with PD, closes door on centre-right". Reuters. 24 April 2018.
    3. Mark Donovan (2004). "The Italian State: No Longer Catholic, no Longer Christian". In Zsolt Enyedi; John T.S. Madeley. Church and State in Contemporary Europe. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-135-76141-7.
    4. Andrej Zaslove (2011). The Re-invention of the European Radical Right: Populism, Regionalism, and the Italian Lega Nord. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7735-3851-1.
    5. Vittorio Vandelli (2014). 1994-2014 Berlusconi’s new ventennio. Vittorio Vandelli. p. 189. ISBN 978-605-03-2890-5.
    6. "Dipartimento per gli Affari Interni e Territoriali". elezionistorico.interno.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    7. "Camera dei Deputati - XIV legislatura - Deputati - La scheda personale - SGARBI Vittorio". Legxiv.camera.it. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
    8. "Italy returns Berlusconi to power". BBC News. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
    9. Daniele Albertazzi; Duncan McDonnell (2015). Populists in Power. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-317-53503-4. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
    10. "Antonio Satta (Upc) dà la "sveglia" a Casini per il nuovo grande Centro". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    11. "mpa-italia.it". www.mpa-italia.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    12. "Italian election results: gridlock likely – as it happened". Guardian. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
    13. «Con Forza Italia da moderati» Il sì dell’Udeur a Berlusconi Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
    14. "Mastella: «Voli di Stato, Boldrini linciata come me quando andai a Monza»". Retrieved 14 August 2018. line feed character in |title= at position 47 (help)
    15. "Elezioni, Baccini: Bene così, Cristiano popolari faranno loro parte". il Velino. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
    16. "Invito al voto per le Elezioni Politiche 24 e 25 febbraio 2013". 22 February 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    17. "Comune Senago" (PDF).
    18. "Site is under maintenance". www.illatv.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    19. Prefettura - Ufficio Territoriale del Governo di Caserta Archived 15 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
    20. "Assegnazione spazi propaganda elettorale" (PDF).
    21. "Dalla Lega a Fi passando per Tosi, Caon: «Dalla parte dei primi cittadini»". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    22. "Testor, la val di Fassa ora guarda a destra". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    23. "Pöder empfiehlt die Lega". 28 February 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    24. "Pöder wählt Salvini – Die Neue Südtiroler Tageszeitung". www.tageszeitung.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    25. "Fratelli d'Italia - Alleanza nazionale Trentino * Congresso Nazionale: nuovo simbolo e rinforzamento del Partito - Agenzia giornalistica Opinione". 3 December 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
    26. Official website of Renzo Gubert
    27. Official facebook account of New CDU

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