Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport

Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport
مطار بيروت رفيق الحريري الدولي
Airport type Public
Owner/Operator Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA)
Serves Beirut, Lebanon
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 27 m / 87 ft
Coordinates 33°49′16″N 035°29′18″E / 33.82111°N 35.48833°E / 33.82111; 35.48833Coordinates: 33°49′16″N 035°29′18″E / 33.82111°N 35.48833°E / 33.82111; 35.48833
Location within Lebanon
Direction Length Surface
m ft
03/21 3,800 12,467 Concrete
16/34 3,395 11,138 Concrete
17/35 3,250 10,663 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Aircraft movements 71,169
Total passengers 8,230,990

Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (Arabic: مطار بيروت رفيق الحريري الدولي, Maṭār Bayrūt Rafīq al-Ḥarīrī ad-Dwaliyy) (French: Aéroport international de Beyrouth) (IATA: BEY, ICAO: OLBA), formerly Beirut International Airport, is located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the city center in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon, and is the only operational commercial airport in the country. It is the hub for Lebanon's national carrier, Middle East Airlines (more commonly known as MEA). It is also the hub for the Lebanese cargo carrier Trans Mediterranean Airways (more commonly known as TMA Cargo), as well as Wings of Lebanon.

It is the main port of entry into the country along with the Port of Beirut. The airport is managed and operated by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), which operates within the Ministry of Public Works and Transport. The DGCA is also responsible for operating the air traffic control (ATC) at the airport as well as controlling Lebanon's airspace.

Maintenance and general upkeep duties ranging from cleaning the terminal to de-rubberising the runways are the responsibility of Middle East Airports Services (MEAS), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, Middle East Airlines.

There are plans to eventually replace the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) with an independent autonomous government owned agency called the Lebanese Civil Aviation Authority (LCAA) which would assume the responsibilities of regulation and safety oversight while a new government-owned corporation named the Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport Corporation (BRHIAC) would assume management and operations responsibilities of the airport.[1]


The airport opened on 23 April 1954, replacing the much smaller Bir Hassan Airfield which was located a short distance north. At the time of its opening, the terminal was very modern and it featured an excellent spotters terrace with a café. The airport consisted of two asphalt runways at the time. Runway 18/36 at 3,250 metres (10,663 ft) was used primarily for landings from the 18 end while runway 03/21 at 3,180 metres (10,433 ft) was used primarily for take-offs from the 21 end and from the Sami end.

Premier Middle East hub

The airport grew to become a premier hub in the Middle East, thanks to limited competition from neighbours, with fast and steady growth by the country's four carriers at the time, Middle East Airlines (MEA), Air Liban, Trans Mediterranean Airways (TMA), and Lebanese International Airways (LIA), and numerous other foreign carriers.

Israeli assault

In response to an attack on El Al Flight 253 two days earlier in Athens, on the night of 28 December 1968, Israeli commandos mounted a surprise attack on the airport and destroyed 14 civilian aircraft operated by the Lebanese carriers, Middle East Airlines (Air Liban had merged with MEA by this time), Trans Mediterranean Airways, and Lebanese International Airways. This caused serious devastation to the Lebanese aviation industry. Middle East Airlines managed to rebound quickly, but Lebanese International Airways went bankrupt and its employees were transferred to MEA.

Lebanese Civil War

The airport lost its status as one of the premier hubs of the Middle East with the start of the 15-year-long Lebanese Civil War in April 1975 and lost virtually all of its airline services with the exception of two Lebanese carriers, Middle East Airlines and Trans Mediterranean Airways. Both airlines continued operating with the exception of certain periods of time when the airport itself was completely closed. Despite the conflict, the terminal was renovated in 1977, only to be badly damaged five years later by Israeli shelling during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. The airport was the site of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, in which 241 American servicemen were killed. The airport's runways were renovated in 1982 and 1984.


By the time war finally came to an end in 1990, the airport needed to launch a massive reconstruction program. A ten-year reconstruction program was launched in 1994 which included the construction of another terminal, two runways, a fire station, a power plant, a general aviation terminal, and an underground parking garage. Many structures, like the radar building, were rehabilitated.

In 1998 the first phase of the new terminal was completed. It was located immediately adjacent to the east of the old terminal and consists of gates 1–12. After it was inaugurated, the old terminal was demolished and construction on the western half began and was completed in 2000, however it was not inaugurated until 2002. This consists of gates 13–23. The new terminal can handle 6 million passengers annually and is expected to be expanded to handle 16 million passengers by 2035.

It was decided early on that the original runways were no longer sufficient. A new landing runway, 17/35 was constructed protruding at an angle out into the sea, with a length of 3,395 metres (11,138 ft). This seaward protrusion was built in order to move landing traffic away from the city in a bid to improve safety and reduce aircraft noise. A new take-off runway was constructed parallel to the old 03/21 at a length of 3,800 metres (12,467 ft) making it the longest runway in the airport. The old 03/21 was converted to a taxiway for accessing the new runway 03/21. Unlike the old runways, the two new runways were constructed from concrete and feature more advanced lighting systems and instrument landing systems. In 2004, runway 17/35 was re-designated 16/34 and runway 18/36 was re-designated 17/35 after more accurate runway heading measurements were conducted. Despite being essentially replaced by and adjacent to the new runway 16/34, runway 17/35 is still open, although it is rarely used.

On 17 June 2005, the General Aviation Terminal was finally opened. It is located on the northwestern corner of the airport. All fixed-base operators and VIP charter providers have moved their operations to this state-of-the-art terminal.

In 2005, the airport was renamed from "Beirut International Airport" to "Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport" in honor of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, who was assasssinated earlier in the year.

More damage during the 2006 war

On 13 July 2006 at approximately 6:00 a.m. local time, all three runways of the airport sustained significant damage from missile strikes directed at it by the Israeli Air Force as part of the 2006 Lebanon War. The Israeli Air Force claimed that the airport was a military target because Hezbollah was receiving weapons shipments there.[2] The runways were rendered inoperative and the Lebanese Government declared that the airport was closed until further notice.[3]

Shortly thereafter, MEA used one of the long taxiways at the airport to evacuate five of its aircraft (four Airbus A321 and one Airbus A330).

Limited activity at the airport

The airport reopened to commercial flights on 17 August 2006, with the arrival of a Middle East Airlines (MEA) flight around 1:10 p.m. local time from Amman, followed by a Royal Jordanian flight also from Amman. This marked the first commercial flight arrival at Beirut International Airport since the airport's closure almost five weeks before. All runways and taxiways at the airport have been successfully repaired and the airport is operating as it was before the hostilities.

Israel ends air blockade

On 7 September 2006, Israel ended its air blockade of Lebanon. The first plane to land at the airport after the end of the blockade was a Middle East Airlines flight at 6:06 p.m. local time.[4] Soon after that, a Kuwait Airways flight landed at the airport. Over the next couple of days, more airlines resumed flights to the airport, including Emirates, Etihad, Jazeera Airways, Air Arabia, Air France, British Airways (BMED), Cyprus Airways, EgyptAir, Air Algérie, Royal Air Maroc, Jet Airways, and Gulf Air.[5]

U.S. air traffic ban amended

On 6 June 2007, U.S. President George W. Bush amended a ban on air traffic to Lebanon imposed since the 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847 to allow flights by the U.S. Government. A press release issued by the White House said that the "prohibition of transportation services to hereby further amended to permit U.S. air carriers under contract to the United States Government to engage in foreign air transportation to and from Lebanon of passengers, including U.S. and non-U.S. citizens, and their accompanying baggage; of goods for humanitarian purposes; and of any other cargo or materiel.".[6]

First Airbus A380 flight

On 29 March 2018, Emirates operated a one-off Airbus A380 service to Beirut. It was a trial flight in order to test the airport’s handling of the aircraft. The aircraft park at gate 1, which is capable of handling the Airbus A380. This marked the first time the A380 had landed in Lebanon.

Passenger terminal

The terminal consists of two wings, the East and West Wing, joined together by the main terminal, forming a U‑shaped building, with each wing being parallel to the other, and the main terminal connecting the wings. The modern terminal consists of 23 gates, 19 of which have jetways, two of which are dual jetway gates for large aircraft, and two are bus gates which have been decommissioned. Smoking is prohibited in almost all areas inside the terminal, with a few exceptions (see East and West Wing section below).

Main Terminal

The main terminal includes the bulk of the duty-free, some other shops, a restaurant, and the lounges. The main terminal has four levels:

  • The ground level, which features the arrival area, and also contains a duty-free section for arriving passengers next to baggage claim. The duty-free shops and baggage area are accessible to arriving passengers after they clear passport control, but before they clear customs (this duty-free, like all the others, is not open to the general public). The general public has access to the waiting area, and there are various cafes and restaurants open to the public.
  • The second level, features the departure level, security checkpoint, ticketing, customs, and immigration. It also includes the primary duty-free shopping area, which is only accessible to ticketed passengers once they clear immigration. There is also a second security checkpoint passengers must pass through before accessing each separate wing.
  • The third level, which houses all of the private airline lounges, prayer rooms, as well as a restaurant with a nice view on the termac.
  • The fourth level, which is closed to the public and passengers, mainly houses the airport administration offices.

East and West Wing

Each wing contains its own departure gates, as well as two cafés (one of which features a smoking section), a newsstand, a tourism shop, and smaller duty free shopping areas in each wing. The East Wing, which opened in 1998, has gates 1–12 and the West Wing, which opened in 2002, has gates 13–23. Gates 2 and 3 are dual jetway gates for large aircraft. Gates 4 and 22 are bus boarding gates, however these are almost never used. The only way to move from one wing to the next is through the main terminal.

Passenger services

The airport also includes banks, a post office, prayer rooms, and a tourist information centre (managed by the Ministry of Tourism). There is Wi-Fi throughout the airport, but it is only free for the first 30 minutes used.


All of the lounges except for the Qatar Airways lounge are also Priority Pass lounges.[7]

  • Cedar Lounge, owned and operated by Middle East Airlines. It occupies half of the available lounge space at the airport.[8] The Cedar Lounge opened on 1 August 2005,[9] and was refurbished in 2017, and extends over an area of 3,000 m², with a maximum capacity of 300 seated passengers. The lounge has various seating areas, an enclosed smoking area, a business centre, a children's play area, a bar, and a self-service cafeteria.[10] It is open to MEA passengers with business class tickets, and to first and business class ticket holders from select airlines, including (but not limited to) Air France, Emirates, Kuwait Airways, Alitalia, Qatar Airways and Saudia.
  • Beirut Lounge, operated by Middle East Airlines. Open to their credit cardholders and premium passengers of Lufthansa, Aegean Airlines, and others.
  • LAT Lounge, operated by the ground handler Lebanese Air Transport. Open to most other airlines' premium passengers that are not allowed into the Cedar Lounge, including (but not limited to) British Airways, Iran Air, Aeroflot, Air Serbia, TAROM, flydubai, Turkish Airlines and Ethiopian Airlines.
  • Qatar Airways operates its own lounge at the airport on Level 1.

Airlines and destinations


Aegean Airlines Athens
Seasonal: Heraklion[11], Mykonos,[11] Rhodes [11]
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo
Aigle Azur Paris–Orly
Seasonal: Marseille
Air Algérie Algiers
Air Arabia Sharjah
Air Arabia Egypt Sharm El Sheikh[12]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Seasonal: Marseille, Nice [13]
Air Serbia Belgrade
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino
Armenia Aircompany Yerevan
AtlasGlobal Istanbul–Atatürk, Adana[14]
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Dalaman
BH Air Seasonal charter: Burgas, Varna
Bravo Airways Kiev–Zhuliany
Seasonal: Kharkiv
British Airways London–Heathrow
Bulgaria Air Seasonal: Sofia
Seasonal charter: Burgas, Varna
Bulgarian Air Charter Seasonal charter: Varna
Cham Wings Airlines Qamishli
Cobalt Air Larnaca
Croatia Airlines Seasonal charter: Mostar, Dubrovnik
Cyprus Airways Larnaca
Czech Airlines Seasonal: Prague
EgyptAir Cairo
Seasonal charter: Sharm el-Sheikh
EgyptAir Express Alexandria–Borg el Arab
Emirates Dubai-International
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Fly Baghdad Baghdad
flydubai Dubai–Al Maktoum, Dubai–International
Flynas Jeddah[15], Riyadh
Freebird Airlines Seasonal charter: Antalya
Georgian Airways Seasonal: Tbilisi
Germania Berlin–Schönefeld, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Munich, Stockholm–Arlanda
Germania Flug Zürich
Gulf Air Bahrain
Iran Air Mashhad, Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Iraqi Airways Baghdad, Basra, Najaf, Nasiriyah,[16] Sulaymaniyah
Jazeera AirwaysKuwait City
Kuwait Airways Kuwait City
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Middle East Airlines Abu Dhabi, Accra, Amman–Queen Alia, Athens, Baghdad, Basra, Brussels, Cairo, Copenhagen, Dammam, Doha, Dubai–International, Erbil, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul–Atatürk, Jeddah, Kuwait, Lagos, Larnaca, London–Heathrow, Madrid, Milan–Malpensa, Najaf, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Riyadh, Rome–Fiumicino, Yerevan
Seasonal: Medina, Nice
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Dalaman, Lourdes, Mykonos, Rhodes, Sharm el-Sheikh
Pegasus Airlines Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Dalaman, İzmir
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia
Royal Wings Seasonal: Aqaba
Saudia Jeddah, Medina, Riyadh
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen
SunExpress Seasonal charter: Antalya, Izmir
Syrian Air Charter: Damascus
TAROM Bucharest
Transavia Amsterdam (begins 1 November 2018)[17]
Transavia France Paris-Orly
Tunisair Tunis
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Dalaman
Vueling Barcelona
Wataniya airways Kuwait City
Wings of Lebanon Adana, Baku, Barcelona, Berlin–Schönefeld, Billund, Damascus, Dubrovnik, Istanbul-Sabiha Gökçen, Latakia, Malmö, Mashhad, Naples, Prague, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Seasonal: Batumi, Gothenburg, Tbilisi, Vienna
Seasonal Charter: Antalya, Aswan, Copenhagen, Bodrum, Brussels, Budapest, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Hurghada, Ibiza, Lisbon, Luxor, Málaga, Mykonos, Paphos, Rhodes, Santorini, Sharm el-Sheikh, Venice-Marco Polo


Cargolux Amman–Queen Alia, Cairo, Hong Kong, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Luxembourg
DHL Aviation Bahrain
EgyptAir Cargo Cairo[18]
Emirates SkyCargo Dubai–Al Maktoum
Ethiopian Airlines Cargo Addis Ababa, Liège
MNG Airlines Cairo, Istanbul-Atatürk
Qatar Airways Cargo Accra, Doha, Zaragoza, Kuwait City
Turkish Airlines Cargo Amman–Queen Alia, Istanbul–Atatürk
ULS Airlines Cargo Istanbul-Atäturk


Passenger use and aircraft movements have increased each year since 1990 with the exception of 2006, which saw a sharp decrease in both. Total cargo has trended upwards since 1990 but also experienced a significant decrease in 2006.[19]

International Scheduled Weekly Departures From Beirut International Airport (July 2018)
RankCityNumber of DeparturesPassengers (2017)Carriers
1 Dubai63---Emirates, flydubai, Middle East Airlines
2 Istanbul55---AtlasGlobal, Middle East Airlines, Pegasus Airlines, Turkish Airlines
3 Doha43---Middle East Airlines, Qatar Airways
4 Cairo42---EgyptAir, Middle East Airlines
5 Amman40---Middle East Airlines, Royal Jordanian
6 Paris37534,706 (CDG only)Aigle Azur, Air France, Middle East Airlines, Transavia France
7 Larnaca32---Cobalt Air, Cyprus Airways, Middle East Airlines
8 Kuwait City31---Jazeera Airways, Kuwait Airways, Middle East Airlines, Wataniya Airways
9 Riyadh30---Flynas, Middle East Airlines, Saudia
10 Jeddah26---Flynas, Middle East Airlines, Saudia
11 Frankfurt22134,335 [20] Lufthansa, Middle East Airlines
11 London22271,359British Airways, Middle East Airlines
13 Athens21137,584Aegean Airlines, Middle East Airlines
13 Abu Dhabi21---Etihad, Middle East Airlines
15 Rome20167,155Alitalia, Middle East Airlines
16 Baghdad16---Iraqi Airways, Middle East Airlines
17 Addis Ababa14---Ethiopian Airlines
17 Bahrain14---Gulf Air
17 Sharjah14---Air Arabia
20 Najaf12---Iraqi Airways, Middle East Airlines
21 Damman10---Middle East Airlines
22 Nice10---Air France, Middle East Airlines
23 Yerevan8---Armenia Aircompany, Middle East Airlines
24 Belgrade7---Air Serbia
24 Bucharest7---TAROM
24 Copenhagen7---Middle East Airlines, Scandinavian Airlines
24 Geneva766,443 (2016) [21]Middle East Airlines
28 Barcelona6---Vueling
28 Casablanca6---Royal Air Maroc
30 Brussels6---Middle East Airlines
30 Prague6---Czech Airlines
30 Marseille6---Aigle Azur, Air France
--- Stockholm325,748Germania, Wings of Lebanon
--- Düsseldorf215,434 [20]Germania
--- Hamburg211,839 [20]Germania
--- Munich28,951 [20]Germania
Statistics for Beirut International Airport
YearTotal passengersTotal Cargo (metric tons)Total Aircraft movements
1990 637,944 8,048
1991 837,14444,06410,822
1992 1,092,64548,85914,963
1993 1,343,28945,53916,581
1994 1,489,42954,00719,045
1995 1,672,65749,74220,478
1996 1,715,43446,50521,004
1997 1,715,43446,50521,004
1998 2,006,95655,03723,051
1999 2,222,34454,30025,010
2000 2,343,38752,43929,707
2001 2,444,85162,78930,627
2002 2,606,86165,91332,952
2003 2,840,40065,67434,468
2004 3,334,71062,08139,023
2005 3,892,35668,85244,295
2006 2,463,57652,63827,870
2007 3,009,74959,38732.674
2008 4,004,97271,96549,873
2009[22] 4,952,89957,54566,122
2010[23] 5,512,43577,27658,592
2011[24] 5,596,03474,00463,666
2012 5,960,41484,91163,211
2013 6,249,503106,36162,980
2014 6,555,069-64,579
2015 7,203,781-68,872
2016 7,510,82885,34369,944
2017 8,230,990-71,169

Ground transport

The airport has a three-level car park with a total capacity 2,350 cars.[25]

Public transportation to the airport does not exist, except for taxis. These tend to be more expensive than regular service taxis, however.

LCC Bus Route 1 takes passengers from the airport roundabout, which is located one kilometer from the terminal, to Rue Sadat in Hamra, whereas Route 5 takes to the Charles Helou bus station. OCFTC buses number seven and ten also stop at the airport roundabout, en route to central Beirut.

Airport services

Ground handling providers

The airport has two three ground handling operators, Middle East Airlines Ground Handling (MEAG) Lebanese Air Transport (LAT) and trans Mediterranean Airways (TMA).

Middle East Airlines Ground Handling (MEAG) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, MEA. It provides ground handling services for the national carrier, MEA, as well as most of the carriers serving the airport, including the cargo carriers. MEAG handles nearly 80% of the traffic at the airport.

Lebanese Air Transport (LAT) is a smaller ground handling operator that conducts ground handling operations for a number of carriers serving the airport. LAT specialises in handling charter flights, but do have contracts with a number of scheduled carriers such as British Airways. Once upon a time, LAT was an airline that operated its own aircraft, however this was many years ago.

Fixed-base operators

The airport is home to four fixed-base operators (FBOs) for private aircraft.

MEAG recently launched its own FBO services with the opening of the new General Aviation Terminal called the Cedar Jet Centre, now regarded as the airport's top FBO. Another leading FBO is Aircraft Support & Services, which specialises in fixed-base operator services for private and executive aircraft. In addition, they operate two executive jets that can be chartered to various places. JR Executive operates a fleet of small propeller aircraft that can be chartered or leased. They also have a flight school. They also conduct light maintenance on light aircraft and also offer fixed based operator services. Cirrus Middle East, a member of the German Cirrus Group, is partnering up with Universal Weather and Aviation to create a fixed-base operator and VIP charter service to be launched on 15 October 2012. The company will initially be called Universal/Cirrus Middle East, but will eventually become Universal Aviation Beirut. They aim to become one of the top FBOs in the Middle East and will cater aircraft as large as Boeing 747s.

LAT offers limited fixed-base operator services for private and executive aircraft. Executive Aircraft Services offers aircraft charter services, ground handling services, aircraft management, and aircraft acquisition and sales.

Aircraft maintenance providers

The airport is the home base of MidEast Aircraft Services Company (MASCO), an aircraft maintenance provider that specialises in Airbus maintenance, particularly the A320 and A330 series. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the national carrier, MEA. MASCO has JAR 145 approval and as a result can maintain any aircraft registered in Europe.

Other facilities

Middle East Airlines has its corporate headquarters and training centre at Beirut Airport.[26]

Accidents and incidents

  • On 21 November 1959, Ariana Afghan Airlines Flight 202 crashed near Beirut on a flight from Beirut to Tehran, killing 24 of the 27 passengers and crew on board the Douglas DC-4.
  • On 23 February 1964, Vickers Viscount SU-AKX of United Arab Airlines was damaged beyond economic repair in a heavy landing.[27]
  • On 30 September 1975 a Tupolev Tu-154 of Malév Hungarian Airlines, Malév Flight 240 crashed into the sea while approaching the airport. The cause and the circumstances remain mysterious, but it was most likely shot down.
  • In September 1970, Pan Am Flight 93 was hijacked while flying to New York. The plane landed to refuel and pick up another PFLP hijacker. It was then flown to Cairo where it was blown up.
  • On 17 May 1977 – Antonov An-12, SP-LZA, a cargo plane leased by LOT Polish Airlines from the Polish Air Force along with its crew, flying to Lebanon with a cargo of fresh strawberries crashed 8 kilometers from Beirut airport, all 6 crew members and 3 passengers on board were killed. The airplane crashed due to language problems, the crew repeated the order to descend given by the air traffic control and flew into a mountain.
  • On 23 July 1979, a TMA Boeing 707-320C, on a test flight for 4 copilots due to be promoted to captains, crashed whilst on a third touch-and-go. The plane touched down but then yawed right to left to right again before the wing clipped the ground causing the plane to flip and come to rest inverted across a taxiway. All 6 crew members were killed.[28]
  • On 8 January 1987, Middle East Airlines Boeing 707-323C OD-AHB was destroyed by shelling after landing.[29]
  • On 25 January 2010, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 409, bound for Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and carrying 90 passengers (of which 54 were Lebanese) crashed into the Mediterranean Sea shortly after take-off, killing everyone on board.[30][31]

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

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  9. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. 1 2 3
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  13. Air France resumes seasonal services from Marseille and Nice from 2018
  18. "EGYPTAIR CARGO". Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
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  22. Official statistics for 2009 Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. Official statistics for 2010 Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. Official statistics for 2011 Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. Bilal Hamidi, Employee At Opentech. "مواقف السيارات". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
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  27. "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  28. "TMA 1979 crash".
  29. "Criminal Occurrence description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
  30. "Ethiopian plane crashes off Beirut, 90 feared dead". Reuters. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  31. "Ethiopian Airlines plane crashes into Mediterranean sea". The Daily Telegraph. London. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.

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