|Places of articulation|
Bidental consonants are consonants pronounced with both the lower and upper teeth. They are normally found only in speech pathology, and are distinct from interdental consonants such as [n̪͆], which involve the tongue articulated between the teeth rather than the teeth themselves. The diacritic for bidental consonants in the extensions to the IPA is the same superscript plus subscript bridge, ⟨ ̪͆ ⟩. This is used for three sounds in disordered speech:
- A bidental percussive, [ʭ], produced by striking the teeth against each other (gnashing or chattering the teeth).
- A voiceless bidental fricative, [h̪͆], a fricative made through clenched teeth with no involvement of the tongue or the lips
- A voiced bidental fricative, [ɦ̪͆].
There is at least one confirmed attestation of a bidental consonant in normal language. The Black Sea sub-dialect of the Shapsug dialect of Adyghe has a voiceless bidental fricative where other dialects have [x], as in хы
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Chart of extended IPA symbols for disordered speech (PDF)