Mahabharata character
Ashvatthama uses Narayanastra

Ashwatthama (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थामा, Aśvatthāmā) or Ashwatthaman (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थामन्, Aśvatthāman) or Drauni was the son of guru Drona and the grandson of the sage Bharadwaja. Ashvatthama is a mighty Maharathi[1] who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War. Ashvatthama is considered as avatar of one of the eleven Rudras and one of the seven Chiranjivi. Along with his maternal uncle Kripa, Ashvatthama is believed to be a living survivor of the Kurukshetra War.[2] The deceptive plot of his rumoured 'death' led to the beheading of his grieving father Drona, who was incapacitated while meditating for his son's Ātman. Ashwatthama was appointed as the final commander-in-chief of the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War. Ashwatthama, overcome with grief and rage, manifests his latent powers as a Rudras. He slaughters most of the Pandava camp in a single night offensive. When Arjuna defeated Drupada of Panchala, Drona said that Ashwatthama is new king of panchala kingdom. After that dronacharya gave half kingdom of panchala to drupada.


According to The Mahabharata, Ashwatthama means "the horse-voiced".[3] It is so called because when he was born he cried like a horse.[4]

Birth and Life Prior to the War

Ashwatthama was the son of Dronacharya and Kripi. Drona did many years of severe penance to please Lord Shiva in order to obtain a son who possesses the same valiance as Lord Shiva. Born a Chiranjivi, Ashwatthama was born with a gem in his forehead which gives him power over all living beings lower than humans; it protected him from hunger, thirst, and fatigue. Though an expert in warfare, Dronacharya lived the simple life of a Brahmin, with little money or property. As a result, Ashwatthama had a difficult childhood, with his family unable to even afford milk. Wanting to provide a better life for his family, Drona goes to the Panchal Kingdom to seek aid from his former classmate and friend, King Drupada. However, Drupada rebukes the friendship, claiming a king and a beggar cannot be friends, humiliating Drona.

After this incident, and seeing the plight of Drona, Kripacharya, invited Drona to Hastinapur. There, he came upon the attention of his co-disciple Bhishma. Thus, Dronacharya became the guru of the Pandavas and of the Kauravas in Hastinapur. Ashwatthama was trained in the art of warfare along with them.[5]

Role in the Kurukshetra war

Siding with the Kauravas

Ashwatthama is a notable figure in the war and engages in many battles, though not scoring any significant kills until after his father's death.

Night of 14th day of the battle

On the 14th day of the war when battle continued after sunset, He killed an Akshuhani of Rakshasa and when Anjanaparvan created illusions he penetrated it by Vajra and Vayavya Astra. He also killed Anjanaparvan

Death of Drona

On the 10th day of the war, Bhishma falls, and Drona is named the supreme commander of the armies. He promises Duryodhana that he will capture Yudhishthira, but then he repeatedly fails to do so. Duryodhana taunts and insults him, which greatly angers Ashwatthama, causing friction between Ashwatthama and Duryodhana. Krishna knew that it was not possible to defeat an armed Drona. So, Krishna suggested to Yudhishthira and the other Pandavas, if Drona were convinced that his son was killed on the battlefield, then his grief would leave him vulnerable to attack.

Krishna hatched a plan for Bhima to kill an elephant by the name Ashwatthama while claiming to Drona it was Drona's son who was dead. Ultimately, the gambit works (though the details of it vary depending on the version of the Mahabharata), and Dhristadyumna beheads the grieving sage.


Enraged, Ashwatthama unleashed the Narayanastra, a weapon gifted to him by his father, on the Pandava army. Krishna tells the Pandavas and their warriors to drop their weapons and lie down on the ground so that they all surrender completely to the power of this weapon. Though some like Bhima resist, Krishna and the others manage to restrain or pacify the dissenters, and the weapon is rendered ineffective.

According to the Chaturdhar compilation, the Narayana Astra destroyed one Akshauhini of Pandava army completely. After the use of Narayana Astra, a terrible war between both armies took place. Ashwatthama defeated Dhrishtadyumna in direct combat, but failed to kill him as Satyaki and Bhima covered his retreat. Terrible war took place between the warriors of both sides as Ashwatthama forced both Satyaki and Bhima to withdraw.[6] In his fury, Ashwatthama manages to kill King Nila of Mahismati. Ashwatthama made Arjuna unconscious on 16th day but at last it was Arjuna who defeated Ashwathama .. Ashwatthama again made Arjuna unconscious on 17th day but later Arjuna defeated Ashwathama and made him flee from battlefield .

Becoming commander

After the death of Dushasana, Ashwatthama still suggested Duryodhana that he make peace with the Pandavas, keeping in mind the welfare of Hastinapur. Later, after Duryodhana is struck down by Bhima and facing death, the last three survivors from the Kaurava side, Ashwatthama, Kripa and Kritvarma rush to his side. Ashwatthama swears to bring Duryodhana revenge, and Duryodhana appoints him as the commander-in-chief.

Attack on Pandava Camp

On the night after Duryodhana's defeat, a very disturbed and restless Ashwatthama was sleeplessly strategizing under a large tree. An owl ambushing a group of crows caught his attention. This gave him the idea of attacking the Pandava camp at night. The three surviving warriors proceeded to the Pandava camp. Kripa and Kritavarma guarded the exits while Ashwatthama proceeded into the camp.

At this point, there are different versions of the story. According to the analysis done by the scholar Chatahurdi, once arriving at the Pandava camp, they found a Bhairava blocking their entry. So Ashwatthama worshiped Lord Shiva for the fulfillment of his desires, offering himself as an oblation.

This offering pleased Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati; Shiva and Parvati in her most ferocious Kali form appeared before Ashwatthama with their gana's. Also, there appeared millions of Kali Sakthis, Kalika Nityas and Kalika Yoginis. They eagerly awaited the impending massacre.[7] In this version of the story, Shiva enters the body of Ashwatthama, granting him a polished sword. Kali and all of their ganas, Kalika Nityas, Sakthis, Yoginis, and other henchmen join in on the attack. It is Ashwatthama's possession by Shiva that explains his prowess.

Ashwatthama first kicked and woke up Dhrishtadyumna, the commander of the Pandava army and the killer of his father Drona.[8] Ashwatthama strangled the half-awake Dhrishtadyumna to death as the Panchal prince begged to be allowed to die with a sword in his hand. Ashwatthama proceeds with slaughtering the remaining warriors, including Shikhandi, Yudhamanyu, Uttamaujas, and many other prominent warriors of the Pandava army. Those who tried to flee from Ashwatthama's wrath were hacked down by Kripacharya and Kritavarma at the camp's entrance.

At this point, there are numerous different versions of the story. In some, Ashwatthama mistakes the sleeping Upapandavas as the Pandavas and kills them. In others, he knows he is killing the Upapandavas and does so because he cannot find the Pandavas.

After the slaughter, the three warriors go to find Duryodhana. Again, the story has many versions at this point. In some, they find Duryodhana already dead and, mourning, they perform the cremation rites. In others, they find Duryodhana alive; Ashwatthama knows he hasn't killed the Pandavas but lies in order to give his friend some happiness in death. Alternatively, Ashwatthama doesn't know he actually killed the Upapandavas and just reports what he thinks is the truth. In a final version, Ashwatthama tells Duryodhana that he killed the Pandava's children as the Pandavas were not there. There is more divergence; in some versions, this makes Duryodhana happy, as that means the Pandava lineage would die out. In others, this depresses him, as now the entire Kuru line will be defunct. [9]

In all stories, after Duryodhana dies, the trio cremates his body.

Aftermath of the Attack

The Pandavas and Krishna who were away during night, now returned to their camp the next day morning. Hearing the news of these events in the morning Yudhishthira fainted and the Pandavas become inconsolable. The Pandavas, along with Krishna, went searching for Ashwatthama to sage Vyasa's ashram. On seeing the approaching angered Pandavas, Ashwatthama as a last resort, devised a Brahmashirsha astra from a blade of grass and invoked it against the Pandavas and Krishna. Arjuna invokes the same astra, which he received from Drona himself, towards Ashwatthama.

On seeing the two powerful astra's heading for a head on cataclysmic (catastrophic) collision that would result in the total annihilation of the entire Earth, Vyasa stopped these divine weapons from colliding with each other by using his yogic power. He asked both these warriors to withdraw their respective weapons. Arjuna was able to withdraw his Brahmashirsha astra, while Ashwatthama could not do so as Drona did not teach his son how to withdraw it, thus limiting the power of Ashwatthama to use the astra for only one instance. Ashwatthama was given the option of deviating his weapon towards an uninhabited place, so that the astra could explode harmlessly. Out of rage, Ashwatthama instead directed the weapon towards the womb of the pregnant Uttara in an attempt to end the lineage of the Pandavas. The angered Pandavas wanted to kill Ashwatthama, but Sage Vyasa reminded them of the deceitful tactics they had used against the Kauravas.

As a punishment, Ashwatthama was asked to surrender the gem on his forehead. Krishna then cursed Ashwatthama for 3000 years that he will roam in the forests with blood and puss oozing out of his injuries and cry for death. Since he had no fear of death during war, death would not meet him. He will have neither any hospitality nor any accommodation; he will be in total isolation without any contact of physical communication from mankind and society. The wound caused by the removal of this gem on his forehead will not heal and his body will suffer from a host of incurable diseases forming sores and ulcers that would never heal for 3000 years.


  1. K M Ganguly (1883–1896). The Mahabharata, Book 5 Udyoga Parva, Section CLXVIII, October 2003, Retrieved 2014-02-11
  2. Pilot Baba. Pilot Baba and Maharishi Aswathama Retrieved 2015-02-15
  5. K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata,Book 5 Udyoga Parva,Section CLXVIII,October 2003,Retrieved 2013-11-14
  6. K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha Book 7: Drona page 478-479 Aswathama defeated Satyaki, Bhima, Drishtadyumna, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-01-13
  7. K M Ganguly(1883-1896).The Mahabharata Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 7 Ashwatthama praying to Lord Shiva, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17
  8. K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharata Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 8 Ashvatthama killing Dhrishtadyumna, October 2003, Retrieved 2015-04-17
  9. Dharmakshektra
Original text online (in Sanskrit)
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