Autonomous prefecture

Autonomous prefectures (Chinese: 自治州; pinyin: Zìzhìzhōu) are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in population, by the Han Chinese. The official name of an autonomous prefecture includes the most dominant minority in that region, sometimes two, rarely three. For example, a Kazakh (Kazak in official naming system) prefecture may be called Kazak Zizhizhou. Like all other prefectural level divisions, autonomous prefectures are divided into county level divisions. There is one exception: Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture contains two prefectures of its own. Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, autonomous prefectures cannot be abolished.

List of autonomous prefectures

Province Name Simplified Chinese and Pinyin Designated minority Local name Capital
Gansu Linxia 临夏回族自治州
Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Xiao'erjing: لٍشِا جُوِذُو ذِجِجِوْ Linxia city
Gansu Gannan 甘南藏族自治州
Gānnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: ཀན་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Hezuo city
Guizhou Qiandongnan 黔东南苗族侗族自治州
Qiándōngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Miao and Dong Hmong: Cheej Toob Naj Mioj Txhwj Toom Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Dong: ?
Kaili city
Guizhou Qiannan 黔南布依族苗族自治州
Qiánnán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Buyei & Miao Buyei: Qianfnanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz ziqziqzouy
Hmong: Cheej Naj Pwm Yi Txhwj Mioj Txwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Duyun city
Guizhou Qianxinan 黔西南布依族苗族自治州
Qiánxī'nán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Buyei & Miao Buyei: Qianfxiynanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Ziqziqzouy
Hmong: Cheej Xyi Naj Pwm Yi Txhwj Mioj Txwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Xingyi city
Hubei Enshi 恩施土家族苗族自治州
Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Tujia & Miao Tujia: ?
Hmong: EE Si Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Enshi city
Hunan Xiangxi 湘西土家族苗族自治州
Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Tujia & Miao Tujia: ?
Hmong: Xyaa Xyi Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Jishou city
Jilin Yanbian 延边朝鲜族自治州
Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu
Korean Korean: 연변 조선족 자치주 (Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju) Yanji city
Qinghai Haibei 海北藏族自治州
Hǎiběi Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་བྱང་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Haiyan County
Qinghai Hainan 海南藏族自治州
Hǎinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Gonghe County
Qinghai Huangnan 黄南藏族自治州
Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: རྨ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul) Tongren County
Qinghai Guoluo 果洛藏族自治州
Guǒluò Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: མགོ་ལོག་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Maqin County
Qinghai Yushu 玉树藏族自治州
Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: ཡུལ་ཤུལ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul) Yushu city
Qinghai Haixi 海西蒙古族藏族自治州
Hǎixī Měnggǔzú Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol & Tibetan Mongolian: ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Borotal a-yin mongγol ebereen öbertegen zasaqu ǰuu)
Tibetan: མཚོ་ནུབ་སོག་རིགས་ཆ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul)
Delingha city
Sichuan Aba 阿坝藏族羌族自治州
Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan & Qiang Tibetan: རྔ་བ་བོད་རིགས་ཆ་བ༹ང་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul)
Qiangic: Ggabba Shbea Rrmea nyujugvez zhou
Barkam city
Sichuan Ganzi 甘孜藏族自治州
Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: དཀར་མཛེས་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) Kangding city
Sichuan Liangshan 凉山彝族自治州
Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Yi Yi: ꆃꎭꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (Niepsha Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho) Xichang city
Xinjiang Kizilsu 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州
Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu
Kyrgyz Kyrgyz: قىزىلسۇۇ قىرعىز اپتونوم وبلاسى (Kızılsuu Kırgız avtonom oblastı) Artux city
Xinjiang Bortala 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州
Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Borotala mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu) Bole city
Xinjiang Changji 昌吉回族自治州
Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Xiao'erjing: چْاکِ خُوِذُوْ ذِجِجِوْ Changji city
Xinjiang Bayingolin 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州
Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu
Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ (Bayangol mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu) Korla city
Xinjiang Ili
(Altay)
(Tacheng)
伊犁哈萨克自治州
Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu
(阿勒泰地区)
(Ālètài Dìqū)
(塔城地区)
(Tǎchéng Dìqū)
Kazakh Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى (İle Qazaq awtonomïyalıq oblısı)
(Kazakh: ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى) (Altay aymağı)
(Kazakh: تارباعاتاي ايماعى) (Tarbağatay aymağı)
Yining city
(Altay city)
(Tacheng city)
Yunnan Dehong 德宏傣族景颇族自治州
Déhóng Dǎizú Jǐngpōzú Zìzhìzhōu
Dai & Jingpo Tai Nüa - ᥟᥪᥒᥱ ᥙᥪᥴ ᥓᥝᥲ ᥙᥩᥒ ᥛᥥᥝᥰ ᥖᥭᥰ ᥓᥤᥒ ᥚᥨᥲ ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ (Sakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo)
ZaiwaSikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau
Mang city
Yunnan Nujiang 怒江傈僳族自治州
Nùjiāng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzhōu
Lisu Lisu: ꓠꓳ-ꓟꓵ ꓡꓲ-ꓢꓴ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓚꓲꓸ ꓛꓬꓽ ꓗꓪꓼ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓝꓳꓴ (Nolmut lisu shit jilqait guatshit zhou) Lushui city
Yunnan Dêqên 迪庆藏族自治州
Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu
Tibetan Tibetan: བདེ་ཆེན་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ (Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul) Shangri-La city
Yunnan Dali 大理白族自治州
Dàlǐ Báizú Zìzhìzhōu
Bai Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox Dali city
Yunnan Chuxiong 楚雄彝族自治州
Chǔxióng Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Yi Yi: ꀒꇐꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (?? Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho) Chuxiong city
Yunnan Honghe 红河哈尼族彝族自治州
Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Hani & Yi Hani: Haoqhoq Haqniq Zirlzirl Zel
Yi: ꉼꉻꆈꌠꊨꏦꏱꅉꍏ (?? Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho)
Mengzi city
Yunnan Wenshan 文山壮族苗族自治州
Wenshān Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Zhuang & Miao Zhuang: Munzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh
Hmong: Veej Sa Tsuaam Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb
Wenshan city
Yunnan Xishuangbanna 西双版纳傣族自治州
Xīshuāngbǎnnà Dǎizú Zìzhìzhōu
Dai Tai Lü: ᦈᦹᧈ ᦈᦹᧈ ᦵᦋᦲᧁᧈ ᦘᦱ ᦉᦱ ᦺᦑ ᧑᧒ ᦗᧃ ᦓᦱ Jinghong city

Ethnic composition of autonomous prefectures

Note: * - denotes as the second titular ethnic group
Autonomous
Prefecture
Year
created
ProvinceTitular
ethnic group
Other
minorities
Han %Total
population
% 2000 % 2010 % 2000 % 2010 2000 2010
Bayingolin Prefecture1954XinjiangMongol 3.403.40Uyghur 31.8331.83 59.2959.291,323,028
Bortala Prefecture1954XinjiangMongol 5,645.66Uyghur 12,5313.32 67,1964.96482,615
Changji Prefecture1954XinjiangHui 11.559.52Kazakh 7.989.33 75.1475.311,412,844
Chuxiong Prefecture1958YunnanYi 26.3126.70Lisu 2.031.98 67.4566.942,615,109
Dali Prefecture1956YunnanBai 32.832.19Yi 12.9413.02 50.3550.693,525,706
Dehong Prefecture1953YunnanDai 30,1428.88Jingpo* 11,5311.09 50,6651.931,124,432
Dêqên Prefecture1957YunnanTibetan 33.1232.36Lisu 27.7826.72 16.3918.34357,528
Enshi Prefecture1983HubeiTujia 45,047.50Miao* 5,455.01 47,2445.323,976,081
Gannan Prefecture1953GansuTibetan 51.4454.64Hui 6.436.25 41.7538.70723,521
Garzê Prefecture1950SichuanTibetan 78.3778.29Yi 2.562.66 18.2418.241,060,632
Golog Prefecture1954QinghaiTibetan 91.6391.86Hui 1.110.96 6.596.57173,541
Haibei Prefecture1953QinghaiTibetan 24.1524.36Hui 30.5831.52 36.6335.88283,230
Hainan Prefecture1953QinghaiTibetan 62.7766.31Hui 6.976.84 28.0624.84446,849
Haixi Prefecture1954QinghaiMongol 7.235.53Tibetan* 12.1610.93 64.9566.01390,743
Honghe Prefecture1957YunnanHani 16.617.55Yi* 23.57 23.19 44.3142.854,408,699
Huangnan Prefecture1953QinghaiTibetan 66.3268.55Mongol 13.5413.98 7.546.08254,033
Ili Prefecture1954XinjiangKazakh 21.53Uyghur 26.88 35.222,814,980
Kizilsu Prefecture1954XinjiangKyrgyz 28.3227.32Uyghur 63.9864.68 6.416.78539,849
Liangshan Prefecture1952SichuanYi 44,4349.13Tibetan 1,491.39 51,9747.554,789,421
Linxia Prefecture1956GansuHui 31.59Dongxiang 25.99 39.702,103,259
Ngawa Prefecture1953SichuanTibetan 53,7254.50Qiang* 18,2817.58 24,6924.56898,846
Nujiang Prefecture1954YunnanLisu 47.1348.21Bai 26.9726.04 13.1312.35520,765
Qiandongnan Prefecture1956GuizhouMiao 41.4841.57Dong* 31.429.02 19.321.734,535,015
Qiannan Prefecture1956GuizhouBuyei 32.4631.22Miao* 13.3712.69 43.3744.844,037,887
Qianxinan Prefecture1982GuizhouBuyei 30,0427.56Miao* 7,517.08 57,5360.623,398,147
Wenshan Prefecture1958YunnanMiao 12,9413.68Zhuang* 30,0429.20 41,9942.693,703,008
Xiangxi Prefecture1957HunanTujia 42.73Miao* 33.85 22.852,547,833
Xishuangbanna Prefecture1953YunnanDai 29.8927.89Hani 18.7319.01 29.1130.03942,844
Yanbian Prefecture1952JilinKorean 36,2632.45Manchu 2,582.52 60,7064.552,190,763
Yushu Prefecture1951QinghaiTibetan 96.49Hui 0.22 3.09373,427

Former autonomous prefectures of China

Administrative prefecture level units with a population of 30% or more of ethnic minorities

Excluding prefecture level units of autonomous regions in 2000.
  • Hebei: Chengde (Han - 55.32%, Manchu - 39.87%)
  • Liaoning: Benxi (Han - 66.84%, Manchu - 30.22%), Dandong(Han - 64.11%, Manchu - 32.99%)
  • Hunan: Zhangjiajie (Tujia - 68.40%, Han - 22.81%), Huaihua (Han - 61.33%, Dong - 17.42%, Miao - 15.63%)
  • Guizhou: Anshun (Han - 61.6%, Buyei - 16.92%, Miao - 14.27%), Tongren (Tujia - 37.81%, Han - 31.76%, Miao - 14.87%, Dong - 11.41%)
  • Yunnan: Yuxi (Han - 68,18%, Yi - 19,32%), Pu'er (Han - 40,92%, Hani - 16,98%, Yi - 16.58%, Lahu - 11.47%), Lijiang (Han - 42.71%, Nasi 20.51%, Yi - 18.68%, Lisu - 9.62%), Lincang (Han - 61.22%, Dai - 15.77%, Lahu and Va - 9.76%)
  • Qinghai: Haidong (Han - 56.33%, Hui - 20.38%, Tibetan - 9.2%, Tu - 8.06%)

See also

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