Börklüce Mustafa

Börklüce Mustafa was a primary Murīd of Sheikh Bedreddin, Turkmen Alevi folk leader. He lived around the end of the 14th century and beginning of the 15th century. He preached a system that can be compared to modern Communism. Between 1415-1416 he gathered Turkmen peasants, Greek sailors and Jewish merchants on the Karaburun peninsula in order to rebel against high taxes and other injustices.

Revolt

According to different sources he gathered around 4.000-10.000 people. In the beginning of the rebellion İskender Paşa tried to crush the revolt, but he couldn't because of the narrow alleys of the Karaburun peninsula. The people of Karaburun managed to crush the army of İskender Paşa. After this more Turkmen Muslims and Christians joined the rebellion.

After the defeat I. Mehmed sent Timurtaş Paşazade Ali Bey with all the troops of the Saruhan province and Aydin to Karaburun. These troops were also defeated by the peasants. Ali Bey managed to flee to Manisa.

I. Mehmed who heard the news this time sent his son Murat and Bayezid paşa with the troops of Rumelia and reinforcements from Anatolia on Börklüce. On his road to a mountain which was arbitrated by dervishes Bayezid paşa massacred all the people including women, children and old people. On one hand there was a bloody conflict at the Cehennem valley and on the other hand the Ottoman army controlled the harbors of the Sakiz island in order to prevent people from fleeing. A large number of the followers of Börklüce were massacred. Börklüce tried to flee to the Sakiz island with the rest of the people, but when he arrived he noticed the Ottoman navy. After a bloody battle Börklüce and his men couldn't flee and moved to the north of the peninsula where they were captured. Börklüce was taken hostage and after a lot of torturing he still insisted on his beliefs and demands. As a result, he was crucified and bound on the back of a camel to be ridiculed and shown around. The dervishes who stayed loyal to him were killed in front of his eyes. Meanwhile, there was a similar rebellion in Manisa which was probably linked with the rebellion of Karaburun. The rebellion in Manisa was under the leadership of Torlak Kemal.

Philosophy and his works

Börklüce Mustafa was considered as an important philosopher by many theologians and philosophers in the Islamic world. He wrote Tasvîrü'l- Kulûb.

References

    • Şaban Er, "Edirne-Simâvne Kâdîsı ve Emîri İsrâ’îl Oğlu Şeyh Bedreddîn Hakkında Son Söz", Kutupyıldızı Yayınları, İstanbul, Hazîran 2016 ( Cildli 657 Sayfa, ISBN 978-605-5291-65-5 )
    • Kemal Derin  : Kalplerin Işığı: Börklüce Mustafa, Destek Yayınları 2014
    • Yılmaz Gruda : Köylü Devrimci Börklüce Mustafa Berfin Yayınları, 2008
    • Ernst Werner : Şeyh Bedreddin ve Börklüce Mustafa Kaynak Yayınları
    • Michel Balivet : Şeyh Bedreddin Tasavvuf ve İsyan Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2000
    • Abdülbâki Gölpınarlı, Melâmilik ve Melâmîler, Gri Yayın, İstanbul, 1992
    • Dr. Mesut Keskin : Das Toleranzverständnis der anatolischen Heterodoxie am Beispiel Scheich Bedreddin Mahmud Israils, 2 cilt, Berlin 1999
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