Beijing cuisine

Beijing cuisine
Peking duck is a famous duck dish from Beijing
Chinese 北京菜
Jing cuisine
Chinese 京菜
Literal meaning cuisine of the capital
Beiping cuisine
Chinese 北平菜

Beijing cuisine, also known as Jing cuisine and Mandarin cuisine, and as Beiping cuisine in Taiwan, is the local cuisine of Beijing, the national capital of China.

Background

As Beijing has been the capital of China for centuries, its cuisine is influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the style that has the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is that of the eastern coastal province of Shandong.[1][2][3][4] Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn, also greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines, particularly the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese imperial cuisine, and the Chinese aristocrat cuisine.[1][2][3][4]

Another tradition that influenced Beijing cuisine (as well as influenced by the latter itself) is the Chinese imperial cuisine that originated from the "Emperor's Kitchen" (御膳房; yùshànfáng), which referred to the cooking facilities inside the Forbidden City, where thousands of cooks from different parts of China showed their best culinary skills to please the imperial family and officials. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalised and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well. However, some generalisation of Beijing cuisine can be characterised as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are often snacks rather than main courses, and they are typically sold by small shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil and scallions, and fermented tofu is often served as a condiment. In terms of cooking techniques, methods relating to different ways of frying are often used.[1][4] There is less emphasis on rice as an accompaniment as compared to many other regions in China, as local rice production in Beijing is limited by the relatively dry climate.

Many dishes in Beijing cuisine that are served as main courses are derived from a variety of Chinese Halal foods, particularly lamb and beef dishes,[5] as well as from Huaiyang cuisine.

Huaiyang cuisine has been praised since ancient times in China, and it was a general practice for an official travelling to Beijing to take up a new post to bring along with him a chef specialising in Huaiyang cuisine. When these officials had completed their terms in the capital and returned to their native provinces, most of the chefs they brought along often remained in Beijing. They opened their own restaurants or were hired by wealthy locals.[1][4] The imperial clan of the Ming dynasty, the House of Zhu, who had ancestry from Jiangsu Province, also contributed greatly in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing in the 15th century, because the imperial kitchen was mainly Huaiyang style. The element of traditional Beijing culinary and gastronomical cultures of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culture of Jiangsu and Huaiyang cuisines.[1][2][3][4][6]

Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of Beijing cuisine, and was first prominently introduced when Beijing became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong Province came to Beijing en masse during the Qing dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines, which were brought by the ruling class such as nobles, aristocrats and bureaucrats, and then spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from wealthy merchants to the working class.

History

The Qing dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were strictly stratified by the foodservice guild. Each category of the establishment was specifically based on its ability to provide for a particular segment of the market. The top ranking foodservice establishments served nobles, aristocrats, and wealthy merchants and landlords, while lower ranking foodservice establishments served the populace of lower financial and social status. It was during this period when Beijing cuisine gained fame and became recognised by the Chinese culinary society, and the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic cultures during this first peak of its formation.[1][2][3][4]

The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not finally abolished officially after the end of the Qing dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Meals previously offered to nobles and aristocrats were made available to anyone who could afford them instead of being restricted only to the upper class. As chefs freely switched between jobs offered by different foodservice establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local clientele. The different classes are listed in the following subsections.[1][2][3][4][6]

Zhuang

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhuang (; ; zhuāng; "village"), or zhuang zihao (庄字号; 莊字號; zhuāng zìhào; "village brand"), were the top-ranking foodservice establishments, not only in providing foods, but entertainment as well. The form of entertainment provided was usually Beijing opera, and foodservice establishments of this class always had long-term contracts with a Beijing opera troupe to perform onsite. Moreover, foodservice establishments of this class would always have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis. Foodservice establishments of this category did not accept any different customers on a walk-in basis, but instead, only accepted customers who came as a group and ordered banquets by appointment, and the banquets provided by foodservice establishments of this category often included most, if not all tables, at the site. The bulk of the business of foodservice of this category, however, was catering at customers' homes or other locations, and such catering was often for birthdays, marriages, funerals, promotions and other important celebrations and festivals. When catering, these foodservice establishments not only provided what was on the menu, but fulfilled customers' requests.

Foodservice establishments categorised as leng zhuangzi (冷庄子; 冷莊子; lěng zhuāngzǐ; "cold village") lacked any rooms to host banquets, and thus their business was purely catering.

Tang

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character tang (; táng; "auditorium"), or tang zihao (堂字号; 堂字號; táng zìhào; "auditorium brand"), are similar to foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhuang, but the business of these second-class foodservice establishments were generally evenly divided among onsite banquet hosting and catering (at customers' homes). Foodservice establishments of this class would also have long-term contracts with Beijing opera troupes to perform onsite, but they did not have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite on regular basis; however these top performers would still perform at foodservice establishments of this category occasionally. In terms of catering at the customers' sites, foodservice establishments of this category often only provided dishes strictly according to their menu, and would not provide any dishes that were not on the menu.

Ting

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character ting (; ; tīng; "foyer"), or ting zihao (厅字号; 廳字號; tīng zìhào; "foyer brand") are foodservice establishments which had more business in onsite banquet hosting than catering at customers' homes. For onsite banquet hosting, entertainment was still provided, but foodservice establishments of this category did not have long-term contracts with Beijing opera troupes, so that performers varied from time to time, and top performers usually did not perform here or at any lower-ranking foodservice establishments. For catering, different foodservice establishments of this category were incapable of handling significant catering on their own, but generally had to combine resources with other foodservice establishments of the same ranking (or lower) to do the job.

Yuan

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character yuan (; ; yuán; "garden"), or yuan zihao (园字号; 園字號; yuán zìhào; "garden brand") did nearly all their business in hosting banquets onsite. Entertainment was not provided on a regular basis, but there were stages built onsite for Beijing opera performers. Instead of being hired by the foodservice establishments like in the previous three categories, performers at foodservice establishments of this category were usually contractors who paid the foodservice establishment to perform and split the earnings according to a certain percentage. Occasionally, foodservice establishments of this category would be called upon to help cater at customers' homes, and like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character ting, they could not do the job on their own but had to work with others, never taking the lead as foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character ting could.

Lou

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character lou (; ; lóu; "storey"), or lou zihao (楼字号; 樓字號; lóu zìhào; "storey brand") did the bulk of their business hosting banquets onsite by appointment. In addition, a smaller portion of the business was in serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Occasionally, when catering at customers' homes, foodservice establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for.

Ju

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character ju (; ; "residence"), or ju zihao (居字号; 居字號; jū zìhào; "residence brand") generally divided their business evenly into two areas: serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and hosting banquets by appointment for customers who came as one group. Occasionally, when catering at the customers' homes, foodservice establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for, just like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character lou. However, unlike those establishments, which always cooked their specialty dishes on location, foodservice establishment of this category would either cook on location or simply bring the already-cooked food to the location.

Zhai

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhai (; ; zhāi; "study"), or zhai zihao (斋字号; 齋字號; zhāi zìhào; "study brand") were mainly in the business of serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, but a small portion of their income did come from hosting banquets by appointment for customers who came as one group. Just like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character ju, when catering at customers’ homes, foodservice establishments of this category would also only provide the few specialty dishes they are famous for, but they would mostly bring the already-cooked dishes to the location, and would only cook on location occasionally.

Fang

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character fang (; fǎng; "workshop"), or fang zihao (坊字号; 坊字號; fǎng zìhào; "workshop brand"). Foodservice establishments of this category generally did not offer the service of hosting banquets made by appointment for customers who came as one group, but instead, often only offered to serve different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Foodservice establishments of this category or lower would not be called upon to perform catering at the customers' homes for special events.

Guan

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character guan (; ; guǎn; "restaurant"), or guan zihao (馆字号; 館字號; guǎn zìhào; "restaurant brand"). Foodservice establishments of this category mainly served different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and in addition, a portion of the income would be earned from selling to-goes.

Dian

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character dian (; diàn; "shop"), or dian zihao (店字号; 店字號; diàn zìhào; "shop brand"). Foodservice establishments of this category had their own place, like all previous categories, but serving different customers to dine onsite on a walk-in basis only provided half of the overall income, while the other half came from selling to-goes.

Pu

Foodservice establishments with name ending with the Chinese character pu (; ; ; "store"), or pu zihao (铺字号; 鋪字號; pù zìhào; "store brand"). Foodservice establishments of this category ranked next to the last, and they were often named after the owners' last names. Foodservice establishments of this category had fixed spots of business for having their own places, but not as large as those belonging to the category of dian, and thus did not have tables, but only seats for customers. As a result, the bulk of the income of foodservice establishments of this category was from selling to-goes, while income earned from customers dining onsite only provided a small portion of the overall income.

Tan

Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character tan (; ; tān; "stand"), or tan zihao (摊字号; 攤字號; tān zìhào; "stand brand"). The lowest ranking foodservice establishments without any tables, and selling to-goes was the only form of business. In addition to name the food stand after the owners' last name or the food sold, these food stands were also often named after the owners' nicknames.

Notable dishes and street foods

Meat and poultry dishes

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinNotes
Beef wrapped in pancake門釘肉餅门钉肉饼méndīng ròubǐng
Beggar's Chicken富貴雞富贵鸡fùguì jīThe dish's name literally means "rich chicken" or "wealthy chicken". It is also known as jiaohua ji (叫化鸡; 叫化雞; jiàohuā jī).[7]
Cold pig's ears in sauce拌雙脆拌双脆bàn shuāngcuì
Dried soy milk cream in tight roll with beef fillings炸卷果炸卷果zhá juǎnguǒ
Fried dry soybean cream with diced meat filling炸響鈴炸响铃zhá xiǎnglíng
Fried meatballs炸丸子炸丸子zhá wánzǐ
Fried pig's liver wrapped in Chinese small iris炸卷肝炸卷肝zhá juǎngān
Fried triangle炸三角炸三角zhá sānjiǎo
Fried wheaten pancake with meat and sea cucumber fillings褡褳火燒褡裢火烧dālián huǒshāo
Glazed fried egg cake金絲糕金丝糕jīnsīgāo
Goat/sheep's intestine filled with blood羊霜腸羊霜肠yáng shuāngcháng
Hot and sour soup酸辣湯酸辣汤suānlà tāng
Instant-boiled mutton涮羊肉涮羊肉shuàn yángròuA variant of hot pot which usually features boiled water as base (no additional spices) and mutton as the main type of meat.
Lard with flour wrapping glazed in honey蜜汁葫蘆蜜汁葫芦mìzhī húlú
Lotus ham蓮棗肉方莲枣肉方liánzǎo ròufāng
Lotus-shaped cake with chicken蓮蓬雞糕莲蓬鸡糕liánpéng jīgāo
Meatball soup清湯丸子清汤丸子qīngtāng wánzǐ
Meat in sauce醬肉酱肉jiàngròu
Meat wrapped in thin mung bean flour pancake煎餅餜子煎饼馃子jiānbǐng guǒzǐ
Moo shu pork木須肉木须肉mùxūròuLiterally "wood shavings meat"
Napa Cabbage Hot pot酸白菜火鍋酸白菜火锅suān báicài huǒguōA variant of hot pot of Northeast China origin. Its main ingredients are pickled Napa cabbage, cooked pork belly and other meats, and other typical dishes include leaf vegetables, mushrooms, wontons, egg dumplings, tofu, and seafood. The cooked food is usually eaten with a dipping sauce.
Peking barbecue北京烤肉北京烤肉Běijīng kǎoròu
Peking duck北京烤鴨北京烤鸭Běijīng kǎoyāUsually served with pancakes
Peking dumpling北京餃子北京饺子Běijīng jiǎozǐ
Peking wonton北京餛飩北京馄饨Běijīng húndùn
Pickled Chinese cabbage with blood-filled pig's intestines酸菜血腸酸菜血肠suāncài xuěcháng
Pickled meat in sauce清醬肉清酱肉qīngjiàngròu
Plain boiled pork白肉白肉báiròu
Pork in broth蘇造肉苏造肉sūzào ròu
Pork shoulder水晶肘子水晶肘子shuǐjīng zhǒuzǐ
Quick-fried tripe爆肚爆肚bàodù
Roasted meat燒肉烧肉shāoròuCould be either beef, pork or mutton
Shredded mung bean skin salad拌皮絲拌皮丝bànpísī
Soft fried tenderloin軟炸里脊软炸里脊ruǎnzhá lǐjī
Stewed pig's organs燉吊子炖吊子dùn diàozǐ
Stir-fried tomato and scrambled eggs西紅柿炒雞蛋西红柿炒鸡蛋xīhóngshì chǎo jīdàn
Sweet and sour spare ribs糖醋排骨糖醋排骨tángcù páigǔ
Sweet stir-fried mutton / lamb它似蜜它似蜜tāsìmì
Wheaten cake boiled in meat broth滷煮火燒卤煮火烧lǔzhǔ huǒshāo
Pea Flour Cake碗豆黄碗豆黄wǎn dòu huáng

Fish and seafood dishes

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinNotes
Abalone with peas and fish paste蛤蟆鮑魚蛤蟆鲍鱼hāmǎ bàoyúThe dish's name literally means "toad abalone".
Boiled fish in household-style家常熬魚家常熬鱼jiācháng áoyú
Braised fish酥魚酥鱼sūyú
Egg and shrimp wrapped in corn flour pancake糊餅糊饼húbǐng
Fish cooked with five kinds of sliced vegetable五柳魚五柳鱼wǔlǐu yú
Fish cooked with five-spice powder五香魚五香鱼wǔxiāng yú
Fish in vinegar and pepper醋椒魚醋椒鱼cùjiāo yú
Fish soaked in soup乾燒魚干烧鱼gānshāo yú
Sea cucumber with quail egg烏龍吐珠乌龙吐珠wūlóng tǔzhūThe dish's name literally means "the black dragon spits out pearls".
Shrimp chips with egg金魚戲蓮金鱼戏莲jīnyú xìliánThe dish's name literally means "the goldfish playing with the lotus".
Soft fried fish軟炸魚软炸鱼ruǎnzhá yú

Noodles (both vegetarian and non-vegetarian)

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinNotes
Naked oats noodle莜麵搓魚莜面搓鱼yóumiàn cuōyú
Noodles with thick gravy打滷麵打卤面dǎlǔmiàn
Sesame Sauce Noodles麻醬麵麻醬面májiàngmiànA popular noodle dish in Northern China. The sesame sauce is mainly made of tahini (sesame paste) and sesame oil. In American cooking, the tahini often substituted by peanut butter.
Zhajiangmian炸醬麵炸酱面zhájiàngmiàn

Pastries

EnglishImageTraditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinNotes
Fried butter cake奶油炸糕奶油炸糕nǎiyóu zhágāo
Fried cake with fillings燙麵炸糕烫面炸糕tàngmiàn zhágāo
Fried sesame egg cake開口笑开口笑kāikǒuxiào The dish's name literally means "open mouth and laugh/smile".
Fried tofu with egg wrapping鍋塌豆腐锅塌豆腐guōtà dòufǔ
Jiaoquan焦圈焦圈JiāoquānShaped like fired doughnut, but has a crispier texture
Steamed egg cake碗糕碗糕wǎngāo
Sachima沙琪瑪沙琪玛sàqímǎChinese pastry of Manchu origin similar looking to Rice Krispies Treats but different in taste

Vegetarian

EnglishTraditional ChineseSimplified ChinesePinyinNotes
Baked sesame seed cake燒餅烧饼shāobǐng
Baked wheaten cake火燒火烧huǒshāo
Bean jelly涼粉凉粉liángfěn
Bean paste cake涼糕凉糕liánggāo
Beijing yoghurt奶酪奶酪nǎilào
Buckwheat cake扒糕扒糕pāgāo
Cake with bean paste filling豆餡燒餅豆馅烧饼dòuxiàn shāobǐng
Candied fruit蜜餞蜜饯mìjiàn
Chatang / Miancha / Youcha茶湯 / 麵茶 / 油茶茶汤 / 面茶 / 油茶chátāng / miànchá / yóuchá
Chestnut broth栗子羹ccc栗子羹lìzǐ gēng
Chestnut cake with bean paste栗子糕栗子糕lìzǐ gāo
Chinese cabbage in mustard芥末墩芥末墩jièmò dūn
Crisp fritter麻頁麻页máyè
Crisp fritter with sesame薄脆薄脆báocuì
Crisp noodle饊子馓子sǎnzǐ
Crisp thin fritter twist排叉排叉páichā
Deep-fried dough cake油餅油饼yóubǐng
Dried fermented mung bean juice麻豆腐麻豆腐má dòufǔ
Dried soy milk cream in tight rolls腐竹腐竹fǔzhú
Fermented mung bean juice豆汁豆汁dòuzhī
Freshwater snail-shaped cake螺螄轉螺蛳转luósī zhuǎn
Fried cake炸糕炸糕zhágāo
Fried cake glazed in malt sugar蜜三刀蜜三刀mìsāndāo
Fried dough twist麻花麻花máhuā
Fried ring焦圈焦圈jiāoquān
Fried sugar cake糖耳朵糖耳朵táng ěrduō
Fuling pancake sandwich茯苓夾餅茯苓夹饼fúlíng jiábǐng
Glazed / candied Chinese yam拔絲山藥拔丝山药básī shānyào
Glazed steamed glutinous rice cake水晶糕水晶糕shuǐjīng gāo
Glazed thin pancake with Chinese yam and jujube stuffing糖卷果糖卷果táng juǎnguǒ
Glutinous rice ball艾窩窩艾窝窝àiwōwō
Glutinous rice cake切糕切糕qiēgāo
Glutinous rice cake roll卷糕卷糕juǎngāo
Hawthorn cake京糕京糕jīnggāo
Honeycomb cake蜂糕蜂糕fēnggāo
Iced fruit冰果冰果bīngguǒ
Jellied beancurd豆腐腦豆腐脑dòufǔ nǎo
Kidney bean roll芸豆卷芸豆卷yúndòujuǎn
Lama cake喇嘛糕喇嘛糕lǎmā gāo
Millet zongzi粽子粽子zòngzǐ
Mung bean cake綠豆糕绿豆糕lǜdòu gāo
Noodle roll銀絲卷银丝卷yínsījuǎn
Pancake烙餅烙饼làobǐng
Pease pudding豌豆黃豌豆黄wāndòu huáng
Preserved fruit果脯果脯guǒpú
Purple vine cake藤蘿餅藤萝饼téngluó bǐng
Rice and jujube cake甑糕甑糕zènggāo
Rice and white kidney bean cake with jujube盆糕盆糕péngāo
Rice cake with bean paste花糕花糕huāgāo
Shortening cake牛舌餅牛舌饼níushé bǐng
Soybean flour cake豆麵糕豆面糕dòumiàn gāo
Stir fried hawthorn炒紅果炒红果chǎohóngguǒ
Stir-fried starch knots燒疙瘩炒疙瘩chǎo gēdā
Suncake太陽糕太阳糕tàiyáng gāoNot to be confused with Taiwanese suncake, whose name in Chinese is (太阳饼; 太陽餅; tàiyáng bǐng) translates more literally as "sun cookie".
Sweet flour cake墩餑餑墩饽饽dūnbōbō
Sweet hard flour cake硬麵餑餑硬面饽饽yìngmiàn bōbō
Sweet potato starch jelly粉皮粉皮fěnpí
Sweetened baked wheaten cake糖火燒糖火烧táng huǒshāo
Tanghulu糖葫蘆糖葫芦táng húlú
Tangyuan湯圓汤圆tāngyuán
Thin millet flour pancake煎餅煎饼jiānbǐng
Thin pancake薄餅薄饼báobǐng
Thin pancake of lard油皮油皮yóupí
Thousand-layered cake千層糕千层糕qiāncéng gāo
Veggie roll春餅卷菜春饼卷菜chūnbǐng juǎncàiNot to be confused with spring rolls.
Watermelon jelly西瓜酪西瓜酪xīguā lào
Wotou窝头窝头wōtóu
Xing ren cha杏仁茶杏仁茶xìngrén chá
Xingren doufu杏仁豆腐杏仁豆腐xìngrén dòufǔ
Yellow cake黃糕黄糕huánggāo

Restaurants known for Beijing cuisine

Numerous traditional restaurants in Beijing are credited with great contributions in the formation of Beijing cuisine, but many of them have gone out of business as time went by.[1][2][3][4][6][8][9][10][11][12][13] However, some of them managed to survive until today, and some of them are:

  • Bai Kui (白魁): established in 1780
  • Bao Du Feng (爆肚冯): established in 1881, also known as Ji Sheng Long (金生隆)
  • Bianyifang: established in 1416, the oldest surviving restaurant in Beijing
  • Cha Tang Li (茶汤李), established in 1858
  • Dao Xiang Chun (稻香春): established in 1916
  • Dao Xian Cun (稻香村): established in 1895
  • De Shun Zhai (大顺斋): established in the early 1870s
  • Dong Lai Shun (东来顺): established in 1903
  • Dong Xin Shun (东兴顺): also known as Bao Du Zhang (爆肚张), established in 1883
  • Du Yi Chu (都一处): established in 1738
  • Dou Fu Nao Bai (豆腐脑白): established in 1877, also known as Xi Yu Zhai (西域斋)
  • En Yuan Ju (恩元居), established in 1929
  • Fang Sheng Zhai (芳生斋), also known as Nai Lao Wei (奶酪魏), established in 1857
  • Hong Bin Lou (鸿宾楼): established in 1853 in Tianjin, relocated to Beijing in 1955.
  • Jin Sheng Long (金生隆): established in 1846
  • Kao Rou Ji (烤肉季): established in 1828
  • Kao Rou Wan (烤肉宛): established in 1686
  • Liu Bi Ju (六必居) established in 1530
  • Liu Quan Ju (柳泉居): established in the late 1560s, the second oldest surviving restaurant in Beijing
  • Nan Lai Shun (南来顺): established in 1937
  • Nian Gao Qian (年糕钱): established in early 1880s
  • Quanjude (全聚德): established in 1864
  • Rui Bin Lou (瑞宾楼): originally established in 1876
  • Sha Guoo Ju (砂锅居), established in 1741
  • Tian Fu Hao (天福号): established in 1738
  • Tian Xing Ju (天兴居):, established in 1862
  • Tian Yuan Jian Yuan (天源酱园): established in 1869
  • Wang Zhi He (王致和): established in 1669
  • Wonton Hou (馄饨侯): established in 1949
  • Xi De Shun (西德顺): also known as Bao Du Wang (爆肚王), established in 1904
  • Xi Lai Shun (西来顺): established in 1930
  • Xian Bing Zhou (馅饼周): established in 1910s, also known as Tong Ju Guan (同聚馆)
  • Xiao Chang Chen (小肠陈): established in the late 19th century
  • Xin Yuan Zhai (信远斋), established in 1740
  • Yang Tou Man (羊头马): established in the late 1830s
  • Yi Tiao Long (壹条龙): established in 1785

References

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  7. Lo, Eileen Yin-Fei (1999). "Chinese Classics", The Chinese Kitchen, calligraphy by San Yan Wong, 1st Edition, New York, New York: William Morrow and Company, 416. ISBN 0-688-15826-9.
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