Athletics at the Summer Paralympics

Athletics at the Summer Paralympics
Governing body IPC
Events 160 (men: 100; women: 60)
Games

Athletics has been contested at every Summer Paralympics since the first games in 1960. Men and women from all disability groups compete in the sport.

Some athletes use wheelchairs or prosthetic limbs.

Visually impaired athletes participate in running events with the help of a sighted guide, to whom they may be attached by a tether. Sound-emitting devices or a sighted "caller" are used to indicate target areas for throwing events, take-off points for jumping events, and other important locations for visually impaired competitors.[1]

Classification

Athletes compete in various classes which group them according to their impairments and abilities.

ClassCriteria
T/F11From no light perception at all in either eye, up to and including the ability to perceive light; inability to recognize objects or contours in any direction and at any distance.
T/F12Ability to recognise objects up to a distance of 2 metres i.e. below 2/60 and/or visual field of less than five (5) degrees
T/F13Can recognise contours between 2 and 6 metres away i.e. 2/60 O 6/60 and visual field of more than five (5) degrees and less than twenty (20) degrees.
T/F20Athletes who have a recognised intellectual impairment according to international standards as recognised by the World Health Organisation i.e. IQ testing of 75 and below.
T/F33Moderate quadriplegia. Fair functional strength and moderate problems in upper extremities and torso. Wheelchair for daily activities but may be ambulant with assistive devices.
T/F34Moderate to severe problems in lower limbs, good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs and torso. Wheelchair for daily activities but may be ambulant with assistive devices
T/F35Good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs. No wheelchair. May or may not use assistive devices.
T/F36Greater upper limb involvement, less coordination / balance problems when running or throwing. Ambulates without walking devices.
T/F37Moderate to minimal hemiplegia (i.e. one half of the body affected - arm and leg on same side). Good functional ability in non affected side. Walks / runs without assistive devices, but with a limp.
T/F38Minimal hemiplegia. May have minimal coordination problems, good balance. Runs and jumps freely
T40Les Autres- French for "The Others"- disabilities that do not fall into any specific categories, for example Dwarfism. Height limit, Males 145cm, Females 140cm.
T42Single leg, above or through knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Minimal disability.
T43Double leg, below knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Normal function in throwing arm.
T44Single leg below knee amputation. Combined lower plus upper limb amputations. Ambulant with moderately reduced function in one or both lower limbs
T45Double arm above elbow. Double arm below elbow
T46Single arm, above elbow. Single arm, below elbow. Normal function in both lower limbs. Other impairments in trunk. Upper limb function in throwing.
T52Damage to spinal cord in the higher parts of the back. Substantially impaired or no trunk function; no leg function. Pushing power comes from elbow extensions.
T53Impaired trunk movements, some with no spinal control. Some interference in their ability to perform long and forceful strokes and the ability to rapidly grasp and release the pushing rim of the wheel.
T54Have normal or nearly normal upper limb function. May have no upper trunk movements and when pushing, the trunk is usually lying on the legs. Those with almost normal trunk function are able to perform long and forceful strokes. Double above the knee amputations.
F52Limited arm function. Difficulty gripping with non-throwing arm.

Shot - Unable to form a fist and therefore do not usually have finger contact with the shot at the release point. Discus - Have difficulty placing fingers over the edge of the discus. Javelin - Usually grip the Javelin between the index and middle fingers, or between the middle and ring fingers.

F53Have nearly normal grip with non-throwing arm.

Shot - Usually a good fist can be made. Can spread fingers apart and can 'grasp' the shot put when throwing. Discus - Have good finger function to hold the discus and may be able to impart spin on the discus. Are able to spread and close the fingers, but not with normal power. Javelin - Usually grip javelin between the thumb and the index finger. Have ability to hold javelin.

F54Normal arm function; no trunk or leg function.

Shot, Discus and Javelin - Have no sitting balance and usually hold on to part of chair whilst throwing

F55Some trunk function; no leg function. Fair to good sitting balance.
F56Trunk function with some upper leg function. Good balance and movements backwards and forwards.
F57Usually one 'good' leg and one 'bad' leg. Good movements backwards and forwards, usually to one side. Can raise from a sitting to a standing position with assistance during the throw.
F58Seated. Better function than F57 athletes, but not enough to stand to throw. Usually similar impairment in both legs.

[2]

Medal summary

Medal table

Updated to 2016 Summer Paralympics. Countries in italics are former countries who participated in the Paralympic Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States (USA)3803663211067
2 Canada (CAN)197161162520
3 Great Britain (GBR)196158176530
4 China (CHN)16013689385
5 Australia (AUS)151155157463
6 West Germany (FRG)140125121386
7 Poland (POL)11210487303
8 Spain (ESP)766052188
9 France (FRA)738373229
10 South Africa (RSA)675452173
11 Germany (GER)6691100257
12 Mexico (MEX)626363188
13 Switzerland (SUI)606559184
14 Japan (JPN)576348168
15 Sweden (SWE)554834137
16 Italy (ITA)525463169
17 Belgium (BEL)524532129
18 Finland (FIN)456152158
19 Austria (AUT)436265170
20 Russia (RUS)43302194
21 Brazil (BRA)406135136
22 Ireland (IRL)383856132
23 Tunisia (TUN)38342193
24 Denmark (DEN)36241676
25 Israel (ISR)353739111
26 Netherlands (NED)334642121
27 New Zealand (NZL)33352492
28 Ukraine (UKR)324041113
29 Iran (IRI)30222678
30 Cuba (CUB)30151661
31 Norway (NOR)26292681
32 Egypt (EGY)25273587
33 South Korea (KOR)21161754
34 Soviet Union (URS)219636
35 Algeria (ALG)20182765
36 Kenya (KEN)18141345
37 Portugal (POR)17142051
38 Argentina (ARG)15312874
39 Czech Republic (CZE)15191650
40 Jamaica (JAM)1481335
41 Nigeria (NGR)133218
42 Thailand (THA)12141137
43 Morocco (MAR)127726
44 Kuwait (KUW)11151541
45 Unified Team (EUN)1110728
46 Belarus (BLR)10171946
47 Yugoslavia (YUG)10111637
48 Hong Kong (HKG)871732
49 Greece (GRE)5152343
50 Lithuania (LTU)591226
51 Bulgaria (BUL)56314
52 Latvia (LAT)54615
53 Rhodesia (RHO)45514
54 Croatia (CRO)441220
55 Angola (ANG)4318
56 Czechoslovakia (TCH)42612
57 Serbia (SRB)4217
58 Azerbaijan (AZE)36716
59 India (IND)3429
60 Panama (PAN)3418
61 Uzbekistan (UZB)3137
62 Ivory Coast (CIV)3115
 Trinidad and Tobago (TTO)3115
64 Malaysia (MAS)3025
65 Hungary (HUN)210618
66 Slovenia (SLO)24511
67 Bahrain (BRN)23510
68 Namibia (NAM)2338
69 Myanmar (MYA)2327
 Zimbabwe (ZIM)2327
71 Iraq (IRQ)2215
72 Slovakia (SVK)2147
73 Chinese Taipei (TPE)2002
74 Iceland (ISL)15612
75 United Arab Emirates (UAE)15511
76 Colombia (COL)1358
77 Indonesia (INA)1337
78 Estonia (EST)1326
79 Puerto Rico (PUR)1225
80 Saudi Arabia (KSA)1214
81 Independent Paralympic Participants (IPP)1102
82 Botswana (BOT)1001
 Chile (CHI)1001
 Dominican Republic (DOM)1001
 Fiji (FIJ)1001
 Sudan (SUD)1001
87 Venezuela (VEN)05813
88 Jordan (JOR)0426
89 East Germany (GDR)0303
90 Bahamas (BAH)0224
91 Luxembourg (LUX)0213
92 Cyprus (CYP)0202
 Ethiopia (ETH)0202
94 Palestine (PLE)0123
95 Malta (MLT)0112
96 Pakistan (PAK)0101
 Papua New Guinea (PNG)0101
 Uganda (UGA)0101
99 Sri Lanka (SRI)0022
100 Cape Verde (CPV)0011
 Moldova (MDA)0011
 Mozambique (MOZ)0011
 Peru (PER)0011
 Rwanda (RWA)0011
 Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)0011
 Turkey (TUR)0011
 Uruguay (URU)0011
 Vietnam (VIE)0011

Multi-medallists

Athletes who achieved more than three medals in the Paralympic Games. Updated to 2016 Summer Paralympics.

T/F11 - 13

No. Athlete Country Class Years Athletic event Gold Silver Bronze Total
1Maher Bouallegue TunisiaT132000-2004800m
1500m
5000m
10000m
6107
2José Sayovo AngolaT112004-2012100m
200m
400m
4329
3Li Duan ChinaF112000-2012Long jump
Triple jump
4228
4Adekundo Adesoji NigeriaT122004100m
200m
400m
3003
Royal Mitchell United StatesT132000-2008100m
200m
400m
4x100m relay
3003
6Odair Santos BrazilT112004-2016800m
1500m
5000m
10000m
0448
7Li Yansong ChinaT122008-2012100m
200m
400m
4x100m relay
2327
8Nathan Meyer South AfricaT132000-2004100m
200m
2103
9Ildar Pomykalov RussiaT121996-20085000m
Marathon
2024
10Carlos Amaral Ferreira PortugalT111996-200410000m
Marathon
1315
11André Andrade BrazilT132000-2008100m
200m
1304
12Diosmani Gonzalez CubaT121996-20045000m
10000m
1203
13José Alves PortugalT132000-2004100m
200m
400m
4x100m relay
4x400m relay
1034
14Luis Bullido SpainT112000-2004100m
200m
400m
4x400m relay
0415
15Lex Gillette United StatesF112004-2016Long jump0404
16Jason Dunkerley CanadaT112000-2012800m
1500m
5000m
0325
17Ricardo Santana VenezuelaT122000-2008100m
200m
4x100m relay
0235
18Kestutis Bartkenas LithuaniaT11/131996-20045000m
10000m
0134
Oleksandr Ivaniukhin UkraineT11/F11/P112000-2008100m
200m
400m
Long jump
Triple jump
Pentathlon
0134
Gautier Makunda FranceT112004-2012100m
4x100m relay
0134
21Stuart McGregor CanadaT131996-2004800m
1500m
0123

Events

Note that not all events at a particular games are competed across all classifications

Men's events

Event606468727680848892960004081216
Current program
100 metres
200 metres
400 metres
800 metres
1500 metres
5000 metres
Marathon
4 × 100 metres relay
High jump
Long jump
Shot put
Discus throw
Javelin throw
Club throw
Past events
20 metres
60 metres
80 metres
10,000 meters
1500 metres race walk
5000 metres walk
4 x 40 metres relay
4 x 60 metres relay
4 x 80 metres relay
4 x 200 metres relay
4 × 400 metres relay
Triple jump
Precision javelin
Football accuracy
Football distance
Slalom
Pentathlon

Women's events

Event606468727680848892960004081216
Current program
100 metres
200 metres
400 metres
800 metres
1500 metres
5000 metres
Marathon
4 × 100 metres relay
Long jump
Shot put
Discus throw
Javelin throw
Club throw
Past events
20 metres
4 x 40 metre relay
4 x 60 metre relay
4 x 200 metre relay
60 metres
1000 metres cross country
3000 metres
10,000 metres
High jump
Precision club throw
Precision javelin
Slalom
Pentathlon

Nations

Event606468727680848892960004081216Years
 Afghanistan (AFG)212
 Algeria (ALG)276142323217
 Angola (ANG)2146446
 Antigua and Barbuda (ANT)11
 Argentina (ARG)918191556696109881214
 Australia (AUS)342221263654764942654347434515
 Austria (AUT)562027373630241818171576515
 Azerbaijan (AZE)13678106
 Bahamas (BAH)166245
 Bahrain (BRN)12934232229
 Bangladesh (BAN)112
 Belarus (BLR)8161618766
 Belgium (BEL)10102337181518117333513
 Benin (BEN)11114
 Bermuda (BER)112
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH)2112126
 Botswana (BOT)112
 Brazil (BRA)715125341312101747356112
 Brunei (BRU)11
 Bulgaria (BUL)354467758
 Burkina Faso (BUR)11
 Burundi (BDI)3113
 Cambodia (CAM)21114
 Cameroon (CMR)11
 Canada (CAN)22356666114794740443926222213
 Cape Verde (CPV)11124
 Central African Republic (CAF)1113
 Chile (CHI)111145
 China (CHN)1219121527748080759
 Chinese Taipei (TPE)54141427
 Colombia (COL)1081132111111910
 Congo (CGO)11
 Costa Rica (CRC)21114
 Croatia (CRO)13761314117
 Cuba (CUB)887151711117
 Cyprus (CYP)323211118
 Czech Republic (CZE)1420212515116
 Czechoslovakia (TCH)195143
 Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD)212
 Denmark (DEN)11325117335436712
 Djibouti (DJI)11
 Dominican Republic (DOM)1221116
 East Germany (GDR)41
 Ecuador (ECU)22322157
 Egypt (EGY)12328189317141566712
 El Salvador (ESA)12114
 Estonia (EST)3441226
 Ethiopia (ETH)2112456
 Fiji (FIJ)82211117
 Finland (FIN)2154049342413114547713
 France (FRA)11121182127201821242725252015
 Gabon (GAB)1113
 The Gambia (GAM)212
 Germany (GER)44636170534233389
 Ghana (GHA)22214
 Great Britain (GBR)31133333036130646262463535485415
 Greece (GRE)1532511193229251811
 Guatemala (GUA)21114
 Guinea (GUI)1113
 Guinea-Bissau (GBS)212
 Haiti (HAI)212
 Honduras (HON)212115
 Hong Kong (HKG)9961714657322112
 Hungary (HUN)4112466824510
 Iceland (ISL)353222122110
 Individual Paralympic Athletes (IPA)112
 Independent Paralympic Participants (IPP)71
 India (IND)994297110251511
 Indonesia (INA)12128103127
 Iran (IRI)1714712281416268
 Iraq (IRQ)7331866
 Ireland (IRL)1211121743332828171110101014
 Israel (ISR)426193214104532111114
 Italy (ITA)972213152834392718212010111315
 Ivory Coast (CIV)112245
 Jamaica (JAM)7171314333443312
 Japan (JPN)13824312428642019383431363614
 Jordan (JOR)744235318
 Kazakhstan (KAZ)161315
 Kenya (KEN)317138131612151213711
 Kuwait (KUW)917181311161035510
 Latvia (LAT)25574647
 Lebanon (LBN)21
 Lesotho (LES)221125
 Libya (LBA)112
 Liechtenstein (LIE)112
 Lithuania (LTU)489118447
 Luxembourg (LUX)312
 Macau (MAC)72111117
 Madagascar (MAD)1113
 Malawi (MAW)11
 Malaysia (MAS)3953321899
 Mali (MLI)122
 Malta (MLT)2168316
 Mauritania (MTN)1123
 Mauritius (MRI)221115
 Mexico (MEX)5292347201315244034382712
 Moldova (MDA)36214
 Mongolia (MGL)12114
 Montenegro (MNE)112
 Morocco (MAR)522161415148
 Mozambique (MOZ)212
 Myanmar (MYA)41011116
 Namibia (NAM)21474
 Nepal (NEP)11214
 Netherlands (NED)13141317291615157898111415
 New Zealand (NZL)121012151011679753813
 Nicaragua (NCA)1223
 Niger (NIG)1223
 Nigeria (NGR)11449967
 North Korea (PRK)21
 Norway (NOR)8515213111948521213
 Oman (OMA)5421126
 Pakistan (PAK)192215
 Palestine (PLE)222215
 Panama (PAN)21111227
 Papua New Guinea (PNG)422125
 Peru (PER)11154
 Philippines (PHI)31114
 Poland (POL)9184320171017272529313112
 Portugal (POR)1510111216111315179
 Puerto Rico (PUR)53221117
 Qatar (QAT)111135
 Rhodesia (RHO)3743
 Romania (ROU)122
 Russia (RUS)20222439535
 Rwanda (RWA)21214
 Samoa (SAM)121225
 San Marino (SMR)11
 São Tomé and Príncipe (STP)11
 Saudi Arabia (KSA)422335
 Senegal (SEN)22124
 Serbia (SRB)6463
 Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)122
 Seychelles (SEY)212
 Sierra Leone (SLE)112
 Singapore (SGP)74112137
 Slovakia (SVK)4855426
 Slovenia (SLO)54534417
 Solomon Islands (SOL)11
 Somalia (SOM)11
 South Africa (RSA)381933818292417251911
 South Korea (KOR)2212454712168986513
 Soviet Union (URS)141
 Spain (ESP)5616147116759563624242213
 Sri Lanka (SRI)1113576
 Sudan (SUD)1022
 Suriname (SUR)21114
 Sweden (SWE)1420252513141514667512
 Switzerland (SUI)11628384526201918181514121114
 Syria (SYR)1213
 Tajikistan (TJK)11
 Tanzania (TAN)21114
 Thailand (THA)164312121115139
 East Timor (TLS)122
 Tonga (TGA)111125
 Trinidad and Tobago (TTO)71124
 Tunisia (TUN)1139223331318
 Turkey (TUR)115104
 Turkmenistan (TKM)11
 Uganda (UGA)211215
 Ukraine (UKR)722242831266
 Unified Team (EUN)191
 United Arab Emirates (UAE)4129511116
 United States (USA)22461437095167195122109734243547315
 Uruguay (URU)2111116
 Uzbekistan (UZB)6112
 Vanuatu (VAN)212
 Venezuela (VEN)53161615137
 Vietnam (VIE)113335
 Virgin Islands (ISV)11
 West Germany (FRG)13949637774647
 Yemen (YEM)21
 Yugoslavia (YUG)20241610226
 Zambia (ZAM)12124
 Zimbabwe (ZIM)372222118
Nations10162639394051577484104116111141146
Competitors31824235497749361198114192890810441064102811331140
Year606468727680848892960004081216

See also

References

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