Canadian war memorials
Canadian war memorials are buildings, monuments, and statues that commemorate the armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, the role of the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping operations, and Canadians who died or were injured in a war. Much of this military history of Canada is commemorated today with memorials across the country and around the world. Canadian memorials commemorate the sacrifices made as early as the Seven Years' War to the modern day War on Terror. As Newfoundland was a British Dominion until joining Confederation in 1949, there are several monuments in Newfoundland and Labrador and abroad which were dedicated to Newfoundland servicemen and women.
There are currently 6,293 war memorials in Canada registered with the National Inventory of Military Memorials, which is under the Canadian Department of Veterans Affairs. There are also war memorials across the world, some of which are operated by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, which are dedicated to Canada as well as the Commonwealth members. There currently are 17 in France, six in Belgium, four in the United Kingdom, two in Afghanistan and in South Korea and one each in Egypt, Hong Kong, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates.
War memorials in Canada
North-West Rebellion and the Boer War
First and Second World Wars
The war memorial sculptors at work in Canada in the years following the Great War include: Emanuel Hahn, George W. Hill, Frank Norbury, Walter Allward, Hamilton MacCarthy, Coeur de Lion MacCarthy, Alfred Howell, Sydney March, Elizabeth Wyn Wood, Henri Hebert, J. Massey Rhind, Hubert Garnier, Nicholas Pirotton, Charles Adamson, Frances Loring, and Ivor Lewis.
|Albert Memorial Bridge||Regina, Saskatchewan||50°26′10.2012″N 104°37′5.3544″W / 50.436167000°N 104.618154000°W||Honours Saskatchewan soldiers who died in World War I.|
|Animals in War Memorial / Les animaux en temps de guerre||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′21.84″N 075°41′31.68″W / 45.4227333°N 75.6921333°W||A memorial by David Clendining to animals (mainly mules, horse, dogs, pigeons) that have served for Canada in military conflicts since World War I and is located in Confederation Park|
|Ashburnham Memorial Park||Peterborough, Ontario||44°18′36″N 078°18′10″W / 44.31000°N 78.30278°W||Memorial to the men of Peterborough who died in the First World War.|
|Bronze Angel||Montreal, Quebec;
Vancouver, British Columbia (pictured);
|"Bronze Angel", by sculptor, Coeur Lion MacCarthy, war memorial depicts the angel of victory raising up a young soldier to heaven at the moment of his death, 1921 commemorates 1,115 Canadian Pacific Railway employees killed during the First World War erected at the Canadian Pacific Railway stations.|
|Camp X Memorial||Whitby Ontario||43°51′20.28″N 078°53′00.06″W / 43.8556333°N 78.8833500°W||Honours the men and women of Camp X who served during the Second World War.|
|Cremation Memorial||Ottawa, Ontario||45°26′42″N 075°39′57″W / 45.44500°N 75.66583°W||A sheltered space in the National Cemetery of Canada that honours the memory of Canadian servicemen who died in Canada and the United States and who were cremated.|
|Cross of Sacrifice||Quebec City, Quebec||46°48′31.9″N 071°12′43.85″W / 46.808861°N 71.2121806°W||Honours those who died in the wars of 1914-1918, 1939-1945, 1950-1953|
|Great War Memorial||Niagara Falls, Ontario||43°05′23.81″N 079°04′22.57″W / 43.0899472°N 79.0729361°W||Memorial to those who died in the First and Second World Wars.|
|Halifax Memorial||Halifax, Nova Scotia||44°37′08.76″N 063°33′55.93″W / 44.6191000°N 63.5655361°W||Dedicated to the Canadian servicemen and women who died at sea during both World Wars and includes the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Merchant Navy and the Canadian Army.|
|Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Memorial||Victoria, British Columbia||48°25′14.20″N 123°22′16.66″W / 48.4206111°N 123.3712944°W||Dedicated to Canadian volunteers of the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion during the Spanish Civil War.|
|Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Memorial||Ottawa, Ontario||45°26′24.61″N 075°41′47.05″W / 45.4401694°N 75.6964028°W||Dedicated to Canadian volunteers of the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion during the Spanish Civil War.|
|Memorial Clock Tower||Wainwright, Alberta||52°50′00.66″N 110°51′39.76″W / 52.8335167°N 110.8610444°W||Dedicated to the local men who fought and died in both World Wars.|
|Memorial Gates||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan||52°07′45.43″N 106°38′34.05″W / 52.1292861°N 106.6427917°W||Military memorial which is a part of the University of Saskatchewan.|
|Montreal Cenotaph||Montreal, Quebec||45°29′55.03″N 073°34′07.75″W / 45.4986194°N 73.5688194°W||Dedicated to Montrealers who died in the First World War.|
|Montreal Clock Tower||Montreal, Quebec||45°30′44.44″N 073°32′44.84″W / 45.5123444°N 73.5457889°W||Dedicated to Canadian naval sailors who died during the First World War.|
|Monument des Braves||Shawinigan, Quebec||46°32′22.38″N 072°45′12.85″W / 46.5395500°N 72.7535694°W||Honours those who died in both world wars|
|National War Memorial||St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||47°34′03.28″N 052°42′13.67″W / 47.5675778°N 52.7037972°W||Memorial for soldiers who served with the Dominion of Newfoundland during the First World War.|
|Ottawa Memorial||Ottawa, Ontario||45°26′27.08″N 075°41′45.90″W / 45.4408556°N 75.6960833°W||Dedicated to missing airmen of the Second World War. Sometimes known as the Commonwealth Air Force Monument.|
|Renfrew War Memorial||Renfrew, Ontario||45°28′22.6848″N 76°41′5.6184″W / 45.472968000°N 76.684894000°W||To All Our Honoured Dead.|
|Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial||Burlington, Ontario||Dedicated to members of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Merchant Navy.|
|Saint-Lambert Cenotaph by Emanuel Hahn||Saint-Lambert, Quebec||Dedicated to citizens of Saint-Lambert who fought in the First World War|
|The Saskatoon Cenotaph||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan||52°07′48.8″N 106°39′37.15″W / 52.130222°N 106.6603194°W||Designed by Francis Henry Portnall (1928), this tall granite plinth incorporating a public clock face is a part of the City Hall Square though it was originally located in the middle of the intersection of 21st Street and 2nd Avenue|
|Sherbrooke War Memorial||Sherbrooke, Quebec||45°24′02″N 071°53′29″W / 45.40056°N 71.89139°W||Dedicated to citizens of Sherbrooke who fought in the First World War|
|Soldiers' Tower||Toronto, Ontario||43°39′48.78″N 079°23′42.52″W / 43.6635500°N 79.3951444°W||Commemorates members of the University of Toronto who served in the World Wars.|
|Victory Square||Vancouver, British Columbia||49°16′55.56″N 123°06′36.72″W / 49.2821000°N 123.1102000°W||Dedicated to Vancouverites who served in the First World War.|
|Vimy Memorial Bandshell||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan||52°07′28.24″N 106°39′33.42″W / 52.1245111°N 106.6592833°W||The Vimy Memorial Bandshell in Kiwanis Park was built in 1937 to honour the men and women that served in the First World War at the Battle of Vimy Ridge.|
|War Memorial of Montreal West||Montreal, Quebec||45°28′21.00″N 073°36′49.32″W / 45.4725000°N 73.6137000°W||Honours those from the town of Montreal West who died in the First World War|
1945 – present
|Afghanistan Repatriation Memorial||Trenton, Ontario||25°01′37″N 055°22′15″E / 25.02694°N 55.37083°E||Commemorates all the Canadian dead in Afghanistan. Originally located in Camp Mirage, United Arab Emirates.|
|Korean War Memorial Wall||Brampton, Ontario||43°38′30.58″N 079°44′57.01″W / 43.6418278°N 79.7491694°W||Commemorates those Canadians who served in the Korean War.|
|The North Wall/Canadian Vietnam Veterans Memorial||Windsor, Ontario||42°18′37.36″N 083°04′11.06″W / 42.3103778°N 83.0697389°W||Dedicated to Canadians who volunteered with the United States Armed Forces during the Vietnam War.|
|Vietnam Veterans Monument||Melocheville, Quebec||45°18′52″N 073°57′40″W / 45.31444°N 73.96111°W||Dedicated to Canadians who volunteered with the United States Armed Forces during the Vietnam War|
Generic war memorials
|48th Highlanders Memorial||Toronto, Ontario||43°39.00′057″N 79°23′34.76″W / 43.66583°N 79.3929889°W||Dedicated to those who served with the Canadian forces, erected by the 48th Highlanders of Canada.|
|Bruce Park Cenotaph||Winnipeg, Manitoba||49°52′38.77″N 097°13′34.10″W / 49.8774361°N 97.2261389°W||Dedicated to the memory of those who died in the First World War, the Second World War, Korea, and to Canadian peacekeepers.|
|Calgary Soldiers' Memorial||Calgary, Alberta||51°03′03″N 114°05′20″W / 51.05083°N 114.08889°W||Dedicated to Calgarian soldiers who have given their lives in war and military service overseas.|
|East and West Memorial Buildings||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′10″N 75°42′21″W / 45.419517°N 75.70573°W||Dedicated to all Canadians who served in war. The building houses the Department of Veteran Affairs.|
|Flesherton Cenotaph||Flesherton, Ontario||44°15′46.7″N 080°33′05.5″W / 44.262972°N 80.551528°W||Honouring the local men who enlisted for the First and Second World Wars and did not return.|
|Garden of the Unforgotten||Oshawa, Ontario||43°53′39.66″N 078°51′46.07″W / 43.8943500°N 78.8627972°W||Dedicated to the servicemen of Oshawa who lost their lives during the First World War, Second World War and the Korean War|
|Monument aux braves de N.D.G.||Montreal, Quebec||45°28′20.89″N 073°36′49.44″W / 45.4724694°N 73.6137333°W||Commemorates the combatants who died during the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War.|
|National Aboriginal Veterans Monument||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′18.04″N 075°41′34.66″W / 45.4216778°N 75.6929611°W||Commemorates the Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) who served with the Canadian forces during armed conflicts.|
|Next of Kin Memorial Avenue||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan||52°08′49.36″N 106°39′29.27″W / 52.1470444°N 106.6581306°W||Memorial for the First World War and ensuing wars.|
|Old City Hall Cenotaph||Toronto, Ontario||43°39′07.70″N 079°22′54.21″W / 43.6521389°N 79.3817250°W||Dedicated to Torontonians who lost their lives during the First World War, Second World War and the Korean War.|
|Ontario Veterans Memorial||Toronto, Ontario||43°39′40.63″N 079°23′28.04″W / 43.6612861°N 79.3911222°W||Dedicated to the Canadian military who served from the Fenian raids to the Campaign Against Terror.|
|Memorial Chamber||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′29.64″N 075°41′59.64″W / 45.4249000°N 75.6999000°W||Located in the Peace Tower, it holds all seven volumes of the Books of Remembrance, recording every Canadian killed in service, from Canada's first overseas campaign, the Nile Expedition, to the present.|
|Peacekeeping Monument||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′43.58″N 075°41′47.49″W / 45.4287722°N 75.6965250°W||Commemorates Canadian soldiers who served, or are currently serving in United Nations peacekeeping missions.|
|Per ardua ad astra||Toronto, Ontario||43°39′16.56″N 079°23′17.6″W / 43.6546000°N 79.388222°W||Dedicated to Canadian airmen who fought.|
|Saskatchewan War Memorial||Regina, Saskatchewan||50°25′58.7568″N 104°37′2.6688″W / 50.432988000°N 104.617408000°W||Honours those who died in WWI, WWII, Korean War, military training, peacetime operations, nurses who served, including a plaque honouring Saskatchewan War Brides who married Canadian service men.|
|Scarborough War Memorial||Toronto, Ontario||43°42′08.98″N 079°15′14.03″W / 43.7024944°N 79.2538972°W||Commemorating the soldiers from Scarborough who died in World War I, World War II and Korean War.|
|Regina Cenotaph||Regina, Saskatchewan||50°26′52.88″N 104°36′44.18″W / 50.4480222°N 104.6122722°W||Honour those Regina citizens who served in the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.|
|The Response – Canadian National War Memorial||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′26.53″N 075°41′43.79″W / 45.4240361°N 75.6954972°W||Commemorates the Canadian participation and its soldiers fallen in armed conflict.|
|Royal Canadian Navy Monument||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′14.99″N 075°42′37.45″W / 45.4208306°N 75.7104028°W||Commemorates the men and women who have served or are serving with the Royal Canadian Navy.|
|Shaunavon War Memorial||Shaunavon, Saskatchewan||49°38′52.12″N 108°24′23.34″W / 49.6478111°N 108.4064833°W||Designed by Francis Henry Portnall (1926) to honour those citizens who served in the War|
|Tomb of the Unknown Soldier||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′26.53″N 075°41′43.79″W / 45.4240361°N 75.6954972°W||Dedicated to all the unidentified Canadian soldiers and is part of the National War Memorial.|
|Trenton Cenotaph||Trenton, Ontario||44°06′01.44″N 077°34′31.44″W / 44.1004000°N 77.5754000°W||Dedicated to all Canadians fallen in conflict|
|Valiants Memorial||Ottawa, Ontario||45°25′27.92″N 075°41′42.67″W / 45.4244222°N 75.6951861°W||Commemorating fourteen signal figures from the military history of the country, from French colonial rule, to the Second World War.|
|London Cenotaph||London, Ontario||42°59′15.66″N 081°14′48.54″W / 42.9876833°N 81.2468167°W||Commemorates the local soldiers who died during the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.|
|Thunder Bay Cenotaph||Thunder Bay, Ontario||48°26′15.9″N 089°13′34.88″W / 48.437750°N 89.2263556°W||Commemorates the local soldiers who died during the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.|
|Welland-Crowland War Memorial||Welland, Ontario||42°59′51″N 079°15′31″W / 42.99750°N 79.25861°W||Designed by Elizabeth Wyn Wood, commemorates not only the war dead but also those who served at home.|
War memorials overseas
|Canada Memorial||Green Park, London, England||51°30′10.36″N 000°08′33.48″W / 51.5028778°N 0.1426333°W||Pays tribute to the nearly one million Canadian men and women who served in the United Kingdom during the First and Second World Wars.|
First World War
Second World War – present
|Bergen op Zoom Canadian War Cemetery||Bergen op Zoom, Netherlands||51°30′07″N 004°19′49″E / 51.50194°N 4.33028°E||Cemetery for 1118 Commonwealth soldiers, 971 of whom are Canadian. It is adjacent to the Bergen op Zoom War Cemetery, which contains the graves of 1284 Commonwealth soldiers.|
|Canadian WW2 Section||Brookwood, Surrey, England||51°18′01″N 000°38′27.39″W / 51.30028°N 0.6409417°W||Brookwood has a WW1 and this WW2 Canadian Section adjacent to the Canadian Records Hall with sculpted beaver and legend 'A Mari usque ad Mare'|
|Gapyeong Canada Monument||Gapyeong County, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea||37°52′36.71″N 127°31′48.79″E / 37.8768639°N 127.5302194°E||Dedicated to the sacrifices made by the Canadian forces during the Korean war, especially at the Battle of Kapyong.|
|Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery||Groesbeek, Netherlands||51°47′53.92″N 5°55′54.76″E / 51.7983111°N 5.9318778°E||Cemetery for the dead from the Second World War.|
|Kandahar Airfield Memorial and Memorial Inuksuk||Kandahar, Afghanistan||31°30′21″N 065°50′52″E / 31.50583°N 65.84778°E||The Airfield Memorial is dedicated to Canadians who have fallen in the War in Afghanistan and the Inuksuk to those Canadians, as well as other coalition members who were killed in fighting in Afghanistan.|
|Malta Memorial||Floriana, Malta||35°53′40.57″N 014°30′28.27″E / 35.8946028°N 14.5078528°E||Dedicated to Commonwealth aircrew (including Canadians) who fought, and lost their lives, in the Mediterranean during the Second World War.|
|Monument to Canadian Fallen (Korean War Monument)||United Nations Memorial Cemetery
Busan, South Korea
|35°07′41″N 129°05′49″E / 35.12806°N 129.09694°E||Located where 378 Canadians are buried. An identical monument is in downtown Ottawa.|
|National Canadian Liberation Monument||Apeldoorn, Netherlands||Celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands by Canadians, featuring the sculpture Man with Two Hats, identical to one in Ottawa.|
The 31 paintings of Canadian War Memorials by F.A. (Tex) Dawson were unveiled just outside Currie Hall in the Mackenzie Building at Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston on Wednesday 7 April 2010. Jack Pike, the chairman of the Royal Military College of Canada Museum's board of directors, said they had found a permanent and appropriate home. "We are delighted to have these paintings," he said in front of the assemblage of paintings, each representing a different memorial in a different setting and different seasons. "These are symbolic of sacrifice and remembrance and they do the whole thing so well."
- Canadian War Museum
- List of Canadian Victoria Cross recipients
- List of Royal Military College of Canada Memorials and traditions
- List of conflicts in Canada
- "DHH – Search for a Memorial". www.veterans.gc.ca. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- Rob Roberts (3 November 2008). "Coupland's War of 1812 monument tweaks U.S. noses". The National Post. National Post Inc. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- Central Memorial Park
- Jacqueline Hucker. "Monuments of the First and Second World Wars". Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- The Saskatoon Cenotaph Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Do You Know Why the Saskatoon Cenotaph Was Moved". Sasknow.ca. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Vimy Memorial, Kiwanis Park, Saskatoon Sask.
- War Memorial of Montréal West
- Camp Mirage Memorial
- Canadian Veterans And Peacekeepers Permanently Honoured On The Grounds Of Queen's Park
- Memorial Park and Cenotaph 390 1st Street East
- "Monument to Canadian Fallen (Korean War Monument)". Public Art and Monuments. Canadian Heritage, Government of Canada. 25 October 2013.
- "31 paintings of Canadian War Memorials by F.A. (Tex) Dawson". Kingstonwhigstandard.com. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Philip Longworth, The Unending Vigil: A History of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, 1917–1967 (1967).
- Robert Shipley, To Mark Our Place (1987).
- Herbert Fairlie Wood and John Swettenham, Silent Witnesses (1974).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to War memorials in Canada.|