Bulgur (from Turkish: bulgur;[1] also burghul, from Arabic: برغل[2] burghul, "groats") is a cereal food made from the parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often from durum wheat. It originates in Middle Eastern cuisine.


Bulgur, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 83 kcal (350 kJ)
18.58 g
Sugars 0.10 g
Dietary fiber 4.5 g
0.24 g
3.08 g
Vitamins Quantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0.0 μg
Vitamin A 1 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.057 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.028 mg
Niacin (B3)
1.000 mg
Vitamin B6
0.083 mg
Folate (B9)
18 μg
Vitamin C
0.0 mg
Vitamin E
0.01 mg
Minerals Quantity %DV
10 mg
0.96 mg
32 mg
40 mg
68 mg
5 mg
0.57 mg
Other constituents Quantity
Water 78 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Bulgur is recognized as a whole grain by the United States Department of Agriculture.[3] Bulgur is sometimes confused with cracked wheat, which is crushed wheat grain that has not been parboiled.[4] Instead, bulgur is cracked wheat that has been partially cooked. Bulgur is a common ingredient in cuisines of many countries of the Middle East and Mediterranean Basin.[5][6][7] It has a light, nutty flavor.[8]

A distinction is made between fine-ground bulgur and a coarser grind. It is defined by grind sizes (#1 Fine, #2 Medium, #3 Coarse and #4 Extra Coarse). The highest quality bulgur has particle sizes that are uniform, thus allowing a more consistent cooking time and result.


Coarse bulgur is used to make pottages,[9] while the medium and fine grains are used for breakfast cereals,[10] salads like kısır, pilavs, breads,[11] and in dessert puddings like kheer.[12][13] Bulgur porridge is similar to frumenty, a cracked wheat porridge that was a staple of medieval cuisine.[14][15]

In breads, it adds a whole grain component. It is a main ingredient in tabbouleh salad and kibbeh. It is often a substitute for rice or couscous. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine, bulgur is used as a cereal often to make a porridge with milk and sugar or a savory porridge with vegetables and spices. In the United States, it is often used as a side dish, much like pasta or rice. In meals, bulgur is often mistaken for rice because it can be prepared in a similar manner, although it has a texture more like couscous than rice.

Armenians prepare bulgur as a pilaf in chicken stock, with or without sauteed noodles, or cooked with tomatoes, onions, herbs and red pepper. The fine grind is used for making eech, a bulgur salad similar to tabbouleh, prepared with tomato paste, fresh tomatoes, cucumbers, parsley, olive oil, and other salad ingredients to personal taste. Pomegranate molasses, which is more sour than sweet, is commonly used in favor of lemon juice to add tartness. A variety of mezes and main dishes are prepared.

In Cyprus, it is used to make "κούπες" (also known as bulgur köftesi in Cypriot Turkish), a variety of kibbeh. Its crust is usually made of bulgur wheat, flour, oil, salt and egg, then filled with ground meat (beef and/or pork), onions, parsley and spices. There is also vegetarian "κούπες" which substitutes the ground meat with chopped mushrooms.

The Saudi Arabian version of bulgur, popular in Nejd and Al-Hasa, is known as jarish.[16]

Nutrition facts

Cooked bulgur is composed of 78% water, 19% carbohydrates, and 3% protein. In a 100 gram reference amount, it provides 83 Calories.[17]

See also


  1. "Bulgur | Definition of Bulgur by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  2. "Burghul | Define Burghul at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  3. Jacqueline B. Marcus (15 April 2013). Culinary Nutrition: The Science and Practice of Healthy Cooking. Academic Press. p. 561,300. ISBN 978-0-12-391883-3.
  4. Celine Steen; Tamasin Noyes (15 November 2015). The Great Vegan Grains Book: Celebrate Whole Grains with More than 100 Delicious Plant-Based Recipes * Includes Soy-Free and Gluten-Free Recipes!. Fair Winds Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-62788-826-4.
  5. Irina Petrosian; David Underwood (2006). Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore. Lulu.com. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4116-9865-9.
  6. LeeAnne Gelletly (17 November 2014). The Kurds. Mason Crest. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-63355-946-2.
  7. Ken Albala (25 May 2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-313-37627-6.
  8. Victoria Wise (3 December 2004). The Pressure Cooker Gourmet: 225 Recipes for Great-Tasting, Long-Simmered Flavors in Just Minutes. Harvard Common Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-55832-201-1.
  9. Shulman, Martha Rose. "Winter Tomato Soup With Bulgur Recipe". NYT Cooking. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  10. "Breakfast Bulgur Porridge". Martha Stewart. 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  11. Shulman, Martha Rose. "Whole Wheat Irish Soda Bread With Bulgur Recipe". NYT Cooking. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  12. Salloum, Habeeb (2012-02-28). The Arabian Nights Cookbook: From Lamb Kebabs to Baba Ghanouj, Delicious Homestyle Arabian Cooking. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0524-9.
  13. "Recipe: Bulgur pudding with fruit, nuts and honey". latimes.com. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  14. Rogosa, Eli (2016-07-01). Restoring Heritage Grains: The Culture, Biodiversity, Resilience, and Cuisine of Ancient Wheats. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60358-671-9.
  15. Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (2011-04-13). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-4430-0.
  16. Food from Saudi Arabia
  17. "Bulgar, cooked, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
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