|Canada: 37,067,011 by the Q2 of 2018|
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||40,000|
|Trinidad and Tobago||5,000|
Primarily English and French|
Numerous indigenous languages are also recognized
Various other languages
Primarily Christian (Protestantism and Catholicism)|
Various other religions
Canadians (French: Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian.
Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization, different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States.
Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. World War I and World War II, in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, and full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development.
As of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. Approximately 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent. Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population.
While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario; and Acadia, in present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, during the early part of the 17th century.
Approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; immigration westward (to the area known as Rupert's Land) was carried out by "Voyageurs"; French settlers working for the North West Company; and by British settlers (English and Scottish) representing the Hudson's Bay Company, coupled with independent entrepreneurial woodsman called "Coureur des bois". This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage.
The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms. More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when approximately 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British (including British army regulars), Scottish and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America, mainly from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada. These new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are often referred to as Old Stock Canadians.
Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. The Chinese Immigration Act eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The population of Canada has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Germans, Scandinavians, Dutch, Poles, and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration (such as the Continuous journey regulation and Chinese Immigration Act) that had favoured British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world. While the 1950s had still seen high levels of immigration by Europeans, by the 1970s immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Jamaican and Haitian. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Canada received many American Vietnam War draft dissenters. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Canada's growing Pacific trade brought with it a large influx of South Asians, who tended to settle in British Columbia. Immigrants of all backgrounds tend to settle in the major urban centres. The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, are tolerant of immigrants.
The majority of illegal immigrants come from the southern provinces of the People's Republic of China, with Asia as a whole, Eastern Europe, Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East all contributing to the illegal population. Estimates of numbers of illegal immigrants range between 35,000 and 120,000. A 2008 report by the Auditor General of Canada, Sheila Fraser, stated that Canada has lost track of approximately 41,000 illegal immigrants whose visas have expired.
Citizenship and diaspora
Canadian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Canada or by birth or adoption abroad when at least one biological parent or adoptive parent is a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada or naturalized in Canada (and did not receive citizenship by being born outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen). It can also be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years and meets specific requirements. Canada established its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act which took effect on January 1, 1947. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act was passed by the Parliament of Canada in 2001 as Bill C-11, which replaced the Immigration Act of 1976 as the primary federal legislation regulating immigration. Prior to the conferring of legal status on Canadian citizenship, Canada's naturalization laws consisted of a multitude of Acts beginning with the Immigration Act of 1910.
According to Citizenship and Immigration Canada, there are three main classifications for immigrants: Family class (persons closely related to Canadian residents), Economic class (admitted on the basis of a point system that accounts for age, health and labour-market skills required for cost effectively inducting the immigrants into Canada's labour market) and Refugee class (those seeking protection by applying to remain in the country by way of the Canadian immigration and refugee law). In 2008, there were 65,567 immigrants in the family class, 21,860 refugees, and 149,072 economic immigrants amongst the 247,243 total immigrants to the country. Canada resettles over one in 10 of the world's refugees and has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world.
As of a 2010 report by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, there were 2.8 million Canadian citizens abroad. This represents about 8% of the total Canadian population. Of those living abroad, the United States, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, China, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates, and Australia have the largest Canadian diaspora. Canadians in the United States constitute the greatest single expatriate community at over 1 million in 2009, representing 35.8% of all Canadians abroad. Under current Canadian law, Canada does not restrict dual citizenship, but Passport Canada encourages its citizens to travel abroad on their Canadian passport so that they can access Canadian consular services.
(not included elsewhere)
According to the 2016 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (18.3%), Scottish (13.9%), French (13.6%), Irish (13.4%), German (9.6%), Chinese (5.1%), Italian (4.6%), First Nations (4.4%), Indian (4.0%), and Ukrainian (3.9%). There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people. Canada's indigenous population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an indigenous identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-indigenous visible minority. In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6%), Chinese (5.1%) and Black (3.5%). Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act, and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses.
Canadian culture is primarily a Western culture, with influences by First Nations and other cultures. It is a product of its ethnicities, languages, religions, political and legal system(s). Canada has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of art, cuisine, literature, humour, and music. Today, Canada has a diverse makeup of nationalities and constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than cultural assimilation. In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a Quebec culture distinct from English Canadian culture. However, as a whole, Canada is a cultural mosaic: a collection of several regional, indigenous, and ethnic subcultures.
Canadian government policies such as official bilingualism; publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; strict gun control; leniency in regard to drug use, and, most recently, legalizing same-sex marriage are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values. American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide. The Government of Canada has also influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions. It has created Crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media and has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content.
Canadian culture has historically been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures. Most of Canada's territory was inhabited and developed later than other European colonies in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers, and traders were important in the early development of the Canadian identity. First Nations played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade. The British conquest of New France in the mid-1700s brought a large Francophone population under British Imperial rule, creating a need for compromise and accommodation. The new British rulers left alone much of the religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing through the Quebec Act of 1774 the right of the Canadiens to practise the Catholic faith and to use French civil law (now Quebec law).
The Constitution Act, 1867 was designed to meet the growing calls of Canadians for autonomy from British rule, while avoiding the overly strong decentralization that contributed to the Civil War in the United States. The compromises made by the Fathers of Confederation set Canadians on a path to bilingualism, and this in turn contributed to an acceptance of diversity.
The Canadian Forces and overall civilian participation in the First World War and Second World War helped to foster Canadian nationalism, however, in 1917 and 1944, conscription crisis' highlighted the considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones. As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive and less deferential to British authority. With the gradual loosening of political ties to the United Kingdom and the modernization of Canadian immigration policies, 20th-century immigrants with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture. The multiple-origins immigration pattern continues today, with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from non-British or non-French backgrounds.
Multiculturalism in Canada was adopted as the official policy of the government during the premiership of Pierre Trudeau in the 1970s and 1980s. The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology, because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. Multiculturalism is administered by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and reflected in the law through the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Canada as a nation is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of groups, beliefs and customs. The preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms references "God", and the monarch carries the title of "Defender of the Faith". However, Canada has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism (Freedom of religion in Canada) is an important part of Canada's political culture. With the role of Christianity in decline, it having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, commentators have suggested that Canada has come to enter a post-Christian period in a secular state, with irreligion on the rise. The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and within the state.
The 2011 Canadian census reported that 67.3% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this number, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians); followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). About 23.9% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, including agnostics, atheists, humanists, and other groups. The remaining are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam (3.2%), followed by Hinduism (1.5%), Sikhism (1.4%), Buddhism (1.1%), and Judaism (1.0%).
Before the arrival of European colonists and explorers, First Nations followed a wide array of mostly animistic religions. During the colonial period, the French settled along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, specifically Latin Rite Roman Catholics, including a number of Jesuits dedicated to converting indigenous peoples; an effort that eventually proved successful. The first large Protestant communities were formed in the Maritimes after the British conquest of New France, followed by American Protestant settlers displaced by the American Revolution. The late nineteenth century saw the beginning of a substantive shift in Canadian immigration patterns. Large numbers of Irish and southern European immigrants were creating new Roman Catholic communities in English Canada. The settlement of the west brought significant Eastern Orthodox immigrants from Eastern Europe and Mormon and Pentecostal immigrants from the United States.
The earliest documentation of Jewish presence in Canada occurs in the 1754 British Army records from the French and Indian War. In 1760, General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst attacked and won Montreal for the British. In his regiment there were several Jews, including four among his officer corps, most notably Lieutenant Aaron Hart who is considered the father of Canadian Jewry. The Islamic, Jains, Sikh, Hindu and Buddhist communities, although small, are as old as the nation itself. The 1871 Canadian Census (first "Canadian" national census) indicated thirteen Muslims among the populace, with approximately 5000 Sikh by 1908. The first Canadian mosque was constructed in Edmonton, in 1938, when there were approximately 700 Muslims in Canada. Buddhism first arrived in Canada when Japanese immigrated during the late 19th century. The first Japanese Buddhist temple in Canada was built in Vancouver in 1905. The influx of immigrants in the late 20th century, with Sri Lankan, Japanese, Indian and Southeast Asian customs, has contributed to the recent expansion of the Jain, Sikh, Hindu and Buddhist communities.
A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56% and 21% of Canadians, respectively. As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645). Less than one percent of Canadians (just over 250,000 individuals) can speak an indigenous language. About half this number (129,865) reported using an indigenous language on a daily basis. Additionally, Canadians speak several sign languages; the number of speakers is unknown of the most spoken ones, American Sign Language (ASL) and Quebec Sign Language (LSQ), as it is of Maritime Sign Language and Plains Sign Talk. There are only 47 speakers of the Inuit sign language Inuiuuk.
English and French are recognized by the Constitution of Canada as official languages. All federal government laws are thus enacted in both English and French, with government services available in both languages. Two of Canada's territories give official status to indigenous languages. In Nunavut, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in territorial government. In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ. Multicultural media are widely accessible across the country and offer specialty television channels, newspapers and other publications in many minority languages.
In Canada, as elsewhere in the world of European colonies, the frontier of European exploration and settlement tended to be a linguistically diverse and fluid place, as cultures using different languages met and interacted. The need for a common means of communication between the indigenous inhabitants and new arrivals for the purposes of trade, and (in some cases) intermarriage, led to the development of Mixed languages. Languages like Michif, Chinook Jargon and Bungi creole tended to be highly localized and were often spoken by only a small number of individuals who were frequently capable of speaking another language. Plains Sign Talk, which functioned originally as a trade language used to communicate internationally and across linguistic borders, reached across Canada, the United States and into Mexico.
- All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English
questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.
Source 1: Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million 'Canadian'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
Source 2: Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2.
- The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit and Métis).
Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- "CANSIM – 051-0005 – Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "Canadians Abroad: Canada's Global Asset" (PDF). Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. 2011. p. 12. Retrieved September 23, 2013. See also Canadian diaspora
- "Canada may limit services for dual citizens". Gulf News. January 15, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)".
- "Población inmigrante residente en México según país de nacimiento, 2015". omi.gob.mx. CONAPO. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- "Environment – Greenhouse Gases (Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Person)". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Cornelius et al. 2004, p. 100.
- "Canada – Permanent residents by gender and category, 1984 to 2008". Facts and figures 2008 – Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. August 25, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- Bybee & McCrae 2009, p. 92.
- "Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population". Statistics Canada. March 9, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- "Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit". Statistics Canada. 2012.
- Hudson 2002, p. 15.
- Griffiths 2005, p. 4.
- McGowan 1999.
- Magocsi 1999, p. 736ff.
- Standford 2000, p. 42.
- Borrows 2010, p. 134.
- Cameron 2004, p. 5.
- Powell 2005, pp. 152, 154.
- Murrin et al. 2007, p. 172.
- Feltes 1999, p. 19.
- Harland-Jacobs 2007, p. 177.
- Campey 2008, p. 122.
- McGowan 2009, p. 97.
- Elliott 2004, p. 106.
- Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 9781139491440.
- Chown, Marco; Otis, Daniel (September 18, 2015). "Who are 'old stock Canadians'? The Star asked some people with deep roots in Canada what they thought of Conservative Leader Stephen Harper's controversial phrase". Toronto. Toronto Star. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
- Hall & Hwang 2001, p. 9.
- Huang 2006, p. 107.
- "Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2014.
- "Canadians in Context – Population Size and Growth". Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- Hobbs, MacKechnie & Lavalette 1999, p. 33.
- Martens 2004, p. 28.
- Day 2000, p. 124.
- Ksenych & Liu 2001, p. 407.
- "Immigration Policy in the 1970s". Canadian Heritage (Multicultural Canada). 2004. Archived from the original on November 5, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- Kusch 2001, p. 2.
- Agnew 2007, p. 182.
- Wilkinson 1980, p. 200.
- Good 2009, p. 13.
- Hollifield, Martin & Orrenius 2014, p. 11.
- Schneider 2009, p. 367.
- "Canadians want illegal immigrants deported: poll". Ottawa Citizen. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. October 20, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Chase, Curry & Galloway 2008.
- "Am I Canadian?". Government of Canada Canada. 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
- "Citizenship Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-29)". Department of Justice Canada. 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Canadian Citizenship Act and current issues -BP-445E". Government of Canada - Law and Government Division. 2002. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Sinha, Jay; Young, Margaret (January 31, 2002). "Bill C-11 : Immigration and Refugee Protection Act". Law and Government Division, Government of Canada. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Bloemraad 2006, p. 269.
- "Canadian immigration". Canada Immigration Visa. 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- "Canada's Generous Program for Refugee Resettlement Is Undermined by Human Smugglers Who Abuse Canada's Immigration System". Public Safety Canada. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Zimmerman 2008, p. 51.
- DeVoretz 2011.
- "United States Total Canadian Population: Fact Sheet" (PDF). Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Gray 2010, p. 302.
- "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca.
- "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca.
- "Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". 2006 Census: Topic-based tabulations. Statistics Canada. June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- Pendakur, Krishna. "Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "Classification of visible minority". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- Kalman 2009, pp. 4–7.
- DeRocco & Chabot 2008, p. 13.
- Franklin & Baun 1995, p. 61.
- English 2004, p. 111.
- Burgess 2005, p. 31.
- Bricker & Wright 2005, p. 16.
- Nanos Research (October 2016). "Exploring Canadian values" (PDF). Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Blackwell 2005.
- Armstrong 2010, p. 144.
- "Canada in the Making: Pioneers and Immigrants". The History Channel. August 25, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
- White & Findlay 1999, p. 67.
- Dufour 1990, p. 25.
- "Original text of The Quebec Act of 1774". Canadiana (Library and Archives Canada). 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- "American Civil War and Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation. 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
- Vaillancourt & Coche 2009, p. 11.
- Magocsi 2002, p. 3.
- Nersessian 2007.
- "Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship And Immigration, 1900–1977 – The growth of Canadian nationalism". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Linteau, Durocher & Robert 1983, p. 522.
- "Canada and the League of Nations". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Bodvarsson & Van den Berg 2009, p. 380.
- Prato 2009, p. 50.
- Duncan & Ley 1993, p. 205.
- Wayland 1997.
- "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Being Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982)". Electronic Frontier Canada. 2008. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1985, c. 24 (4th Supp.)". Department of Justice Canada. 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "Religions in Canada—Census 2011". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada.
- Hales & Lauzon 2009, p. 440.
- Coates 2006, p. 143.
- "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982)". Department of Justice Canada. 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- Miedema 2005, p. 15.
- Bramadat & Seljak 2009, p. 3.
- Bowen 2005, p. 174.
- Gregory et al. 2009, p. 672.
- Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 493.
- Haskell 2009, p. 50.
- Boyle & Sheen 1997, pp. 100–110.
- Tooker 1980, p. 20.
- Findling & Thackeray 2010, p. 52.
- MacLeod & Poutanen 2004, p. 23.
- Martynowych 1991, p. 28.
- Bloomberg 2004, p. 255.
- Coward & Kawamura 1979, p. 95.
- Coward, Hinnells & Williams 2000, p. 192.
- Waugh, Abu-Laban & Qureshi 1991, p. 15.
- Bramadat & Seljak 2009, p. 102.
- Yamagishi 2010, p. 17.
- Naik 2003, p. 32.
- "2006 Census: The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census: Highlights". Statistics Canada, Dated 2006. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2016 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories".
- Gordon 2005.
- Kockaert & Steurs 2015, p. 490.
- Grimes & Grimes 2000.
- Schuit, Baker & Pfau 2011.
- "Official Languages Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 31 (4th Supp.))". Act current to 2016-08-29 and last amended on 2015-06-23. Department of Justice.
- "Nunavut's Languages". Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut. Archived from the original on September 4, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "Highlights of the Official Languages Act". Legislative Assembly of the NWT. 2003. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Ha & Ganahl 2006, p. 62.
- Winford 2003, p. 183.
- Wurm, Muhlhausler & Tyron 1996, p. 1491.
- Pfau, Steinbach & Woll 2012, p. 540.
- Agnew, Vijay (2007). Interrogating Race and Racism. Toronto UP. ISBN 978-0-8020-9509-1.
- Armstrong, Robert (2010). Broadcasting Policy in Canada. U Toronto P. ISBN 978-1-4426-1035-4.
- Blackwell, John D. (2005). "Culture High and Low". International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
- Bloemraad, Irene (2006). Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants And Refugees in the United States And Canada. U Cal P. ISBN 978-0-520-24898-4.
- Bloomberg, Jon (2004). The Jewish World in the Modern Age. KTAV Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88125-844-8.
- Bodvarsson, Örn Bodvar & Van den Berg, Hendrik (2009). The economics of immigration: theory and policy. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-77795-3.
- Borrows, John (2010). Canada's Indigenous Constitution. Toronto UP. ISBN 978-1-4426-1038-5.
- Bowen, Kurt (2005). Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2712-6.
- Boyle, Kevin & Sheen, Juliet, eds. (1997). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. U Essex – Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15977-7.
- Bramadat, Paul & Seljak, David (2009). Religion and Ethnicity in Canada. U Toronto P. ISBN 978-1-4426-1018-7.
- Bricker, Darrell & Wright, John (2005). What Canadians Think About Almost Everything. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-65985-7.
- Burgess, Ann Carroll (2005). Guide to Western Canada. GPP. ISBN 978-0-7627-2987-6.
- Bybee, Rodger W. & McCrae, Barry (2009). Pisa Science 2006: Implications for Science Teachers and Teaching. NSTA. ISBN 978-1-933531-31-1.
- Cameron, Elspeth, ed. (2004). Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader. Canadian Scholars'. ISBN 978-1-55130-249-2.
- Campey, Lucille H. (2008). Unstoppable Force: The Scottish Exodus to Canada. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-55002-811-9.
- Chase, Steven; Curry, Bill & Galloway, Gloria (May 6, 2008). "Thousands of illegal immigrants missing: A-G". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Coates, Colin MacMillan, ed. (2006). Majesty in Canada: Essays on the Role of Royalty. Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6.
- Cornelius, Wayne A.; Tsuda, Takeyuk; Martin, Philip; Hollifield, James, eds. (2004). Controlling immigration: a global perspective. Stanford UP. ISBN 978-0-8047-4490-4.
- Coward, Harold G.; Hinnells, John Russell & Williams, Raymond Brady (2000). The South Asian religious diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9302-1.
- Coward, Harold G. & Kawamura, Leslie S. (1979). Religion and Ethnicity: Essays. Wilfrid Laurier UP. ISBN 978-0-88920-064-7.
- Day, Richard J. F. (2000). Multiculturalism and the History of Canadian Diversity. Toronto UP. ISBN 978-0-8020-8075-2.
- DeRocco, David & Chabot, John F. (2008). From Sea to Sea to Sea: A Newcomer's Guide to Canada. Full Blast Productions. ISBN 978-0-9784738-4-6.
- DeVoretz, Don J. (2011). "Canada's Secret Province: 2.8 Million Canadians Abroad" (PDF). Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Dufour, Christian (1990). A Canadian Challenge Le Defi Quebecois. Oolichan / IRPP. ISBN 978-0-88982-105-7.
- Duncan, James S. & Ley, David, eds. (1993). Place/culture/representation. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-09451-1.
- Elliott, Bruce S. (2004). Irish Migrants in the Canadas: A New Approach (2nd ed.). MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2321-0.
- English, Allan D. (2004). Understanding Military Culture: A Canadian Perspective. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2715-7.
- Feltes, Norman N. (1999). This Side of Heaven: Determining the Donnelly Murders, 1880. Toronto UP. ISBN 978-0-8020-4486-0.
- Findling, John E. & Thackeray, Frank W., eds. (2010). What Happened? An Encyclopedia of Events That Changed America Forever. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-621-8.
- Franklin, Daniel & Baun, Michael J. (1995). Political Culture and Constitutionalism: A Comparative Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-56324-416-2.
- Good, Kristin R. (2009). Municipalities and Multiculturalism: The Politics of Immigration in Toronto and Vancouver. Toronto UP. ISBN 978-1-4426-0993-8.
- Gordon, Raymond G., ed. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15 ed.). SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6.
- Gray, Douglas (2010). The Canadian Snowbird Guide: Everything You Need to Know about Living Part-Time in the USA and Mexico. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-73942-6.
- Gregory, Derek; Johnston, Ron; Pratt, Geraldine; Watts, Michael & Whatmore, Sarah, eds. (2009). The Dictionary of Human Geography (5th ed.). Wiley–Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-3288-6.
- Griffiths, N. E. S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0.
- Grimes, Barbara F. & Grimes, Joseph Evans, eds. (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (14 ed.). SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-103-9.
- Ha, Louisa S. & Ganahl, Richard J. (2006). Webcasting Worldwide: Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5915-7.
- Hales, Dianne R. & Lauzon, Lara (2009). An Invitation to Health. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-17-650009-2.
- Hall, Patricia Wong & Hwang, Victor M., eds. (2001). Anti-Asian Violence in North America: Asian American and Asian Canadian Reflections on Hate, Healing, and Resistance. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-0459-2.
- Harland-Jacobs, Jessica L. (2007). Builders of Empire: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1717–1927. NCUP. ISBN 978-0-8078-3088-8.
- Haskell, David M. (2009). Through a Lens Darkly: How the News Media Perceive and Portray Evangelicals. Clements Academic. ISBN 978-1-894667-92-0.
- Hobbs, Sandy; MacKechnie, Jim & Lavalette, Michael (1999). Child Labour: A World History Companion. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-956-4.
- Hollifield, James; Martin, Philip & Orrenius, Pia, eds. (2014). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (third ed.). Stanford UP. ISBN 978-0-8047-8627-0.
- Huang, Annian (2006). The Silent Spikes - Chinese Laborers and the Construction of North American Railroads. Translated by Juguo Zhang. China Intercontinental Press | 中信出版社. ISBN 978-7-5085-0988-4.
- Hudson, John C. (2002). Across This Land: A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada. JHUP. ISBN 978-0-8018-6567-1.
- Kalman, Bobbie (2009). Canada: The culture. Crabtree. ISBN 978-0-7787-9284-0.
- Ksenych, Edward & Liu, David, eds. (2001). Conflict, Order and Action : Readings in Sociology. Canadian Scholars'. ISBN 978-1-55130-192-1.
- Kusch, Frank (2001). All American Boys: Draft Dodgers in Canada from the Vietnam War. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-275-97268-4.
- Linteau, Paul-André; Durocher, René & Robert, Jean-Claude (1983). Quebec: A History 1867–1929. Translated by Robert Chodos. Lorimer. ISBN 978-0-88862-604-2.
- MacLeod, Roderick & Poutanen, Mary Anne (2004). Meeting of the People: School Boards and Protestant Communities in Quebec, 1801–1998. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2742-3.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (1999). Multicultural History Society of Ontario, ed. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. U Toronto P. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
- Magocsi, Paul R. (2002). Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: A Short Introduction. U Toronto P. ISBN 978-0-8020-8469-9.
- Martens, Klaus, ed. (2004). The Canadian Alternative. Volume 28 of Saarbrücker Beiträge zur vergleichenden Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft (in German). Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 978-3-8260-2636-2.
- Martynowych, Orest T (1991). Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Period, 1891–1924. CIUS Press, U Alberta. ISBN 978-0-920862-76-6.
- McGowan, Mark G. (ed.). "Irish Catholics: Migration, Arrival, and Settlement before the Great Famine". The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. Multicultural Canada. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012.
- McGowan, Mark (2009). Death or Canada: the Irish Famine Migration to Toronto 1847. Novalis. ISBN 978-2-89646-129-5.
- Melton, J. Gordon & Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010). Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
- Miedema, Gary (2005). For Canada's Sake: Public Religion, Centennial Celebrations, and the Re-making of Canada in the 1960s. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2877-2.
- Murrin, John M.; Johnson, Paul E.; McPherson, James M.; Fahs, Alice; Gerstle, Gary; Rosenberg, Emily S. & Rosenberg, Norman L. (2007). Liberty, Equality, Power, A History of the American People: To 1877 (5th ed.). (Wadsworth) Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-11606-6.
- Naik, C. D. (2003). Thoughts and Philosophy of Doctor B. R. Ambedkar. Sarup. ISBN 978-81-7625-418-2.
- Nersessian, Mary (April 9, 2007). "Vimy battle marks birth of Canadian nationalism". CTV Television Network. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Pfau, Roland; Steinbach, Markus & Woll, Bencie, eds. (2012). Sign Language: An International Handbook. de Gruyter / Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-026132-5.
- Powell, John (2005). Encyclopedia of North American immigration. InfoBase. ISBN 978-0-8160-4658-4.
- Prato, Giuliana B., ed. (2009). Beyond multiculturalism: Views from Anthropology. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-7173-2.
- Schneider, Stephen (2009). Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-83500-5.
- Schuit, Joke; Baker, Anne & Pfau, Roland (2011). "Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology" (pdf). Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication Working Papers (ACLC). U Amsterdam. 4 (1): 1–31.
- Standford, Frances (2000). Development of Western Canada Gr. 7-8. On The Mark Press. ISBN 978-1-77072-743-4.
- Tooker, Elisabeth (1980). Native North American spirituality of the eastern woodlands: sacred myths, dreams, visions, speeches, healing formulas, rituals, and ceremonials. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-2256-1.
- Vaillancourt, François & Coche, Olivier (2009), "Official Language Policies at the Federal Level in Canada: Costs and Benefits in 2006" (PDF), Studies in Language Policy, Fraser Institute, ISSN 1920-0749
- Waugh, Earle Howard; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin & Qureshi, Regula (1991). Muslim families in North America. U Alberta. ISBN 978-0-88864-225-7.
- Wayland, Shara V. (1997). "Immigration, Multiculturalism and National Identity in Canada". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. Dept of Political Science, U Toronto. 5 (1): 33–58. doi:10.1163/15718119720907408.
- White, Richard & Findlay, John M., eds. (1999). Power and Place in the North American West. UWP. ISBN 978-0-295-97773-7.
- Wilkinson, Paul F. (1980). In celebration of play: an integrated approach to play and child development. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-41078-0.
- Winford, Donald (2003). An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-21250-8.
- Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Muhlhausler, Peter & Tyron, Darrell T., eds. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. de Gruyter / Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9.
- Yamagishi, N. Rochelle (2010). Japanese Canadian Journey: The Nakagama Story. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4269-8148-7.
- Zimmerman, Karla (2008). Canada (tenth ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-571-0.
- Beaty, Bart; Briton, Derek; Filax, Gloria (2010). How Canadians Communicate III: Contexts of Canadian Popular Culture. Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-897425-59-6.
- Bumsted, J. M. (2003). Canada's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-672-9.
- Carment, David; Bercuson, David (2008). The World in Canada: Diaspora, Demography, and Domestic Politics. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-7455-7.
- Cohen, Andrew (2008). The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-2286-9.
- Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre (2002). CBC, ed. Canada: A People's History. 1. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3324-7.
- Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre; Michaud, Achille (2002). CBC, ed. Canada: A People's History. 2. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3336-0.
- Kearney, Mark; Ray, Randy (2009). The Big Book of Canadian Trivia. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-77070-614-9.
- Kelley, Ninette; Trebilcock, M. J. (2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9536-7.
- Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots of Canadian Identity. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-705-8.
- Richard, Madeline A. (1992). Ethnic Groups and Marital Choices: Ethnic History and Marital Assimilation in Canada, 1871 and 1971. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0431-8.
- Simpson, Jeffrey (2000). Star-Spangled Canadians: Canadians Living the American Dream. Harper-Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255767-2.
- Studin, Irvin (2006). What Is a Canadian?: Forty-Three Thought-Provoking Responses. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-8321-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canadians.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Canadians|
- Canada Year Book 2010 - Statistics Canada
- Canada: A People's History - Teacher Resources - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- Persons of National Historic Significance in Canada - Parks Canada
- Multicultural Canada - Department of Canadian Heritage
- The Canadian Immigrant Experience - Library and Archives Canada
- The Dictionary of Canadian Biography – Library and Archives Canada
- Canadiana: The National Bibliography of Canada – Library and Archives Canada