Bile bear

Bile bears, sometimes called battery bears, are bears kept in captivity to harvest their bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which is used by some traditional Chinese medicine practitioners.[1] It is estimated that 12,000 bears are farmed for bile[2] in China, South Korea, Laos, Vietnam, and Myanmar.[3][4][5][6][7]

The bear species most commonly farmed for bile is the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus),[8] although the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and every other species are also used (the only exception being the Giant Panda which does not produce UDCA).[9][10][11] Both the Asiatic black bear and the sun bear are listed as Vulnerable on the Red List of Threatened Animals published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[8][9] They were previously hunted for bile but factory farming has become common since hunting was banned in the 1980s.[12]

The bile can be harvested using several techniques, all of which require some degree of surgery, and may leave a permanent fistula or inserted catheter. A significant proportion of the bears die because of the stress of unskilled surgery or the infections which may occur.

Farmed bile bears are housed continuously in small cages which often prevent them from standing or sitting upright, or from turning around. These highly restrictive cage systems and the low level of skilled husbandry can lead to a wide range of welfare concerns including physical injuries, pain, severe mental stress and muscle atrophy. Some bears are caught as cubs and may be kept in these conditions for up to 30 years.[13]

The value of the bear products trade is estimated as high as $2 billion.[14][15] The practice of factory farming bears for bile has been extensively condemned, including by Chinese physicians.[16].

Bear species farmed for collecting bile
Asiatic black bear
Sun bear
Brown bear


Bear bile and gallbladders, which store bile, are ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its first recorded use was recorded in Tang Ban Cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica, Tang Dynasty, 659 A.D.). The pharmacologically active ingredient contained in bear bile and gallbladders is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); bears are the only mammals to produce significant amounts of UDCA.[1]

Initially, bile was collected from wild bears which were killed and the gall and its contents cut from the body. In the early 1980s, methods of extracting bile from live bears were developed in North Korea and farming of bile bears began. This rapidly spread to China and other regions.[4] Bile bear farms were started (allegedly) to reduce hunting of wild bears, with the hope that if bear farms raised a self-sustaining population of productive animals, poachers would have little motivation to capture or kill bears in the wild.[2][17]

The demand for bile and gallbladders exists in Asian communities throughout the world, including the EU and the US.[1] This demand has led to bears being hunted in the US specifically for this purpose.

Methods of bile extraction

Several methods can be used to extract the bile. These all require surgery and include:[18]

  • Repeated percutaneous biliary drainage uses an ultrasound imager to locate the gallbladder, which is then punctured and the bile extracted.
  • Permanent implantation uses a tube entered into the gallbladder through the abdomen. According to the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), the bile is usually extracted twice a day through such implanted tubes, producing 10–20 ml of bile during each extraction.
  • Catheterization involves pushing a steel or perspex catheter through the bear's abdomen and into the gallbladder.
  • The full-jacket method uses a permanent catheter tube to extract the bile which is then collected in a plastic bag set in a metal box worn by the bear.
  • The free drip method involves making a permanent hole, or fistula, in the bear's abdomen and gallbladder, from which bile freely drips out. The wound is vulnerable to infection, and bile can leak back into the abdomen, causing high mortality rates. Sometimes, the hole is kept open with a perspex catheter, which HSUS writes causes severe pain. An AAF Vet Report states that surgeries to create free-dripping fistulae caused bears great suffering as they were performed without appropriate antibiotics or pain management and the bears were repeatedly exposed to this process as the fistulae often healed over.[19]
  • Removal of the whole gallbladder is sometimes used. This method is used when wild bears are killed for their bile.

It has been estimated that 50% to 60% of bears die from complications caused by the surgery or improper post-surgical care.[17][20]

Housing and husbandry

Cubs are sometimes caught in the wild and used to supplement numbers held captive in farms. In 2008, it was reported that bear farms were paying the equivalent of US$280 to US$400 for a wild bear cub; this is equivalent to 10 times the monthly wage of a restaurant worker in China.[17]

Bile extraction begins at three years-of-age and continues for a minimum of five to ten years. Some bears may be kept in cages for bile extraction for 20 years or more.[17] A bear can produce 2.2 kg of bile over a 5-yr production life.[21]

When the bears outlive their productive bile-producing years (around 10 years old), they are often slaughtered and harvested for their other body parts such as meat, fur, paws and gallbladders; bear paws are considered a delicacy.[18][22]

To facilitate the bile extraction process, mature bears are usually kept in small cages measuring approximately 130 x 70 x 60 cm.[20] These cages are so small they prevent the bears from being able to sit upright, stand or turn around. Some bears are kept in crush cages, the sides of which can be moved inwards to restrain the bear. The HSUS reports that some bears are moved to a crush cage for milking, but the remainder of the time live in a cage large enough to stand and turn around.

Bile bears are often subjected to other procedures which have their own concomitant ethical and welfare concerns. These include declawing in which the third phalanx of each front digit is amputated to prevent the bears from self-mutilating or harming the farm workers. They may also have their hind teeth removed for the same reasons. These procedures are often conducted by unskilled farm staff and may result in the bears experiencing constant pain thereafter.[20]

Pathology reports have shown that bile from sick bears is often contaminated with, blood, pus, faeces, urine, bacteria and cancer cells.[23]

Welfare concerns

International concern about the welfare of bile bears began in 1993.[20] Many bile bear farms have little or no veterinary supervision and the animal husbandry is often conducted by non-skilled attendants. In combination with the impacts of small cage sizes, their spacing and lack of internal structures, there are several indicators of poor welfare.[24]

Physiological indicators

Elevated corticosteroid concentrations are a widely acknowledged indicator of physiological stress. Corticosteroid concentrations in the hair of Asiatic black bears relocated from a bile farm to a bear rescue centre fell between 12 and 88% over 163 days.[25] Other physiological indicators of stress and potentially reduced welfare include growth retardation and ulcers.[25]

A 2000 survey revealed that bile bears suffered from sores, skin conditions, ectoparasites, hair loss, bone deformities, injuries, swollen limbs, dental and breathing problems, diarrhoea and scarring.[24]

One survey of 165 bears removed from a farm showed that (out of 181 free-drip bears), 163 (99%) had cholecystitis, 109 (66%) had gallbladder polyps, 56 (34%) had abdominal herniation, 46 (28%) had internal abscessation, 36 (22%) had gallstones, and 7 (4%) had peritonitis. Many of the bears had a combination of these conditions.[26]

Behavioural indicators

Academic sources report that bile bears exhibit abnormal behaviours such as stereotypies, excessive inactivity and self-mutilation.[24][25]

Living for 10–12 years under such circumstances results in severe mental stress and muscle atrophy.[27] World Animal Protection sent researchers to 11 bile farms. They reported seeing bears moaning, banging their heads against their cages, and chewing their own paws (autophagia).

The Chinese media reported an incident in which a mother bear, having escaped her cage, strangled her own cub and then killed herself by intentionally running into a wall.[28]

Longevity and mortality

Farmed bile bears live to an average age of five years old whereas healthy captive bears can live up to 35 years of age and wild bears for between 25 and 30 years.



In 1994, Chinese authorities announced that no new bear farms would be licensed and in 1996, issued a special notice stating that no foreign object was allowed to be inserted into a bear body. No bears younger than 3 years of age and lighter than 100 kg were to be used for bile extraction, and bears could be confined in cages only during the time of bile extraction. The authorities required the adoption of the free-drip method which necessitates the creation of an artificial fistula between the gallbladder and the abdominal wall by opening a cut into the gallbladder.[17][20]

In 2006, the Chinese State Council Information Office said that it was enforcing a "Technical Code of Practice for Raising Black Bears", which "requires hygienic, painless practice for gall extraction and make strict regulations on the techniques and conditions for nursing, exercise and propagation."[29] However, a 2007 veterinary report published by the Animals Asia Foundation (AAF) stated that the Technical Code was not being enforced and that many bears were still spending their entire lives in small extraction cages without free access to food or water. The report also noted that the free-dripping technique promoted in the Technical Code was unsanitary as the fistula was an open portal through which bacteria could infiltrate the abdomen. The report also stated that surgeries to create free-dripping fistulae caused bears great suffering as they were performed without appropriate antibiotics or pain management and the bears were repeatedly exposed to this process as the fistulae often healed over. The free-dripping method still requires the bears to be prodded with a metal rod when the wound heals over and under veterinary examination, some bears with free-dripping fistulae were actually found to have clear perspex catheters permanently implanted into their gallbladders. In addition to the suffering caused by infection and pain at the incision site, 28% of fistulated bears also experience abdominal hernias and more than one-third eventually succumb to liver cancer, believed to be associated with the bile-extraction process.

South Korea

In South Korea, bear farming was declared illegal in 1992. However, it was reported in 2008 that over 1,300 bears were still on 108 farms where farmers were hoping that legal farming would resume.[17] As of 2008, wild bears over the age of ten could still be legally killed for their gallbladders in South Korea.[17]


The Vietnamese government in 2005 made it illegal to extract bear bile[30] and made a commitment to phase out bear farming. In 2008, there were still 3,410 bears on farms in Vietnam.[17]

Rescue centers

The animal welfare charity Animals Asia have founded two award-winning rescue bear sanctuaries, one in China and another in Vietnam. This charity has rescued 500 bears - more than any other organisation in the world.[31]

Animals Asia also works to end the trade in dogs and cats for food in China and Vietnam, and lobbies to improve the welfare of companion animals, promote humane population management and prevent the cross border export of "meat dogs" in Asia.[31]

Alternative sources

There are two alternative sources for bile from farmed bears, i.e. wild bears and synthetic sources.

Wild bears

Bile from farmed bears is considered inferior to bile and gall from wild bears.[24]

Implications for conservation

Officially, 7,600 captive bears are farmed in China. According to Chinese officials, 10,000 wild bears would need to be killed each year to produce as much bile.[32] Government officials see farming as a reasonable answer to the loss of wild bears from poaching and are insouciant about animal welfare concerns. However, the government's agreement to allow the rescue of 500 bears may represent a softening of this stance.[33]

A 2015 report indicated that the illegal trade in bear bile and gallbladder for traditional medicine is open and widespread across Malaysia and is potentially a serious threat to wild bears. In a survey of 365 traditional medicine shops across Malaysia, 175 (48%) claimed to be selling bear gallbladders and medicinal products containing bear bile.[34]

Some supporters of bile bear farms argue, "Wildlife farming offers, at first glance, an intuitively satisfying solution: a legal trade can in principle be created by farming animals to assuage demand for wild animals which thus need not be harvested."[21]

Nonetheless, bears continue to be hunted in the wild to supply the bile farms. A survey in 2000 reported that almost all of the farms in the study supplemented their captive population of bile bears with wild-caught bears.[24] This is claimed to be necessary because of difficulties with captive breeding.[4] Consumers of bear bile have a strong preference for bile produced from wild bears; bile from farms may, therefore, not be a perfect substitute for bile from wild bears.[21] Bear farming in Laos may be increasing the incentive to poach wild bears.[35]

A review of multiple types of wildlife tourist attractions concluded that bile bear farms had negative impacts on both animal welfare and conservation.[36]

Poaching in the United States

In the late 1980s, U.S. park rangers began finding bear carcasses missing only gallbladders and paws. Initially, it was considered that occasional hunters were the cause, but investigations uncovered evidence that large commercial organizations were dealing in poaching and smuggling. During a three-year operation (Operation SOUP) ending in 1999, 52 people were arrested and 300 gallbladders seized in Virginia. Another investigation in Oregon led police to bring racketeering charges against an organisation that poached an estimated 50 to 100 bears per year for a decade.[17][37] It was estimated in 2008 that in North America, 40,000 American black bears are illegally poached for their gallbladders and paws each year.[17]

Synthetic sources

The pharmacologically active ingredient contained in bear bile is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This can be synthesized using cow or pig bile, or even using no animal ingredients.[38] The generic drug name is Ursodiol and it is now being widely produced under brand names such as Actigall, Urso, Ursofalk, Ursogal and Ursotan.[38] It was estimated in 2008 that 100,000 kg of synthetic UDCA was already being used each year in China, Japan and South Korea, and that the total world consumption may be double this figure.[39] However, because of its artificial origin, synthetic UDCA is not considered by many as an acceptable substitute.[24]

In Japan, UDCA has been synthesised from cow galls, as a by-product of slaughter, since 1955. It is also produced in the U.S. by Ciba-Geigy.

In 2014, Kaibao Pharmaceuticals, which supplies approximately half of the bear bile consumed in China, stated it is developing another synthetic source derived from poultry bile.[2]


Wild population

The world population of Asiatic black bears decreased between 30% to 49% between 1980 and 2010.[40] Although their reliability is unclear, range-wide estimates of 5–6,000 bears have been presented by Russian biologists. Rough density estimates without corroborating methods or data have been made in India and Pakistan, resulting in estimates of 7–9,000 in India and 1,000 in Pakistan. Unsubstantiated estimates from China give varying estimates between 15,000 and 46,000, with a government estimate of 28,000.[8] Some estimates put the current (2015) total Asian worldwide population as low as 25,000.[2]

Farmed population

The World Society for the Protection of Animals has been reported in 2011 as saying that more than 12,000 bears are currently estimated to be housed in both illegal and legal bear farms across Asia.[41]


World Animal Protection conducted a study in 1999 and 2000, and estimated that 247 bear bile farms in China were holding 7,002 bears, though the Chinese government called the figures "pure speculation." The Chinese consider bear farms a way to reduce the demand on the wild bear population. Officially, 7,600 captive bears are farmed in China. According to Chinese officials, 10,000 wild bears would need to be killed each year to produce as much bile.[42] The government sees farming as a reasonable answer to the loss of wild bears from poaching. However, the government's agreement to allow the rescue of 500 bears may represent a softening of this stance.

China has repeatedly been found to be the main source of bear bile products on sale throughout South-East Asia; this international trade in their parts and derivatives is strictly prohibited by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. In 2010, there were approximately 97 establishments in China keeping bile bears.[25]

In 2013, estimates of bears kept in cages in China for bile production range from 9,000[14] to 20,000 bears on nearly 100 domestic bear farms.[5] One company (Fujian Guizhen Tang Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd) alone has more than 400 black bears to supply bile using the free drip method. The bile is harvested twice a day to collect a total of approximately 130 ml from each bear per day.[26]

Before the existence of bear farms (i.e. pre-1980) the demand for bear bile in China was about 500 kilos annually. In 2008, the demand had risen to about 4,000 kilos annually.[17]


In 2009, according to the Korean Environment Ministry, 1,374 bears were raised at 74 farms across South Korea. In Korea, it is legal to keep bears for bile and bears older than 10 years old can be harvested for their paws and organs.[6] In 2012, the number of bears in Korean farms have risen to about 1,600.


In Laos, the first farm was established in 2000. The number of farmed bears tripled from 2008 to 2012. In 2012, there were 121 Asiatic black bears and one sun bear on 11 commercial facilities. It is possible that all the bears were wild-caught domestically, or illegally imported internationally. This is in violation of both National and International law.[35]

In Laos in 2011, bear bile was selling for 120,000 kip (US$15) per ml, half the average monthly wage of 240,000 kip.[41]

Bile products

Bear bile products come in forms, including pill (top) and liquid (bottom) forms.

The monetary value of the bile comes from the traditional prescription of bear bile by doctors practicing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Bear bile contains ursodeoxycholic acid. It is purchased and consumed to treat hemorrhoids, sore throats, sores, bruising, muscle ailments, sprains, epilepsy, reduce fever, improve eyesight, break down gallstones, act as an anti-inflammatory, reduce the effects of overconsumption of alcohol, and to 'clear' the liver.[5][18] It is currently found in various forms for sale including whole gallbladders, raw bile, pills, powder, flakes, and ointment.[18]

Because only minute amounts of bile are used in TCM, a total of 500 kg of bear bile is used by practitioners every year, but according to WSPA, more than 7,000 kg are being produced. The surplus is being used in other inessential products such as throat lozenges, shampoo, toothpaste, wine, tea, eyedrops, and general tonics.[14][18]


Bile products have not been found to have any medical efficacy; it is unlikely to have the efficacy claimed by Chinese herbalists. It has been stated, "These products have absolutely no benefit to health"[14] and "Scientists have scrutinized the health effects of bear bile but have come to no definitive conclusions".[5]


In 2011, the overall worldwide trade in bear parts, including bile, was estimated to be a $2 billion industry.[39]


In 1970, 1 kg of bear gallbladder cost approximately US$200, but by 1990 the price had risen to between US$3,000 and US$5,000 per kg. In 2009, the market price for legally sold gallbladders in Hong Kong had risen to between US$30,000 and US$50,000 per kg.[1]

A report published in 2013 stated that a poacher in North America can usually get US$100 to $150 for a gallbladder, but the organs can fetch $5,000 to $10,000 in the end-market once they are processed into a powder. The report also stated that the HSUS indicated a bear gallbladder can cost more than $3,000 in Asia.[43] A TRAFFIC report estimated that prices for whole gallbladders were as low as $51.11 (Myanmar) and as high as $2,000 (Hong Kong SAR). For gallbladder by the gram, the least expensive was $0.11 per gram (Thailand) and the highest was $109.70 per gram (Japan).[18]

Raw bile and bile powder

Raw bile can sell for as much as US$24,000 per kg, about half the price of gold.[5]

There is huge profitability in the trade of bile powder. In 2007, while the wholesale price of bile powder was approximately US$410 per kg in China, the retail price increased to 25 to 50 fold in South Korea, and to 80 fold in Japan, i.e. US$33,000 per kg.[39]


Pill prices ranged from as low as $0.38 per pill (Malaysia) to $3.83 per pill (Thailand).[18] and in the U.S., approximately $1 per pill, which is an average price between the two countries.


In 2010, the Guizhentang Pharmaceutical company was one of the most successful bile extraction companies in China, paying some 10 million yuan in taxes.[44] In 2012, the company tried to go public in the Shenzhen stock exchange and proposed to triple the company’s stock of captive bears, from 400 to 1,200.[5] This provoked a large response from those opposed to bear bile farming, and met heavy challenges from activists, internet users and protesters.[45] This was followed by a number of controversies along with public interviews.[46]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 Feng, Y., Siu, K., Wang, N., Ng, K.M., Tsao, S.W., Nagamatsu, T. and Tong, Y. (2009). "Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 5 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-2.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Hance, J. (2015). "Is the end of 'house of horror' bear bile factories in sight?". The Guardian.
  3. Gong, J. & Harris, R. B. (2006). "The status of bears in China". Understanding Asian Bears to Secure Their Future. Japan Bear Network (compiler), Ibaraki, Japan. pp. 96–101.
  4. 1 2 3 MacGregor, F. (2010). "Inside a bear bile farm in Laos". The Telegraph. London.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jacobs, A. (2013). "Folk remedy extracted from captive bears stirs furor in China". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  6. 1 2 Gwang-lip, M. (2009). "Vietnamese urge Koreans not to travel for bear bile". Korea Jongang Daily. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09.
  7. Black, R. (2007). "BBC Test kit targets cruel bear trade". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  8. 1 2 3 Garshelis, D. L. & Steinmetz, R. (IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group) (2016). "Ursus thibetanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  9. 1 2 Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Augeri, D., Cheah, C., Ngoprasert, D. & Wai-Ming, W. (2017). "Helarctos malayanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  10. McLellan, B.N., Proctor, M.F., Huber, D. & Michel, S. (2017). "Ursus arctos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
  11. Feng, Yibin; Siu, Kayu; Wang, Ning; Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Tong, Yao (2009-01-12). "Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 5: 2. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-2. PMC 2630947. PMID 19138420.
  12. Bacon, H. (2008). "Implications of bear bile farming". Veterinary Times.
  13. "End Bear Bile Farming". Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Cages of shame". Guinness Entertainment Pty Ltd. 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
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  16. "Chinese doctors to call for 'cruel' bear farms to be closed". Daily Telegraph. Aug 28, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Tsai, L. (2008). "Detailed discussion of bears used in traditional Chinese medicine". Michigan State University College of Law. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Isaccs, J. R. (2013). "Asian bear farming: breaking the cycle of exploitation". Retrieved October 8, 2013.
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  20. 1 2 3 4 5 Li, P.J. (2004). "China's bear farming and long-term solutions". Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 7 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0701_5.
  21. 1 2 3 Dutton, A.J.; Hepburn, C.; Macdonald, D.W. (2011). "A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile". PLoS ONE. 6 (7): e21243. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...621243D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021243. PMC 3140486. PMID 21799733.
  22. "The Humane Society of the United States and Born Free USA Praise Hawaii Governor for Signing Bear Bile Prohibition into Law". June 19, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  23. "Overview". Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Maas, B. (2000). The veterinary, behavioural and welfare implications of bear farming in Asia (Report). World Society for the Protection of Animals.
  25. 1 2 3 4 Malcolm, K.D.; McShea, W.J.; Van Deelen, T.R.; Bacon, H.J.; Liu, F.; Putman, S.; Brown, J.L. (2013). "Analyses of fecal and hair glucocorticoids to evaluate short-and long-term stress and recovery of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) removed from bile farms in China". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 185: 97–106. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.01.014. PMID 23416358.
  26. 1 2 Lu, J., Bayne, K. and Wang, J. (2013). "Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 41: 351–357.
  27. U.S. Embassy of China: "Bile Bear Report." Archived June 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  28. "Mother bear kills cub then itself". AsiaOne. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  29. "Press Conference on Animal Welfare, Sponsored by the State Council Information Office(12/01/2006)". Embassy of the People's Republic of China. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  30. "Bear bile industry". World Animal Protection.
  31. 1 2 "Who We Are". Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  32. Parry-Jones, R.; Vincent, A. (1998). "Can we tame wild medicine?". New Scientist. 157 (2115): 26.
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  34. Ling, L.S.; Burgess, E.A.; Chng, S.C. (2015). "Hard to bear: An assessment of trade in bear bile and gall bladder in Malaysia". TRAFFIC.
  35. 1 2 Livingstone, E. & Shepherd, C.R. (2016). "Bear farms in Lao PDR expand illegally and fail to conserve wild bears". Oryx. 50 (1): 176–184. doi:10.1017/s0030605314000477.
  36. Moorhouse, T.P.; Dahlsjö, C.A.; Baker, S.E.; D'Cruze, N.C.; Macdonald, D.W. (2015). "The customer isn't always right—conservation and animal welfare implications of the increasing demand for wildlife tourism". PLoS One. 10 (10): e0138939. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038939M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138939. PMC 4619427. PMID 26489092.
  37. Neme, L.A. (2009). Animal Investigators: How the World's First Wildlife Forensics Lab is Solving Crimes and Saving Endangered Species. Simon and Schuster.
  38. 1 2 "Alternatives to bear bile". Journal of Chinese Medicine. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  39. 1 2 3 Kavoussi, B. (2001). "Asian bear bile remedies: Traditional medicine or barbarism?". Science-Based Medicine.
  40. Kikuchi, R. (2012). "Captive bears in human–animal welfare conflict: A case study of bile extraction on Asia's bear farms". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 25 (1): 55–77.
  41. 1 2 "Laos: Authorities shut down bear farm that extracted the animal's bile". SperoNews. 2011.
  42. Parry-Jones, Rob & Vincent, Amanda (January 3, 1998). "Can we tame wild medicine?". 157 (2115). New Scientist: 26. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007.
  43. Zhao, D. (2013). "Bear gall bladder". Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  44. "业内人士称受舆论影响归真堂上市前景再生变数 _京华网". Retrieved 2012-02-27.
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  46. 来源:新华网  发表时间:2012-02-28 11:13. "归真堂创始人哭诉被陷害:早知道这样就不搞上市_理财_金羊网". Retrieved 2012-02-28.

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