Bamum script

Bamum
A book in the 6th Bamum script, ca. 1910.
Type
Languages Bamum
Time period
c. 1896, moribund c. 1931, revived c. 2007
Child systems
Bagam?
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Bamu, 435
Unicode alias
Bamum

The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century. They are notable for evolving from a pictographic system to a partially alphabetic syllabic script in the space of 14 years, from 1896 to 1910. Bamum type was cast in 1918, but the script fell into disuse around 1931. A project began around 2007 to revive the Bamum script.

History

In its initial form, Bamum script was a pictographic mnemonic aid (proto-writing) including 500 to 600 glyphs. As Njoya revised the script, he introduced logograms (word symbols). The sixth version, completed by 1910, is a semi-syllabary with 80 glyphs. It is also called a-ka-u-ku after its first four glyphs. The version in use by 1906 was called mbima[1].

The script was further refined in 1918, when Njoya had copper sorts cast for printing. The script fell into disuse in 1931 with the exile of Njoya to Yaoundé, Cameroon.[2]

At present, Bamum script is not in any significant use. However, the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project is attempting to modernize and revive the script. The project is based in the old Bamum capital of Foumban.[3]

Phase A

The initial form of Bamum script, called Lewa ("book"), was developed in 1896-7. It consisted of 465 pictograms (511 according to other sources) and 10 characters for the numbers 1-10. The writing direction could be top-to-bottom, left-to-right, or bottom-to-top. (Right-to-left was avoided because that was the direction of the Arabic script used by the neighboring Hausa people.)

Phase B

The second system, called Mbima ("mixed"), was developed in 1899-1900. It was a simplification of the first; Njoya omitted 72 characters but added 45 new ones. The writing direction was left-to-right in this and all subsequent phases.

Phase C

The third system, called Nyi Nyi Nfa' after its first three characters, was developed around 1902. This simplification omitted 56 characters, leaving 371 and 10 numbers. Njoya used this system to write his History of the Bamun People and in correspondence with his mother.

Phase D

The fourth system, called Rii Nyi Nsha Mfw' after its first four characters, was developed around 1907-8. It has 285 characters and 10 numbers and is a further simplification of the previous version.

Phase E

The fifth system, called Rii Nyi Mfw' Men, was also developed around 1907-8. It has 195 characters and 10 numbers and was used for a Bible translation. These first five systems are closely related: All were pictographic and progressive simplifications of the former.

Phase F

The sixth system, called A Ka U Ku after its first four characters, was developed around 1910. It has 82 characters and 10 numbers. This phase marks a shift to a mixed alphabetic and syllabic system allowing the expression of 160 phonemes. It was used to record births, marriages, deaths, and court rulings.

Phase G

The seventh and final system, called Mfemfe ("new") or A Ka U Ku Mfemfe, was developed around 1918. It has only 80 characters, ten of which double as both syllables and numbers. Like the previous system, this one is a mix of letters and syllables. Missing syllables are written using combinations of characters.

Description

The 80 glyphs of modern Bamum are not enough to represent all of the consonant-vowel syllables (C V syllables) of the language. This deficiency is made up for with a diacritic or by combining glyphs having CV1 and V2 values, for CV2. This makes the script alphabetic for syllables not directly covered by the syllabary. Adding the inherent vowel of the syllable voices a consonant: tu + u = /du/, fu + u = /vu/, ju + u = /ʒu/, ja + a = /ʒa/, ʃi + i = /ʒi/, puə + u = /bu/.

The two diacritics are a circumflex (ko'ndon) that may be added to any of the 80 glyphs, and a macron (tukwentis) that is restricted to a dozen. The circumflex generally has the effect of adding a glottal stop to the syllable, for instance is read /kaʔ/, though the vowel is shortened and any final consonant is dropped in the process, as in pûə /puʔ/ and kɛ̂t /kɛʔ/. Prenasalization is also lost: ɲʃâ /ʃaʔ/, ntê /teʔ/, ntûu /tuʔ/. Sometimes, however, the circumflex nasalizes the vowel: /nɛn/, /pin/, /rɛn/, jûʔ /jun/, mɔ̂ /mɔn/, ɲʒûə /jun/ (loss of NC as with glottal stop). Others are idiosyncratic: ɲʒə̂m /jəm/ (simple loss of NC), tə̂ /tɔʔ/ (vowel change), ɲî /ɲe/, riê /z/, /n/, ʃɯ̂x /jɯx/, nûə /ŋuə/, kɯ̂x /ɣɯ/, rə̂ /rɔ/, ŋkwə̂n /ŋuət/, fɔ̂m /mvɔp/, mbɛ̂n /pɛn/, /tɯ/, kpâ /ŋma/, /fy/, ɣɔ̂m /ŋɡɔm/.[4]

The macron is a 'killer stroke' that deletes the vowel from a syllable and so forms consonants and NC clusters (/nd, ŋɡ/) that can be used for syllable codas. Consonantal /n/ is used both as a coda and to prenasalize an initial consonant. The two irregularities with the macron are ɲʒūə, read as /j/, and ɔ̄, read as /ə/.

The script has distinctive punctuation, including a 'capitalization' mark (nʒɛmli), visually similar to an inverted question mark, for proper names, and a decimal system of ten digits; the old glyph for ten has been refashioned as a zero.

Modern syllabary (phase G)

Bamum syllabary (diacritics in gray)[5]
akaukuereɔnyiilapariirieleemee
ꚠ꛰ꚡ꛰ꚢ꛰ꚣ꛰ꚤ꛰ꚥ꛰ꚦ꛰ꚧ꛰ꚨ꛰ꚩ꛰ꚪ꛰ꚫ꛰ꚬ꛰ꚭ꛰ꚮ꛰ꚯ꛰
kaʔwuʔkuʔrɛntɔʔɔʔnyelaʔpaʔriʔzleʔmeʔ
ꚧ꛱
ə
taandaanʒəmmsuumuʃiisiʃɯxsɯxkyekɛtnuənunʒuəyɔʔ
ꚰ꛰ꚱ꛰ꚲ꛰ꚳ꛰ꚴ꛰ꚵ꛰ꚶ꛰ꚷ꛰ꚸ꛰ꚹ꛰ꚺ꛰ꚻ꛰ꚼ꛰ꚽ꛰ꚾ꛰ꚿ꛰
taʔndaʔyəmnsuʔmuʔʃiʔsiʔyɯxsɯʔkyeʔkeʔŋuənuʔyuənyɔʔ
ꚱ꛱ꚶ꛱ꚷ꛱ꚾ꛱
ndʃsy
ʃuyuyanʃakɯxpɯxnʒentepeferulumini
ꛀ꛰ꛁ꛰ꛂ꛰ꛃ꛰ꛄ꛰ꛅ꛰ꛆ꛰ꛇ꛰ꛈ꛰ꛉ꛰ꛊ꛰ꛋ꛰ꛌ꛰ꛍ꛰ꛎ꛰ꛏ꛰
ʃuʔyunyaʔʃaʔɣɯpɯʔnʒeʔteʔpüʔüʔpeʔfeʔruʔluʔmiʔnɛn
rɯxkɛnŋkwənŋgaŋaʃɔpuəfufɔmwanalipilɔʔ
ꛐ꛰ꛑ꛰ꛒ꛰ꛓ꛰ꛔ꛰ꛕ꛰ꛖ꛰ꛗ꛰ꛘ꛰ꛙ꛰ꛚ꛰ꛛ꛰ꛜ꛰ꛝ꛰ꛞ꛰ꛟ꛰
rɯʔkɛnŋuətŋgaʔŋaʔʃɔʔpuʔfuʔmvɔpwaʔnaʔliʔpinlɔʔkɔʔ
ꛔ꛱ꛖ꛱ꛘ꛱ꛛ꛱ꛜ꛱ꛟ꛱
ŋgʃfnlk
mbɛn
 
rɛn
 
mɛn
 
ma
 
ti
 
ki
 

1
mbaa
2
tɛt
3
kpa
4
tɛn
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
ɣɔm
0
ꛠ꛰ꛡ꛰ꛢ꛰ꛣ꛰ꛤ꛰ꛥ꛰ꛦ꛰ꛧ꛰ꛨ꛰ꛩ꛰ꛪ꛰ꛫ꛰ꛬ꛰ꛭ꛰ꛮ꛰ꛯ꛰
pɛnrɛnmɛnmaʔkiʔmɔnmbaʔtɛtŋmatɛntuʔsaʔfaʔŋgɔm
ꛤ꛱ꛦ꛱
tm

Punctuation

Bamum punctuation[5][6]
introduces proper names or
changes the meaning of a word[4]
.
period
 :
colon
,
comma
;
semicolon
?
question mark

Numbers

The last ten base characters in the syllabary are used for both letters and numbers:[5]

Bamum digits

1
mbaa
2
tɛt
3
kpa
4
tɛn
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
ɣɔm
0

Historically, was used for ten but was changed to zero when decimal mathematics were introduced.[5]

All versions (phases A–G)

Bamum characters found through Phase A
Phase
A
Interpretation Phase
A
Interpretation Phase
A
Interpretation Phase
A
Interpretation
𖠀ŋkü mfɔn𖠒ntɔʔpɛn𖠤mgbasa𖠶mɔɔmɯt
𖠁gbie fɔn𖠓kɯkɯtnda𖠥mɯnʒɔmndɯʔ𖠷ʃum
𖠂pɔn mfɔn pipəmgbie𖠔nkindi𖠦mɔɔmpuʔ𖠸lɔmmə
𖠃pɔn mfɔn pipəmba𖠕suu𖠧kafa𖠹fir'i
𖠄naa mfɔn𖠖ŋkünzɯm𖠨pa lerəwa𖠺rɔm
𖠅ʃünʃüt𖠗lapaʔ𖠩nda lerəwa𖠻kpɔʔ
𖠆tita mfɔn𖠘lɛt kut𖠪pɛt𖠼sɔʔ
𖠇nza mfɔn𖠙ntap mfaa𖠫məmkpɛn𖠽map piet
𖠈ʃinda pa nʒi𖠚məkɯp𖠬nika𖠾ʃirə
𖠉pɔn pa nʒi pipəmgbie𖠛paʃə𖠭pup𖠿ntap
𖠊pɔn pa nʒi pipəmba𖠜ɣɯərə𖠮tuəp𖡀ʃɔʔ nʃut yum
𖠋məmgbie𖠝pamʃə𖠯luəp𖡁nyit mɔŋkɯəʔ
𖠌tu məmba𖠞mɔn ŋgɯət𖠰sɔnʒam𖡂paarə
𖠍ŋaŋu𖠟nzun mɯt𖠱tɯtɯwɛn𖡃nkaarə
𖠎məmvɯx𖠠u yuʔ nə𖠲mənyi𖡄(unknown)
𖠏mansuə𖠡ɣɯəɣɯə𖠳kɛt
𖠐mvɯəŋam𖠢ntap ntaa𖠴ndaaŋgɯət
𖠑sɯnyam𖠣sisa𖠵kuɔʔ
AInterpretationAInterpretationAInterpretationAInterpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase B
PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation
ABABAB
𖡗𖡗nʃüt𖡨𖡨tu nsie𖡹𖡹mɯʔ
𖡘𖡘tu məmgbie𖡩𖡩ʃɛt nʒaʔ𖡺𖡺ŋguɔʔ ("small termite")
𖡙𖡙sie𖡪𖡪ʃɯəʔtu𖡻𖡻ŋguɔʔ ("large termite")
𖡚𖡚sɛt tu𖡫𖡫mfɔn tɯəʔ𖡼mfiyaʔ
𖡛𖡛lɔm ntɯm𖡬mbit mbaakɛt𖡽𖡽
𖡜𖡜mba məle𖡭𖡭nyi ntɯm𖡾𖡾mbɯri
𖡝𖡝kiem𖡮kɯpuʔ𖡿𖡿mɔntien
𖡞𖡞yɯrə𖡯𖡯ɣɯɣɛn𖢀𖢀nyəmə
𖡟𖡟mbaarə𖡰𖡰kɯyɯx𖢁𖢁puŋaam
𖡠𖡠kam𖡱𖡱laanə𖢂𖢂mɯt ŋget
𖡡𖡡peʃi𖡲𖡲parum𖢃𖢃fɯx
𖡢𖡢yafu lerəwa𖡳𖡳vɯm𖢄𖢄mbuɔʔ
𖡣𖡣lam nʃut nyam𖡴𖡴ŋkindi mvɔp𖢅𖢅fe
𖡤𖡤ntie ʃɯɔʔ𖡵𖡵ŋgɯ mbu𖢆kɯəm
𖡥𖡥ndu nʒaa𖡶𖡶wuət𖢇𖢇ma nʒɯəna
𖡦𖡦ɣɯɣɯəm𖢈𖢈ma nʒuʔa𖡷𖡷sakɯə
𖡧𖡧pit𖡸𖡸taam
ABInterpretationABInterpretationABInterpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase C
PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation
ABCABCABC
𖢏𖢏𖢏ŋkü məmba𖢫𖢫𖢫ndida𖣇𖣇𖣇nsuɔt ŋɔm
𖢐𖢐𖢐nza𖢬𖢬𖢬taaʃə𖣈𖣈𖣈nʒee
𖢑𖢑𖢑yum𖢭𖢭𖢭nʒüʔ𖣉𖣉𖣉kɛt
𖢒𖢒𖢒waŋkuɔʔ𖢮𖢮𖢮tita yü𖣊𖣊𖣊ŋgu
𖡅𖢓𖢓ŋgɛn𖢯𖢯𖢯suət𖡆𖣋𖣋məsi
𖢔𖢔𖢔ndɯəre𖢰𖢰𖢰ŋguən nyam𖣌𖣌mbuəm
𖢕𖢕𖢕ŋkaʔ𖢱𖢱𖢱vɯx𖣍𖣍𖣍lu
𖢖𖢖𖢖ɣarə𖢲𖢲𖢲nansanaʔ𖣎𖣎𖣎kut
𖢗𖢗𖢗mbeket𖢳𖢳𖢳ma kɯəri𖡇𖣏𖣏nʒam
𖢘𖢘𖢘gbayi𖢴𖢴𖢴ntaa𖣐𖣐𖣐ŋɔm
𖢙𖢙𖢙nyir mkparaʔ mɯn𖢵𖢵𖢵ŋguɔn𖣑𖣑𖣑wup
𖢚𖢚𖢚ntu mbit𖢶𖢶𖢶lap𖣒𖣒𖣒ŋguet
𖢛𖢛𖢛mbɯm𖢷𖢷𖢷mbirien𖣓𖣓𖣓nsɔm
𖢜𖢜𖢜pirien𖢸𖢸𖢸mgbasaʔ𖣔𖣔𖣔ntɛn
𖢝𖢝𖢝ndɔmbu𖢹𖢹𖢹ntɯngba𖣕𖣕𖣕kuɔp nkaarə
𖢞𖢞𖢞mbaa𖢺𖢺𖢺tɯtɯx𖣖𖣖𖣖nsun
𖢟𖢟𖢟kɯʃɯəp𖢻𖢻𖢻ŋgum𖣗𖣗𖣗ndam
𖢠𖢠𖢠ɣap𖢼𖢼𖢼𖣘𖣘𖣘ma nsie
𖢡𖢡𖢡kɯkaʔ𖢽𖢽𖢽ndɯt𖣙𖣙𖣙yaa
𖢢𖢢𖢢yu muɔmə𖢾𖢾𖢾nsa𖣚𖣚ndap
𖢣𖢣𖢣nzɯm𖢿𖢿𖢿nʃaʔ𖣛𖣛𖣛ʃüʔ
𖢤𖢤𖢤mbü𖣀𖣀𖣀buŋ𖣜𖣜𖣜ʃɛtfɔn
𖢥𖢥𖢥nsɯən𖣁𖣁𖣁vɯəpɛn𖣝𖣝mbi
𖢦𖢦𖢦mbit𖣂𖣂𖣂mbɛrə𖣞𖣞𖣞məmba
𖢧𖢧𖢧yɯʔ𖣃𖣃𖣃ru𖡈𖣟𖣟mbanyi
𖢨𖢨𖢨kparaʔ𖣄𖣄𖣄nʒəm𖣠𖣠𖣠kɯsɯx
𖢩𖢩𖢩kaa𖣅𖣅𖣅lam𖣡𖣡mbɯx
𖢪𖢪𖢪sɯx𖣆𖣆𖣆tituəp𖣢𖣢kɯm
ABCInterpretationABCInterpretationABCInterpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase D
PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation
ABCDABCD
𖣱𖣱𖣱𖣱mbuɔ 𖤝𖤝𖤝𖤝mfo
𖣲𖣲𖣲𖣲wap 𖤞𖤞𖤞lum
𖣳𖣳𖣳𖣳nʒi 𖤟𖤟𖤟𖤟nsiep
𖣴𖣴𖣴𖣴mfɔn 𖣣𖣣𖣣𖤠mbaa
𖣵𖣵𖣵𖣵nʒie 𖤡𖤡𖤡𖤡kwət
𖣶𖣶𖣶𖣶lie 𖡉𖤢𖤢𖤢nyɛt
𖣷𖣷𖣷nʒɯt 𖡊𖤣tɯən
𖣸𖣸𖣸nʃe 𖡋𖤤𖤤𖤤sɔt
𖣹𖣹𖣹𖣹ŋgaamə 𖣤𖣤𖣤𖤥yuwɔʔ
𖣺𖣺𖣺𖣺nyam 𖤦𖤦𖤦𖤦kɯm
𖣻𖣻𖣻𖣻wuən 𖤧𖤧𖤧𖤧rəm
𖣼𖣼𖣼𖣼ŋkun 𖤨𖤨𖤨𖤨tee
𖣽𖣽𖣽𖣽ʃe 𖤩𖤩𖤩𖤩ŋkɯəʔ
𖣾𖣾𖣾𖣾ŋkap 𖤪𖤪𖤪𖤪mfɯə
𖣿𖣿𖣿𖣿kɯətmɯn 𖤫𖤫𖤫𖤫nsiet
𖤀𖤀𖤀tɯt 𖤬𖤬𖤬𖤬kɯp
𖤁𖤁𖤁𖤁ʃɯə 𖤭𖤭𖤭𖤭pip
𖤂𖤂𖤂𖤂nʒap 𖤮𖤮𖤮𖤮pɯtə
𖤃𖤃𖤃𖤃 𖤯𖤯𖤯𖤯nyü
𖤄𖤄𖤄𖤄kɛt 𖢉𖢉𖤰𖤰lɛt
𖤅𖤅𖤅yəmmə 𖢊𖤱𖤱ŋgaam
𖤆𖤆𖤆kuɔm 𖤲𖤲𖤲𖤲mfie
𖤇𖤇𖤇𖤇sap 𖤳𖤳𖤳ŋgwən
𖤈𖤈𖤈𖤈mfɯt 𖤴𖤴𖤴yuɔm
𖤉𖤉𖤉𖤉ndɯx 𖤵𖤵𖤵pap
𖤊𖤊𖤊𖤊maleri 𖤶𖤶𖤶𖤶yuɔp
𖤋𖤋𖤋𖤋mɯt 𖤷𖤷𖤷𖤷ndam
𖤌𖤌𖤌𖤌sɯəʔ 𖤸𖤸𖤸𖤸ntɯm
𖤍𖤍𖤍𖤍yɛn 𖤹𖤹𖤹𖤹suə
𖤎𖤎𖤎𖤎nʒɯəm 𖤺𖤺𖤺𖤺kun
𖤏𖤏𖤏𖤏kɯɔt mbuə 𖤻𖤻𖤻𖤻ŋgɯx
𖤐𖤐𖤐𖤐ŋkɯri 𖤼𖤼𖤼𖤼ŋkie
𖤑𖤑𖤑tu 𖤽𖤽𖤽𖤽tuɔt
𖤒𖤒𖤒𖤒ɣaa 𖤾𖤾𖤾𖤾mɯn
𖤓𖤓𖤓𖤓ŋkye 𖤿𖤿𖤿kuʔ
𖤔𖤔𖤔𖤔fɯfɯət 𖥀𖥀𖥀nsum
𖤕𖤕𖤕𖤕nde 𖥁𖥁𖥁𖥁tɯn
𖤖𖤖𖤖𖤖mgbɔfum 𖥂𖥂𖥂𖥂mənʒɛt
𖤗𖤗𖤗lɯəp 𖥃𖥃𖥃𖥃ŋgap
𖤘𖤘𖤘𖤘ndɔn 𖥄𖥄𖥄lɯm
𖤙𖤙𖤙𖤙mɔni 𖥅𖥅𖥅𖥅ŋguɔm
𖤚𖤚𖤚mgbɯn 𖥆𖥆𖥆𖥆nʃut
𖤛𖤛𖤛𖤛puut 𖥇𖥇𖥇𖥇nʒüʔ
𖤜𖤜𖤜𖤜mgbie
ABCDInterpretationABCDInterpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase E
PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation
ABCDEABCDE
𖥦𖥦𖥦𖥦𖥦ndap 𖦝𖦝𖦝𖦝𖦝vɯə
𖥧𖥧𖥧𖥧𖥧tɔɔn 𖦞𖦞𖦞𖦞𖦞wɯx
𖥨𖥨𖥨𖥨𖥨mbɯm 𖦟𖦟𖦟𖦟𖦟laam
𖥩𖥩𖥩𖥩𖥩lap 𖦠𖦠𖦠𖦠𖦠pu
𖥪𖥪𖥪𖥪𖥪vɔm 𖦡𖦡𖦡𖦡𖦡taaʔ
𖥫𖥫𖥫𖥫𖥫lɔn 𖦢𖦢𖦢𖦢𖦢ɣaamə
𖥬𖥬𖥬𖥬𖥬paa 𖦣𖦣𖦣𖦣ŋɯrɯt
𖥭𖥭𖥭𖥭𖥭sɔm 𖦤𖦤𖦤𖦤𖦤ʃɯəʔ
𖥮𖥮𖥮𖥮𖥮raʔ 𖦥𖦥𖦥𖦥𖦥mgbɛn
𖥯𖥯𖥯𖥯𖥯nʃuɔp 𖦦𖦦𖦦𖦦mbe
𖥰𖥰𖥰𖥰𖥰ndun 𖦧𖦧𖦧𖦧𖦧nzaʔ
𖥱𖥱𖥱𖥱𖥱puə 𖦨𖦨𖦨𖦨𖦨nkɔm
𖥲𖥲𖥲𖥲𖥲tam 𖦩𖦩𖦩𖦩𖦩gbɛt
𖥳𖥳𖥳𖥳𖥳ŋka 𖦪𖦪𖦪𖦪𖦪tum
𖥴𖥴𖥴𖥴𖥴kpɯx 𖦫𖦫𖦫𖦫𖦫küt
𖥵𖥵𖥵𖥵𖥵wuɔ 𖦬𖦬𖦬𖦬yap
𖥶𖥶𖥶𖥶se 𖡏𖦭𖦭𖦭𖦭nyi
𖥷𖥷𖥷𖥷𖥷ŋgɯət 𖦮𖦮𖦮𖦮𖦮yit
𖡌𖥸𖥸𖥸𖥸paam 𖦯𖦯𖦯𖦯mfɯʔ
𖥹𖥹𖥹𖥹𖥹tɔɔ 𖦰𖦰𖦰𖦰𖦰ndiaʔ
𖥺𖥺𖥺𖥺𖥺kuɔp 𖦱𖦱𖦱𖦱𖦱pieʔ
𖥻𖥻𖥻𖥻𖥻lɔm 𖦲𖦲𖦲𖦲𖦲yüʔ
𖡍𖥼𖥼𖥼𖥼nʃie 𖦳𖦳𖦳𖦳𖦳lɯəm
𖥽𖥽𖥽𖥽𖥽ŋgɔp 𖦴𖦴𖦴𖦴𖦴
𖡎𖥾𖥾𖥾𖥾məm 𖦵𖦵𖦵𖦵𖦵gbɯx
𖥿𖥿𖥿𖥿𖥿ŋkɯx 𖦶𖦶𖦶𖦶𖦶ŋkup
𖦀𖦀𖦀𖦀𖦀ŋɔʔ 𖦷𖦷𖦷𖦷𖦷kɛt
𖦁𖦁𖦁𖦁𖦁nʃü 𖦸𖦸𖦸𖦸𖦸
𖦂𖦂𖦂𖦂𖦂rimgba 𖦹𖦹𖦹𖦹ŋkaami
𖣥𖣥𖣥𖦃𖦃nʒɯx 𖦺𖦺𖦺𖦺𖦺ɣɛt
𖢋𖢋𖡲𖡲𖡲nsɛn 𖦻𖦻𖦻𖦻𖦻fa
𖦄𖦄𖦄𖦄𖦄pem 𖦼𖦼𖦼𖦼𖦼ntum
𖦅𖦅𖦅𖦅𖦅saa 𖦽𖦽𖦽𖦽𖦽pɯt
𖦆𖦆𖦆𖦆𖦆ŋgurə 𖦾𖦾𖦾𖦾𖦾yɯm
𖦇𖦇𖦇𖦇𖦇mgba 𖦿𖦿𖦿𖦿𖦿ŋgɯə
𖦈𖦈𖦈𖦈𖦈ɣɯx 𖧀𖧀𖧀𖧀𖧀nyi
𖦉𖦉𖦉𖦉𖦉ŋkɯəm 𖧁𖧁𖧁𖧁𖧁nzuʔ
𖦊𖦊𖦊𖦊𖦊nʒəmli 𖧂𖧂𖧂𖧂𖧂pɔɔn
𖦋𖦋𖦋𖦋𖦋map 𖣦𖣦𖣦𖧃𖧃mie
𖦌𖦌𖦌𖦌𖦌lɔɔt 𖧄𖧄𖧄𖧄𖧄füt
𖦍𖦍ŋgee 𖧅𖧅𖧅𖧅𖧅
𖦎𖦎𖦎𖦎𖦎ndiʔ 𖣧𖣧𖣧𖧆𖧆muə
𖦏𖦏𖦏𖦏𖦏tən ntɯm 𖥈𖥈𖥈𖥈𖧇ɣɯə
𖦐𖦐𖦐𖦐𖦐sɛt 𖧈𖧈𖧈𖧈𖧈fu i
𖦑𖦑𖦑𖦑𖦑pum 𖧉𖧉𖧉𖧉𖧉mvi
𖦒𖦒ndaa 𖧊𖧊𖧊𖧊𖧊puaʔ
𖦓𖦓𖦓𖦓𖦓ŋguəʃə nyam 𖧋𖧋𖧋ŋkum
𖦔𖦔𖦔𖦔𖦔yie 𖧌𖧌𖧌𖧌kut
𖦕𖦕𖦕𖦕𖦕ɣɯn 𖧍𖧍𖧍𖧍𖧍piɛt
𖦖𖦖𖦖𖦖𖦖tuə 𖧎𖧎𖧎𖧎𖧎ntap
𖦗𖦗𖦗𖦗𖦗yɯə 𖧏𖧏𖧏𖧏𖧏yɯət
𖦘𖦘𖦘𖦘𖦘 𖧐𖧐𖧐𖧐𖧐ŋgup
𖦙𖦙𖦙𖦙𖦙tumə 𖧑𖧑𖧑𖧑𖧑pa
𖦚𖦚𖦚𖦚𖦚kɯə 𖧒fu
𖦛𖦛𖦛𖦛suən 𖧓𖧓𖧓𖧓fɔm
𖦜𖦜𖦜𖦜𖦜tɯəʔ 𖧔nʒe
ABCDEInterpretationABCDEInterpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase G
PhaseInterpretation PhaseInterpretation
ABCDEFGABCDEFG
𖧕𖧕𖧕𖧕𖧕a 𖧪𖧪𖧪𖧪𖧪𖨡
ꚠ꛰ꚠ꛰a 𖨡꛰ꛉ꛰üʔ
𖨃𖨃𖨃𖨃𖨃𖨃ka 𖥚𖥚𖥚𖥚𖨢𖨢pe
𖡐𖨃꛰ꚡ꛰kaʔ 𖨢꛰ꛊ꛰peʔ
𖨄𖨄𖨄𖨄𖨄𖨄u 𖧫𖧫𖧫𖧫𖧫𖦓fe
𖨄꛰ꚢ꛰wuʔ 𖡒𖧬𖧬𖧬𖧬ve
𖥉𖥉𖥉𖥉𖨅𖨅ku 𖦓꛰ꛋ꛰feʔ
𖨅꛰ꚣ꛰kuʔ
𖨆𖨆𖨆𖨆𖨆𖨆e 𖨣𖨣𖨣𖨣𖨣𖨣ru
𖨆꛰ꚤ꛰ 𖨣꛰ꛌ꛰ruʔ
𖨇𖨇𖨇𖨇𖨇re 𖡓𖧭𖧭𖧭𖧭lu
𖥊𖥊𖥊𖥊𖨇꛰ꚥ꛰rɛn ꛍ꛰ꛍ꛰luʔ
𖥋𖥋𖥋𖥋𖨈 𖧮𖧮𖧮𖧮𖧮mi
𖥌𖥌𖥌𖥌𖧖𖨈꛰ꚦ꛰tɔʔ ꛎ꛰ꛎ꛰miʔ
𖧗𖧗𖧗𖧗𖧗𖦑ɔ 𖥛𖥛𖥛𖥛𖨤𖨤n'i
𖦑꛰ꚧ꛰ɔʔ 𖡔𖨤꛰ꛏ꛰nɛn
𖥍𖥍𖥍𖥍𖧀𖨉nyi 𖧯𖧯𖧯𖧯𖧯𖨥rɯx
𖨉꛰ꚨ꛰nye 𖨥꛰ꛐ꛰rɯʔ
𖧘𖧘𖧘𖧘𖧘𖥦i 𖧰𖧰𖧰𖧰𖧰𖥱
𖥦꛰ꚩ꛰ 𖥱꛰ꛑ꛰
𖨊la 𖣩𖣩𖣩𖨦𖨦𖨦kɛn
𖧙𖧙𖧙𖧙𖧙𖨊꛰ꚪ꛰laʔ 𖣪𖣪𖣪𖨦꛰ꛒ꛰kɛn (with high tone)
𖧚𖧚𖧚𖧚𖧚𖥯pa 𖨧𖨧𖨧𖨧ŋkwən
𖥯꛰ꚫ꛰paʔ 𖧱𖧱𖧱𖧱𖧱𖨧꛰ꛓ꛰ŋuət
𖥎𖥎𖥎𖥎𖨋𖨋rii 𖨨𖨨𖨨𖨨𖨨𖨨ŋga
𖨋꛰ꚬ꛰riʔ 𖨨꛰ꛔ꛰ŋgaʔ
𖨌𖨌𖨌𖨌𖨌𖨌rie 𖧲𖧲𖧲𖧲𖧲𖥮ŋa
𖨌꛰ꚭ꛰z 𖣫𖣫𖣫𖥮꛰ꛕ꛰ŋaʔ
𖥏𖥏𖥏𖥏𖤰𖤰lee 𖧳𖧳𖧳𖨩ʃɔ
𖤰꛰ꚮ꛰leʔ 𖥜𖥜𖥜𖥜𖧴𖨩꛰ꛖ꛰ʃɔʔ
𖥐𖥐𖥐𖥐𖨍𖨍mee 𖨪𖨪𖨪𖨪𖨪𖨪puə
𖥐𖨍꛰ꚯ꛰meʔ 𖥝𖥝𖥝𖥝𖦠𖨪꛰ꛗ꛰puʔ
𖧛𖧛𖧛𖧛𖧛𖨎taa 𖧵𖧵𖧵𖧵𖧵𖧒fu
𖧜𖧜𖧜𖧜𖧜𖨎꛰ꚰ꛰taʔ 𖧒꛰ꛘ꛰fuʔ
𖧝𖧝𖧝𖧝𖧝𖨏ndaa 𖨫𖨫fɔm
𖨏꛰ꚱ꛰ndaʔ 𖥞𖥞𖥞𖥞𖨫꛰ꛙ꛰mvɔp
𖨐𖨐𖨐𖨐𖨐𖨐nʒəm 𖨬𖨬𖨬𖨬𖨬wa
𖨐꛰ꚲ꛰yəm 𖨬꛰ꛚ꛰waʔ
𖥑𖥑𖥑𖥑𖨑𖨑m 𖧶𖧶𖧶𖧶𖧶na
𖨑ꚳ꛰n 𖡕𖣬𖣬ꛛ꛰ꛛ꛰naʔ
𖥒𖥒𖥒𖥒𖨒𖨒suu 𖨭𖨭𖨭𖨭𖨭𖨭li
𖨒꛰ꚴ꛰suʔ 𖣭𖣭𖣭𖨭꛰ꛜ꛰liʔ
𖥓𖥓𖥓𖥓𖤱𖤱mu 𖧷𖧷𖧷𖧷𖧷𖧡pi
𖤱꛰ꚵ꛰muʔ 𖣮𖣮𖣮𖧡꛰ꛝ꛰pin
𖥔𖥔𖥔𖥔𖨓𖨓ʃii 𖥟𖥟𖥟𖥟𖨮𖨮lɔʔ
𖣨𖣨𖣨𖧞𖧞𖨓꛰ꚶ꛰ʃiʔ 𖧸𖧸𖧸𖧸𖧸𖨮꛰ꛞ꛰lɔʔ
𖨔𖨔𖨔𖨔𖨔𖨔si 𖧹𖧹𖧹𖧹𖨯
𖨔꛰ꚷ꛰siʔ 𖨯꛰ꛟ꛰kɔʔ
𖥕𖥕𖥕𖥕ʃɯx 𖨰𖨰𖨰𖨰𖨰𖨰mbɛn
𖧟𖧟𖧟𖧟𖧟ꚸ꛰ꚸ꛰yɯx 𖣯𖣯𖣗𖨰꛰ꛠ꛰pɛn
𖨕𖨕𖨕𖨕𖨕𖨕sɯx 𖥠𖥠𖥠𖥠𖨱𖨱rɛn
𖨕꛰ꚹ꛰sɯʔ 𖨱꛰ꛡ꛰rɛn
𖥖𖥖𖥖𖥖𖨖𖨖kye 𖧺𖧺𖧺𖧺𖧺𖥩mɛn
𖨖꛰ꚺ꛰kyeʔ 𖥩꛰ꛢ꛰mɛn
𖨗𖨗𖨗𖨗𖨗𖨗kɛt 𖢌𖧻𖧻𖧻𖨲ma
𖨗꛰ꚻ꛰keʔ 𖧼𖧼𖧼𖧼𖧼𖨲꛰ꛣ꛰maʔ
𖨘𖨘𖨘𖨘𖨘𖨘nuə 𖥡𖥡𖥡𖥡𖣻𖣻ti
𖧠𖧠𖧠𖧠𖧠𖨘꛰ꚼ꛰ŋuə 𖧽𖧽𖧽𖧽𖧽𖣻꛰ꛤ꛰
𖥗𖥗𖥗𖨙𖨙nu 𖧾𖧾𖧾𖧾𖧾ki
𖨙ꚽ꛰nuʔ 𖢍𖢍ꛥ꛰ꛥ꛰kiʔ
𖨚𖨚𖨚𖨚𖨚𖨚nʒuə 𖨳𖨳𖨳𖨳𖨳𖨳
𖧡𖧡𖧡𖧡𖧡𖨚꛰ꚾ꛰yuən 𖧿𖧿𖧿𖨳꛰ꛦ꛰mɔn
𖧢𖧢𖧢𖧢𖨛yɔʔ ("swimming") 𖨴𖨴𖨴𖨴𖨴𖨴mbaa
𖧣𖧣𖧣𖧣𖧣𖨛꛰ꚿ꛰yɔʔ ("cover") 𖡖𖨴꛰ꛧ꛰mbaʔ
𖥘𖥘𖥘𖥘𖨜𖨜ʃu 𖨵𖨵𖨵𖨵𖨵𖨵tɛt
𖨜꛰ꛀ꛰ʃuʔ 𖣰𖣰𖨵꛰ꛨ꛰tɛt (with high tone)
𖧤𖧤𖧤𖧤𖧤yuʔ 𖨶𖨶𖨶𖨶𖨶𖨶kpa
𖧥𖧥𖧥𖧥𖧥ꛁ꛰ꛁ꛰yun 𖨶꛰ꛩ꛰ŋma
𖨝𖨝𖨝𖨝𖨝𖨝ya 𖨀𖨀𖨀𖨀𖨀𖦨tɛn
𖨝꛰ꛂ꛰yaʔ 𖦨꛰ꛪ꛰tɛn
𖡑𖨞𖨞𖨞𖨞𖨞nʃa 𖥢𖥢𖥢𖥢𖥣𖥣ntuu
𖨞꛰ꛃ꛰ʃaʔ 𖥣꛰ꛫ꛰tuʔ
𖧦𖧦𖧦𖧦𖥮kɯx 𖦅𖥣𖦅𖥣𖦅𖥣𖦅𖥣𖨷𖨷samba
𖥮꛰ꛄ꛰ɣɯ 𖥤𖥤𖥤𖥤𖨷꛰ꛬ꛰saʔ
𖧧𖧧𖧧𖧧𖧧𖨟pɯx 𖥥𖦸𖥥𖦸𖥥𖦸𖥥𖦸𖤩faamə
𖨟꛰ꛆ꛰pɯʔ 𖨁𖨁𖨁𖨁𖨁𖤩꛰ꛭ꛰faʔ
𖧨𖧨𖧨𖧨𖧨𖧔nʒe 𖧹𖨸𖧹𖨸𖧹𖨸𖧹𖨸𖨸𖨸kɔvü
𖧔꛰ꛆ꛰nʒeʔ 𖨸꛰ꛮ꛰
𖥙𖥙𖥙𖥙𖨠𖨠nte 𖧹𖨂𖧹𖨂𖧹𖨂𖧹𖨂𖨂𖧾ɣɔm
𖨠꛰ꛇ꛰teʔ 𖢎𖢎𖧾꛰ꛯ꛰ŋgɔm
𖧩𖧩𖧩𖧩𖧩𖥰
𖥰꛰ꛈ꛰püʔ
ABCDEFGInterpretationABCDEFGInterpretation

Unicode

Bamum's 88 characters were added to the Unicode standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. Bamum Unicode character names are based on the International Phonetic Alphabet forms given in L’écriture des Bamum (1950) by Idelette Dugast and M.D.W. Jeffreys:[5]

UsageLetters
Dugast & Jeffreysabdɛeǝfɣgiklmnŋɔ
Unicode nameABDEEEAEFGHGIKLMNNGO
Frenchabdèéefghgiklmnngo
Dugast & Jeffreysprsʃtuüɯvwxyzʒʔ
Unicode namePRSSHTUUEEUVWXYZJQ
Frenchprsshtuüùvwxyzj

The Unicode block for Bamum is U+A6A0U+A6FF:

Bamum[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+A6Ax
U+A6Bx
U+A6Cx
U+A6Dx
U+A6Ex
U+A6Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Historical stages of Bamum script were added to Unicode in October, 2010 with the release of version 6.0. These are encoded in the Bamum Supplement block as U+16800U+16A3F. The various stages of script development are dubbed "Phase-A" to "Phase-E". The character names note the last phase in which they appear. For example, U+168EE 𖣮 BAMUM LETTER PHASE-C PIN is attested through Phase C but not in Phase D.

Bamum Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+1680x 𖠀 𖠁 𖠂 𖠃 𖠄 𖠅 𖠆 𖠇 𖠈 𖠉 𖠊 𖠋 𖠌 𖠍 𖠎 𖠏
U+1681x 𖠐 𖠑 𖠒 𖠓 𖠔 𖠕 𖠖 𖠗 𖠘 𖠙 𖠚 𖠛 𖠜 𖠝 𖠞 𖠟
U+1682x 𖠠 𖠡 𖠢 𖠣 𖠤 𖠥 𖠦 𖠧 𖠨 𖠩 𖠪 𖠫 𖠬 𖠭 𖠮 𖠯
U+1683x 𖠰 𖠱 𖠲 𖠳 𖠴 𖠵 𖠶 𖠷 𖠸 𖠹 𖠺 𖠻 𖠼 𖠽 𖠾 𖠿
U+1684x 𖡀 𖡁 𖡂 𖡃 𖡄 𖡅 𖡆 𖡇 𖡈 𖡉 𖡊 𖡋 𖡌 𖡍 𖡎 𖡏
U+1685x 𖡐 𖡑 𖡒 𖡓 𖡔 𖡕 𖡖 𖡗 𖡘 𖡙 𖡚 𖡛 𖡜 𖡝 𖡞 𖡟
U+1686x 𖡠 𖡡 𖡢 𖡣 𖡤 𖡥 𖡦 𖡧 𖡨 𖡩 𖡪 𖡫 𖡬 𖡭 𖡮 𖡯
U+1687x 𖡰 𖡱 𖡲 𖡳 𖡴 𖡵 𖡶 𖡷 𖡸 𖡹 𖡺 𖡻 𖡼 𖡽 𖡾 𖡿
U+1688x 𖢀 𖢁 𖢂 𖢃 𖢄 𖢅 𖢆 𖢇 𖢈 𖢉 𖢊 𖢋 𖢌 𖢍 𖢎 𖢏
U+1689x 𖢐 𖢑 𖢒 𖢓 𖢔 𖢕 𖢖 𖢗 𖢘 𖢙 𖢚 𖢛 𖢜 𖢝 𖢞 𖢟
U+168Ax 𖢠 𖢡 𖢢 𖢣 𖢤 𖢥 𖢦 𖢧 𖢨 𖢩 𖢪 𖢫 𖢬 𖢭 𖢮 𖢯
U+168Bx 𖢰 𖢱 𖢲 𖢳 𖢴 𖢵 𖢶 𖢷 𖢸 𖢹 𖢺 𖢻 𖢼 𖢽 𖢾 𖢿
U+168Cx 𖣀 𖣁 𖣂 𖣃 𖣄 𖣅 𖣆 𖣇 𖣈 𖣉 𖣊 𖣋 𖣌 𖣍 𖣎 𖣏
U+168Dx 𖣐 𖣑 𖣒 𖣓 𖣔 𖣕 𖣖 𖣗 𖣘 𖣙 𖣚 𖣛 𖣜 𖣝 𖣞 𖣟
U+168Ex 𖣠 𖣡 𖣢 𖣣 𖣤 𖣥 𖣦 𖣧 𖣨 𖣩 𖣪 𖣫 𖣬 𖣭 𖣮 𖣯
U+168Fx 𖣰 𖣱 𖣲 𖣳 𖣴 𖣵 𖣶 𖣷 𖣸 𖣹 𖣺 𖣻 𖣼 𖣽 𖣾 𖣿
U+1690x 𖤀 𖤁 𖤂 𖤃 𖤄 𖤅 𖤆 𖤇 𖤈 𖤉 𖤊 𖤋 𖤌 𖤍 𖤎 𖤏
U+1691x 𖤐 𖤑 𖤒 𖤓 𖤔 𖤕 𖤖 𖤗 𖤘 𖤙 𖤚 𖤛 𖤜 𖤝 𖤞 𖤟
U+1692x 𖤠 𖤡 𖤢 𖤣 𖤤 𖤥 𖤦 𖤧 𖤨 𖤩 𖤪 𖤫 𖤬 𖤭 𖤮 𖤯
U+1693x 𖤰 𖤱 𖤲 𖤳 𖤴 𖤵 𖤶 𖤷 𖤸 𖤹 𖤺 𖤻 𖤼 𖤽 𖤾 𖤿
U+1694x 𖥀 𖥁 𖥂 𖥃 𖥄 𖥅 𖥆 𖥇 𖥈 𖥉 𖥊 𖥋 𖥌 𖥍 𖥎 𖥏
U+1695x 𖥐 𖥑 𖥒 𖥓 𖥔 𖥕 𖥖 𖥗 𖥘 𖥙 𖥚 𖥛 𖥜 𖥝 𖥞 𖥟
U+1696x 𖥠 𖥡 𖥢 𖥣 𖥤 𖥥 𖥦 𖥧 𖥨 𖥩 𖥪 𖥫 𖥬 𖥭 𖥮 𖥯
U+1697x 𖥰 𖥱 𖥲 𖥳 𖥴 𖥵 𖥶 𖥷 𖥸 𖥹 𖥺 𖥻 𖥼 𖥽 𖥾 𖥿
U+1698x 𖦀 𖦁 𖦂 𖦃 𖦄 𖦅 𖦆 𖦇 𖦈 𖦉 𖦊 𖦋 𖦌 𖦍 𖦎 𖦏
U+1699x 𖦐 𖦑 𖦒 𖦓 𖦔 𖦕 𖦖 𖦗 𖦘 𖦙 𖦚 𖦛 𖦜 𖦝 𖦞 𖦟
U+169Ax 𖦠 𖦡 𖦢 𖦣 𖦤 𖦥 𖦦 𖦧 𖦨 𖦩 𖦪 𖦫 𖦬 𖦭 𖦮 𖦯
U+169Bx 𖦰 𖦱 𖦲 𖦳 𖦴 𖦵 𖦶 𖦷 𖦸 𖦹 𖦺 𖦻 𖦼 𖦽 𖦾 𖦿
U+169Cx 𖧀 𖧁 𖧂 𖧃 𖧄 𖧅 𖧆 𖧇 𖧈 𖧉 𖧊 𖧋 𖧌 𖧍 𖧎 𖧏
U+169Dx 𖧐 𖧑 𖧒 𖧓 𖧔 𖧕 𖧖 𖧗 𖧘 𖧙 𖧚 𖧛 𖧜 𖧝 𖧞 𖧟
U+169Ex 𖧠 𖧡 𖧢 𖧣 𖧤 𖧥 𖧦 𖧧 𖧨 𖧩 𖧪 𖧫 𖧬 𖧭 𖧮 𖧯
U+169Fx 𖧰 𖧱 𖧲 𖧳 𖧴 𖧵 𖧶 𖧷 𖧸 𖧹 𖧺 𖧻 𖧼 𖧽 𖧾 𖧿
U+16A0x 𖨀 𖨁 𖨂 𖨃 𖨄 𖨅 𖨆 𖨇 𖨈 𖨉 𖨊 𖨋 𖨌 𖨍 𖨎 𖨏
U+16A1x 𖨐 𖨑 𖨒 𖨓 𖨔 𖨕 𖨖 𖨗 𖨘 𖨙 𖨚 𖨛 𖨜 𖨝 𖨞 𖨟
U+16A2x 𖨠 𖨡 𖨢 𖨣 𖨤 𖨥 𖨦 𖨧 𖨨 𖨩 𖨪 𖨫 𖨬 𖨭 𖨮 𖨯
U+16A3x 𖨰 𖨱 𖨲 𖨳 𖨴 𖨵 𖨶 𖨷 𖨸
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. The History of cartography. Harley, J. B. (John Brian), Woodward, David, 1942-2004, Monmonier, Mark S. University of Chicago Press. 1987–2015. p. 42. ISBN 9780226907284. OCLC 13456456.
  2. The End of King Njoya and the Bamum Script
  3. Unseth, Peter. 2011. Invention of Scripts in West Africa for Ethnic Revitalization. In The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia García, pp. 23-32. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. 1 2 Riley, Charles (2007-01-19). "L2/07-023: Towards the Encoding of the Bamum Script in the UCS" (PDF).
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Everson, Michael; Riley, Charles; Tuchscherer, Konrad (2008-10-14). "L2/08-350: Proposal to encode modern Bamum in the BMP" (PDF).
  6. "Chapter 19: Africa, Bamum". The Unicode Standard, Version 10.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. July 2017. ISBN 978-1-936213-16-0.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.