Battle of Antivari
|Battle of Antivari|
|Part of the Mediterranean Theater of World War I|
The Austro-Hungarian cruiser SMS Zenta was sunk in the battle by Courbet.
|Commanders and leaders|
2 dreadnought battleships,|
10 pre-dreadnought battleships,
4 armoured cruisers,
1 protected cruiser,
1 Protected cruiser,|
|Casualties and losses|
1 light cruiser sunk|
1 destroyer lightly damaged
The Battle of Antivari or Action off Antivari was a naval engagement between the French, British and two ships of the Austro-Hungarian navy at the start of World War I. The old Austrian protected cruiser SMS Zenta and the destroyer SMS Ulan were blockading the Montenegrin port of Antivari, when on 16 August 1914 they were surprised and cut off by a large Anglo-French force that had sortied into the Adriatic. The two Austrian vessels were forced to fight an engagement in order to attempt to free themselves. Although Zenta was destroyed, Ulan escaped and those ships of the Austrian fleet which were at Cattaro did not come out of port to meet the Allied fleet. After blockading the Adriatic for a short while the French were forced to withdraw due to lack of supplies.
When war broke out between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Montenegro, the Austro-Hungarians began a blockade of the Montenegrin coast as well as several bombardments of the various towns and cities there. The French Navy had decided to try to force the Austro-Hungarian Navy into a decisive fleet action by making a sortie into the Adriatic and bait the Austrians into engaging them. The Allied force consisted of two dreadnought battleships, 10 pre-dreadnought battleships, four armoured cruisers, one protected cruiser and more than 20 destroyers. However, according to Austro-Hungarian Naval records they were unaware of their presence until SMS Uhlan radioed them as she escaped from the battle.
The Allied Fleet managed to cut off Zenta from escaping back to the main Austro-Hungarian naval base at Cattaro. Badly outnumbered, Zenta's commander, Captain Paul Paschner, decided to fight in order to allow Ulan to escape. Zenta also had a serious disadvantage: her 120 mm guns were significantly outranged by the heavier enemy batteries. As an inevitable result, the French battleships scored many hits on their target without taking any damage themselves. Eventually, Zenta sank with 173 men killed and over 50 wounded, but she did succeed in buying enough time for Ulan to escape.
Despite Zenta being cut off, the main body of the Austro-Hungarian fleet did not sortie out to do battle as the French had hoped. Still, the action had, for the moment, ended the blockade on Montenegro.
The French fleet did not have the logistical support to remain in the Adriatic for very long and so were forced to return to Malta periodically to resupply.
Order of battle
- Courbet, dreadnought battleship, flagship
- Jean Bart, dreadnought battleship
- 1st Battle squadron
- Vérité, pre-dreadnought battleship
- Justice, pre-dreadnought battleship
- Démocratie, pre-dreadnought battleship
- Patrie, pre-dreadnought battleship
- République, pre-dreadnought battleship
- Victor Hugo, armoured cruiser
- Jules Ferry, armoured cruiser
- Jurien de la Gravière, protected cruiser
- 5 destroyer squadrons
- SMS Zenta, light cruiser, flagship
- SMS Ulan, destroyer
- Koburger, Jr., 2001 p. 33.
- Tucker 2014, p. 116
- Koburger, Jr., 2001 p. 35.
- Koburger, Jr., Charles W. The Central Powers in the Adriatic, 1914-1918: War in a Narrow Sea. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. ISBN 978-0-275-97071-0. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2014). World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection (illustrated, revised ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851099658.